SIX MONTH INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
SUDHIR GENSETS, BARI BRAHAMNA, JAMMU(J&K)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, SWAMI SERWANAND INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, DINANAGAR JUNE, 2013
SIX MONTH INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
SUDHIR GENSETS, BARI BRAHAMNA, JAMMU(J&K)
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR AWARD OF DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, SWAMI SERWANAND INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, DINANAGAR JUNE, 2013
Industrial Training is a most important part of study curriculum in engineering education field . I am a student of B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering at Swami Servanand Institute Of Engineering And Technology and had underwent industrial training for six months in SUDHIR GENSETS, BARI BRAHAMNA, JAMMU(J&K) is one of the best ferm which has got ISO 9001-2000 certificate by DNV. So for the industrial training i have preferred Generators Industry because of my keen interest in generators. In just 10 years of establishment the company is ranked in top positions. .
The work force of company is highly skilled at the top level as well as at the floor level. At the same time the fresh graduates bring in the fresh ideas. Sudhir is a name synonymous with Power. It stands tall in the Indian Power Generation Sector, providing complete turnkey Electrical solutions from Generation, Distribution to Electrification. Sudhir Gensets is committed to excellence in design and manufacture, of silent Gensets and Control Panels through the adoption of modern technology. The Company strive to exceed international standards for quality, durability and efficiency through constant improvement in systems and processes. The Company are highly determined to ensure the safety of the peoples & equipment so that an accident free environment is maintained.
Any sustained effort by untrained minds in a new work environment requires for culmination, a guiding hand that shows the way. It gives me immense pleasure to be able to present this project report in the present form for which I am deeply indebted to Mr.Rakesh Gupta who not only assigned me a responsible role in the project but also guided and encouraged me at important junctures in the project lifecycle.
I am also thankful to Mr. Vinod Sharma(Senior Production planning and control officer at SGL) for his invaluable advice, suggestions and encouragement that he gave me throughout my project work. Under their able leadership and guidance, I was able to meet the goals of the project in time.
I am grateful to Sudhir Gensets Ltd , for providing me with an opportunity to work with them and undertake a project of such importance. This training and experience has not only enriched me with technical knowledge but has also imparted the maturity of thought and vision, the attributes required to be a successful mechanical professional. Sincere thanks to all my colleagues for
their support and assistance through out the project.
Table of Contents
Generator-A Brief Introduction13
Types of generator14
Parts of generator 15
Engines used in Sudhir generators……….……………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Alternator,Radiator .………………………………………………………………………………….22 Control Panel………………………………………………………………………………………….24 Various machines used in SGL
EOT carnes……………………………………………………………………………………………..27 Hoist…………………………………………………………………………………………………..32 Forklift Truck…………………………………………………………………………………………37 Unit-I
CRCA/HR Sheet Area……………………………………………………………………………….38 M/C Shop……………………………………………………………………………………………..39 Fabrication Area……………………………………………………………………………………..43 Preatreatment Area………………………………………………………………………………….46 Paint Shop…………………………………………………………………………………………….50 Project on maintainanace of overhead chain conveyor system……………………………………55 Stuffing………………………………………………………………………………………………..59 Process Flow Diagram……………………………………………………………………………….61 Unit-II
Fuel Tank fabrication area………………………………………………………………………….63 Assembly area………………………………………………………………………………………..65 Control Panel area…………………………………………………………………………………..70 Test cell……………………………………………………………………………………………….71 Project on Production Planning…………………………………………………………………….77 Dispatch/loading area………………………………………………………………………………………79 Sudhi’s Clients…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….79 Conclussion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….82
SUDHIR GENSETS LTD.
Sudhir Group came into existence in 1973 and has today forged a unique position for itself through its commitment made towards quality & complete customer satisfaction. Covering a spectrum of services including power generation, distribution, protection, control & automation for over three decades the company has provided world class services & products to the industry. An Industry leader in the field of setting up Diesel base Captive Power Plants upto 20MW having its corporate office in Jammu and various other States & revenue of over INR 1000 Crs, it has leveraged its relationship with Cummins Ltd. Driven through a tireless & unstinting desire for excellence in every field, the organisation has achieved an enviable position by a programme of continious improvement of quality, consistent growth, productivity & profitability, customer goodwill & employee empowerment. Converting every challenge into an opportunity, we have garnered the market forces of liberalisation, competition and globalisation through stage-of-the-art facilities & a highly dedicated and motivated team, thus creating new benchmarks in quality, speed & reliability.
The Company has a wide blue-chip customer base and operates through multiple manufacturing facilities across India and focuses on Diesel & Gas Generators, HT & LT Switchboards, Transformers and Turnkey EPC contracts. The product line includes the widest range of Diesel Gensets 7.5-3000 KVA with a fuel option of Diesel or Gas, Transformers, Packaged Substations, complete range of HT 11KV & 33KV Panels, LT Switchboards, Turnkey EPC contracts covering electrical and mechanical services. Indeed, they have achieved and leapfrogged towards unprecedented growth. But to us this is just another step in our ongoing journey to greater goals and broader horizons.
Core values of the Organisation:
• Product integration.
• Deliver value for money.
• Development of people.
Mission of the Organisation:
• Sustain Business Growth.
• Foster innovation.
• Drive value.
• Protect the Environment.
Vision of the Organisation:
To go beyond Power Generation & the distribution equipment market with high standards for technology, integrity and professionalism.
The Company And its Tie-Up with cummins:
The company had signed a tie-up with Cummins India Ltd. , manufacturer of engines. They Provide both Type of Diesal and Gas Engines to Sudhir Gensets.
Diploma/graduate engineers are recruited through:
Also the candidates up to particular level have to undergo a better of compulsory selection tests, which include Personality, aptitude test & a series of functional tests, by which competence of the candidates at the cognitive level is assured. Important factor considered while selecting an individual are the set of aptitude and values an individual possess , as this determines the ultimate adjustments between organization and employee. Many times vacancies are also filled by circulating the requirement internally, for e.g. the scheme of ‘fast track’ to managerial carriers. Candidates with the necessary aptitude under goes a selection test programmers based ‘assessment center methodology’. Those who are successful can jump almost four grades.
Training and Learning:
All classes of employees are trained. Non skilled are trained to become skilled worker and skilled worker are trained to acquire multiple skills. Diploma and graduates engineers are trained for one year. There are special managements programmers and classes. In addition to the job related training all employee attend self-development programmes.
The SGL Seeks to create a culture where each employee, vendor, and dealer feels himself responsible and integral part of the enterprises. The work culture at SGL is open & participative. Learning is encouraged in the company. Every member respects 5 S(Methodology).
5s stands for the first five letters of the Japanese words:
Sorting out, clearing, segregation, proper selection and remove the waste 2s
Systematic arrangement, keeping things at proper place.
A place for every thing and every thing in its place.
Cleaning. Keep all the work place area, equipment clean
Standardizing, environment, cleanliness. Light, noise, punctuality. (Order and save time) 5s
Maintain discipline and standards
To maintain above 4s,respect the rules.
The 5s also helps to develop and maintain a good organizational behavior. The ultimate goal of house keeping through 5s is to reduce the cost of product by increasing productivity and contributing to total quality.
Techniques used in SGL Jammu: CAPP :- computer aided process planning
SQC :- statistical quality control
JIT :- just in time
PPE :- process planning engineer
PDCA :- plan do check list ( dr. Fleming’s philosophy)
In actual is known as PDCA cycle.
Generator- A brief Introduction
A generator is an electrical machine which produces electricity. It must be turned by a prime mover which can be an internal combustion engine – driven, usually, by diesel oil or gasoline – or can be a turbine, driven either by superheated steam or by water falling from a reservoir. (The latter is known as “hydro-electric power generation”).
Before today’s voltage inverters were invented, electric motors were often used to drive generators to produce a different type of electrical power. (For example to produce dc power from an ac service or to produce 3-phase ac power from a single-phase ac service.)
How a Generator Works:
Basically speaking, a generator is a device which uses a magnet in order to induce a flow of electric current in a circuit, much like how a water pump pushes water through a hose. A generator functions because of the relation between magnetism and electricity. If electrons (the parts of an atom which carry a negative charge) move through something conductive like a wire, they generate a magnetic field. Conversely, if a magnetic field is placed near a wire and moved, its motion causes the electrons in the wire to move because of a change in electrical potential.
This is known as a current. In the 1830s, Michael Faraday discovered this principle and built the first electromagnetic generator known as the Faraday disc, which used a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. In 1832, the first dynamo was built consisting of a power-producing armature moving within a stationary magnetic field.
Types of Generators:
The first generators were used in industry and later on to provide electrical power to homes. The past few years have seen the proliferation of engine-generator sets also known as gensets or simply generators for a variety of purposes. There are gasoline generators, diesel generators, liquefied petroleum gas generators, and propane generators; there are even human-powered generators, such as those found in some types of radios and the small sets found in bicycle lights. a) Standby Generators
b) Portable Generators
c) Commercial Generators
Standby generators – These are large, often permanent units that are stationed outside a home, office building, warehouse, shopping mall, and the like to provide backup power in case the mains electricity switches off. These sets are plugged into the main electric lines and can sense when a power interruption has occurred. They automatically start and provide emergency power generating a few seconds after coming online.
Fig. – Standby Diesel Generator Parts of a standby generator system:
Automatic Transfer Switch monitors your power supply and switches to generator power when your utility power fails, then back to the utility when power is restored. Transfer switches can also be
Engine: The engine provides mechanical power to the generator. Your choice of engine type can affect purchase price, operating cost, fuel availability, noise and reliability.
Generator: The generator uses powerful magnets to convert mechanical power into electrical current. The right combination of engine and generator and control system are essential to producing the “clean” power needed by today’s sensitive electronic devices.
Direct-Drive Coupling: A direct-drive coupling efficiently connects the engine to the generator. Some systems use geared drives to raise their nominal output, but traditional direct drives last much longer and cost significantly less to operate.
Enclosure: The enclousure must be well constructed to protect the generator and its control systems from the elements for many years. Its interior design is also an important part of reducing sound and venting out heat.
Fuel Tank: The fuel tank for diesel or gasoline fuel may be a separate tank or can be built into the base of the genset. Propane gas is supplied from a tank, while natural gas is usually fed to the genset through underground pipe lines from the gas company.
Battery: A Battery provides the reserve of electrical charge needed to start the engine when the utility power is interrupted.
Battery Charger: Battery charger automatically maintains the charge in the battery as needed. “Trickle” chargers are notrecommended, as they can degrade the battery through constant use. Ask for a charger that will equalize the cells of the battery by drawing down the charge then full recharging.
Remote Monitoring: lets you check on and control the operating status of the generator from indoors or from a distance. The monitor’s visual displays, telephone messaging and Internet connections can also alert you to the system’s service needs such as low fuel and scheduled maintenance.
Fig.- Parts of a Standby Generator
Portable generators – These are designed to be transported whether on a cart, trailer or by hand to provide power where there is no utility power supply, as in campsites and construction sites. Their output is sufficient to run appliances such as pumps, refrigerators, lights, radios, and televisions, and the larger ones can be used to power sound systems, high-intensity lights and parked aircraft. The smaller generators typically use gasoline as fuel, whereas the larger ones, capable of providing up to 1,000 kilowatts or more of electricity, use either gasoline, diesel fuel, natural gas, or propane.
Commercial generators – In areas where the power supply is intermittent or lacking as in Third World provincial areas, generators can also be set up to provide additional power.
Engine used in the SUDHIR Generators:
Engine Powered Genset (B Series)
Cummins Diesel Generator Set (C Series)
X Series Diesel Engine
Diesel Engine (B Series): ‘B series’ engines, are rated at 1500 RPM and conform to ISO 8528 specifications. The engines are radiator cooled, four stroke and multi-cylinder, conforming to BS 5514 / ISO 3046. The scope of supply includes:
– Electrical starter motor 12V DC
– Battery charging alternator
– Bosch fuel system with mechanical governor
– Spin-on lube oil filter
– Spin-on dual fuel filter with water seperator
– Residential silencer
– Dry type air cleaner
– Shut-off coil with safeties for LLOP/HWT/Safety tripping
– Flywheel and flywheel housing
– First fill of lube oil and coolant
Fig. – Engine Powered Gensets (B Series)
Diesel Engine Set (C Series): ‘S series’ engines, are rated at 1500 RPM and conform to ISO 8528 specifications. The engines are radiator cooled, four stroke and multi-cylinder,conforming to BS 5514 / ISO 3046. The scope of supply includes:
– Battery charging alternator
– MICO In-Line fuel system with mechanical governor
– Dual spin-on filter
– Lube oil filter
– Turbocharger (for 40, 50 and 62.5 kVA)
– Residential silencer
– CAC : Charge Air Cooler (for 62.5 kVA DG sets only)
– Dry type Air cleaner
– Recovery bottle
– Shut-off coil with safeties for LLOP/ HWT
– Flywheel and flywheel housing
– First fill of lube oil and coolant
Fig. – Diesel Engine Set (C Series)
X Series Diesel Engine: ‘X series’ engines, are rated at 1500 RPM and conform
to ISO 8528 specifications. The engines are radiator cooled, four stroke and multi-cylinder, conforming to BS5514 / ISO 3046. The scope of supply includes:
– Electrical starter motor 12V DC
– Electronic governor
– Spin-on fuel filter
– Spin-on full flow lub oil filter
– Residential silencer
– Dry type air cleaner
– Recovery bottle
– Safeties for LLOP/HWT
– Flywheel and flywheel housing
– First fill of lube oil and coolant
Fig. – X Series Diesel Engine
Alternator: An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field with a stationary armature but occasionally, a rotating armature is used with a stationary magnetic field; or a linear alternator is used. In principle, any AC electrical generator can be called an alternator, but usually the term refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and other internal combustion engines. An alternator that uses a permanent magnet for its magnetic field is called a magneto. Alternators in power stations driven by steam turbines are called turbo-alternators.
Fig. – Alternator
Radiator: Radiators are used for cooling internal combustion engines, mainly in automobiles but also in piston-engine aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine. Internal combustion engines are often cooled by passing a liquid called engine coolant through the engine block, where it is heated, then
through the radiator itself where it loses heat to the atmosphere, and then back to the engine in a closed loop. Engine coolant is usually water-based, but may also be oil. It is common to employ a water pump to force the engine coolant to circulate, and also for an axial fan to force air through the radiator.
Fig. – Radiator Coolent for Engine: A coolant is a fluid which flows through or around Engine to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by it to other devices that use or dissipate it. An ideal coolant has high thermal capacity, low viscosity, is low-cost, non-toxic, and chemically inert, neither causing nor promoting corrosion of the cooling system. Some applications also require the coolant to be an electrical insulator. The coolant used in SGL’s generators are of anti-freeze type(An antifreeze is a chemical additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments and also achieves boiling-point elevation (“anti-boil”) to allow higher coolant temperature. Freezing and boiling points are colligative properties of a solution, which depend on the concentration of the dissolved substance ).
Control panels: Any complex piece of machinery requires a user interface to enable the user to monitor its operations, check for efficient functioning, and intervene when required. Machines overheat, slow down, speed up or generally vary in their performance based on numerous factors such as fatigue, weather conditions, and the wear and tear of components and parts. In electrical machines, like generators, these varying changes constitute an electrical signal. Additional information about generators. These signals can be intelligently processed to control the performance of the machine. A lot of machines in urban environments (such as signal lights and automatic doors) are completely self-managed due to such controllers. They have sensors that can detect changes in physical attributes like heat and speed and generate signals accordingly. Modern generators also have similar sensors to detect changes in all kinds of various parameters. These can be used to control the generator through a control panel. Visually, a control panel is a set of displays that indicate the measurement of various parameters like voltage, current and frequency, through gauges and meters.
These meters and gauges are set in a metallic body, usually corrosion proof, to protect from the effect of rain or snow. The panel may be set up on the body of the generator itself, which is usually the case with small generators. If they are mounted on the generator, they typically have vibration proof pads that help isolate the control panel from shocks. Control panels for a larger industrial generators can be completely separate from the generator and are typically large enough to stand upon their own. These units may also be shelf-mounted or wall-mounted next to the generator, which is common inside an enclosure or intental application like a data center. Control panels are usually fitted with buttons or switches that help to operate the generator such as a switch-off button or turn-on key. The switches and gauges are usually grouped on the basis of functionality. This makes the panel friendly and safe for use since it minimizes the possibility of an operator accidentally selecting or executing the wrong control. Imagine trying to shut down a vibrating generator with a spring loaded lever in the middle of the night and you will appreciate why having a simple cut of switch at the control panel makes sense.
Working of control panels:
The control panel is becoming an increasingly complex piece of electronics with a microprocessor that can manipulate input from sensors to help give feedback to the machine to manage itself. One such feedback could be the temperature, indicating overheating, other examples would be over/under speed and low/high oil pressure. Typically, a heat sensor inside the generator would sense the build up of heat in the generator body and pass this to the microprocessor in the control panel. The microprocessor will then take effective measures to regulate the performance of the machine including shutdowns if, for example, the oil pressure is too low or the coolant temperature is too high, leading to buildup of heat. In industrial situations, this functionality of control panels is becoming increasingly critical. The microprocessor or microcontroller is embedded in the circuitry inside the control panel and is programmed to take in the sensor input and react to that with the programmed control rules. Control panels can be combined with an Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) to maintain the continuity
of electrical power.
The ATS detects an outage of power when your local grid fails. It signals the control panel to start the generator. Depending on the type of generator being used, the control panel may activate glow plugs (for diesel) for an adjustable length of time. It will then start the generator using an automatic starter, similar to the one you engage when you turn the keys in the ignition of your car in the morning. As soon as the engine of the generator reaches an optimum speed, the starter is disengaged. The ATS then switches to the generator power, and you can go back to business as usual, without having to frantically scramble to figure out what caused power loss. This aspect of a control panel makes it extremely useful in homes during bad weather and in industrial situations for ensuring mission-critical continuity.
Fig – Control panels
Various Machines used in SGL:
a) EOT Cranes:
Cranes are industrial machines that are mainly used for materials movements in construction sites, production halls, assembly lines, storage areas, power stations and similar places. Their design features vary widely according to their major operational specifications such as: type of motion of the crane structure, weight and type of the load, location of the crane, geometric features, operating regimes and environmental conditions.
When selecting an electric overhead traveling crane, there are a number of requirements to be taken into account: 1) What specifications, codes or local regulations are applicable? 2) What crane capacity is required?
3) What is the required span?
4) What is the lift required by the hoist?
5) What will be the duty cycle (usage) of the crane?
6) What is the hoist weight? Do you need the use of a second hoist on the bridge crane? 7) What is the hook approach required?
8) What length of runway system is desired?
9) What factors need to be considered in the design of runway and building
structure? 10) What will the operating environment be (dust, paint fumes, outdoor, etc)? 11) What are the necessary crane and trolley speeds?
12) What is the supply voltage/phases/amperage?
13) What control system is desired?
14) Is there existing cranes on the runway?
15) What safety considerations are to be followed?
16) Consider maintenance aspects of the crane.
17) Consider other accessories such as lights, warning horns, weigh scales, limit switches, etc.
Types of electric overhead cranes:
There are various types of overhead cranes with many being highly specialized, but the great majority of installations fall into one of three categories: a) Top running single girder bridge cranes
b) Top running double girder bridge cranes
c) Under-running single girder bridge cranes.
Electric Overhead Traveling (EOT) Cranes come in various types: 1) Single girder cranes – The crane consists of a single bridge girder supported on two end trucks. It has a trolley hoist mechanism that runs on the bottom flange of the bridge girder. 2) Double Girder Bridge Cranes – The crane consists of two bridge girders supported on two end trucks. The trolley runs on rails on the top of the bridge girders. 3) Gantry Cranes – These cranes are essentially the same as the regular overhead cranes except that the bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on fixed rails or other runway. These “legs” eliminate the supporting runway and column system and connect to end trucks which run on a rail either embedded in, or laid on top of, the floor. 4) Monorail – For some applications such as production assembly line or service line, only a trolley hoist is required. The hoisting mechanism is similar to a single girder crane with a difference that the crane doesn’t have a movable bridge and the hoisting trolley runs on a fixed girder. Monorail beams are usually I-beams (tapered beam flanges)
Double Girder Cranes:
In SGL we use Double girder cranes. Double girder cranes are faster, with maximum bridge speeds, trolley speeds and hoist speeds approaching 350 fpm, 150 fpm, and 60 fpm, respectively. o They are useful cranes for a variety of usage levels ranging from infrequent, intermittent use to continuous severe service. They can lift up to 100 tons. o These can be utilized at any capacity where extremely high hook lift is required because the hook can be pulled up between the girders. o They are also highly suitable where the crane needs to be fitted with walkways, crane lights, cabs, magnet cable reels or other special equipment.
EOT Crane Configuration:
1) Under Running (U/R)
2) Top Running (T/R)
Under running cranes:
Under Running or under slung cranes are distinguished by the fact that they are supported from the roof structure and run on the bottom flange of runway girders. Under running cranes are typically available in standard capacities up to 10 tons (special configurations up to 25 tons and over 90 ft spans). Under hung cranes offer excellent side approaches, close headroom and can be supported on runways hung from existing building members if adequate. The Under Running Crane offers the following advantages:
o Very small trolley approach dimensions meaning maximum utilization of the building’s width and height. o The possibility of using the existing ceiling girder for securing the crane track.
Top Running Cranes:
The crane bridge travels on top of rails mounted on a runway beam supported by either the building columns or columns specifically engineered for the crane. Top Running Cranes are the most common form of crane design where the crane loads are transmitted to the building columns or free standing structure. These cranes have an advantage of minimum headroom / maximum height of lift.
Basic crane components:
To help the reader better understand names and expressions used throughout this course, find below is a diagram of basic crane components. 1) Bridge – The main traveling structure of the crane which spans the width of the bay and travels in a direction parallel to the runway. The bridge consists of two end trucks and one or two bridge girders depending on the equipment type. The bridge also supports the trolley and hoisting mechanism for up and down lifting of load
2) End trucks – Located on either side of the bridge, the end trucks house the wheels on which the entire crane travels. It is an assembly consisting of structural members, wheels, bearings, axles, etc., which supports the bridge girder(s) or the trolley cross member(s). 3) Bridge Girder(s) – The principal horizontal beam of the crane bridge which supports the trolley and is supported by the end trucks. 4) Runway – The rails, beams, brackets and framework on which the crane operates. 5) Runway Rail – The rail supported by the runway beams on which the crane travels. 6) Hoist – The hoist mechanism is a unit consisting of a motor drive, coupling, brakes, gearing, drum, ropes, and load block designed to raise, hold and lower the maximum rated load. Hoist mechanism is mounted to the trolley. 7) Trolley – The unit carrying the hoisting mechanism which travels on the bridge rails in a direction at right angles to the crane runway. Trolley frame is the basic structure of the trolley on which are mounted the hoisting and traversing mechanisms. 8) Bumper (Buffer) – An energy absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel, or when two moving cranes or trolleys come into contact. This device may be attached to the bridge, trolley or runway stop.
A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. Cranes and Hoists are somewhat interchangeable terminology since the actual lifting mechanism of a crane is commonly referred to as a hoist. Hoists may be integral to a crane or mounted in affixed position, permanently or temporarily. When a hoist is mounted to a trolley on a fixed monorail, two directions of load motion are available: forward or reverse, up or down. When the hoist is mounted on a crane, three directions of load motion are available: right or left, forward or reverse, up or down. Figure on the next page shows a rope hoist for double girder crane application.
Fig – Hoist
The majority of hoists used are classified as Standard or “packaged hoists”, typically defined as largely self contained units, prepared to be installed on existing structures.
Hoist Lifting Media:
There are two basic hoist lifting media – Wire Rope Hoist which is very durable and will provide long term, reliable usage and the other type of hoist is the Chain Hoist. For a given rated load, wire rope is of lighter weight per running foot but is limited to drum diameters far large than the lift wheel over which chain may function. Therefore a high-performance chain hoist may be of significantly smaller physical size than a wire rope hoist rated at the same working load. High speed lifting (60 ft/min +) requires wire rope over a drum because chain over a pocket wheel generates fatigue inducing resonance for long lifts.
There are various types of hoists that perform a wide range of basic lifting functions. These can be categorized as packaged hoists or specially engineered hoists. The packaged hoists include hand chain, ratchet lever; electric chain and electric wire rope hoists. Choosing the right hoist type and model generally depends on the number of lifts per day and the average weight. 1) Ratchet Lever: Small, hand powered hoist capable of lifts between 3/4 ton to 6 tons with standard lifts between 5 feet and 15 feet. Capable of lifting, pulling and stretching loads vertically and horizontally; light, portable – often carried site-to-site. Common Applications: Rigging, installing or repairing machinery in industrial and construction applications. Selection Considerations: Steel construction; corrosion resistant; double-pawl enclosed load brake; long life anti-friction bearings.
2) Hand Chain: Hand powered chain hoist capable of lifts between 1/2 ton and
25 tons with standard lifts between 8 feet and 20 feet. Normally hook mounted to a fixed point or trolley; provides true vertical lift; lifts are slow and require high work effort; precise load spotting Common Applications: General production or maintenance in light industry requiring few lifts per day; preferred in certain corrosive or abrasive environments Selection Considerations: Steel construction; heavy-duty housing; mechanical load brake for positive load holding; long-life anti-friction bearings; spark proof; headroom
3) Electric Chain: Capable of lifts between 1/2 ton and 3 tons with standard lifts between 10 feet and 20 feet (1/2 and one ton) and 10 and 15 feet (one to 3 tons). Extended lifts are possible after factory modifications. Operated by pushbutton control; powered by electric motor; controlled by an electric motor brake; equipped with upper and lower travel limit stop. Common Applications: Light duty; general machine shop work; high duty; bulk handling in a steel warehouse. Selection Considerations: Motor insulation rated for longer motor life; geared limit switches; antifriction bearings; oversized chain; chain container; dual braking system.
4) Electric Wire Rope: Capable of lifts between 1/8 ton and 5 tons with standard lifts between 15 feet and 30 feet. Operated by pushbutton control; designed for heavy-duty, high-performance lifting.
5) Engineered Wire Rope: With specially designed components, electric wire rope and monorail hoists frequently handle capacity loads in harsh or demanding environments. Capable of lifts between 1 ton and 60 tons with standard lifts between 15 feet and 234 feet. High performance, high duty cycle; normally for 2 or more speeds with excellent load spotting capabilities; sophisticated componentry. Common Applications: Heavy machine shop, airline maintenance, steel manufacturer or warehouse Selection Considerations: Heavy duty motor and bearings; high-strength cable; thermal motor detectors; limit switches; disc motor brake; motorized trolley.
6) Special Applications: Specially designed hoists are often as unique as the lifting operations they perform. Examples include hot metal carriers, twin hook hoists used to move hard to balance loads, power sling hoists for rotating suspended cumbersome loads and lock and dam machinery. Lift capacities and ranges are dependent on application. Common Applications: Hot metal carrier: foundries, engine manufacturers; powersling hoist: automobile manufacturing, airline maintenance; twin hook hoist paper plant, textile plant, or lumber yard. Selection Considerations: Highly dependent on application; consult engineer for equipment selection.
7) Trolley Hoists: An electric hoist and top running motorized trolley combined in one unit provides accurate load positioning in a variety of applications. Wheels, drives and control packages are normally designed specifically for the application. Available for use on class A thru D cranes having capacities from 5 tons to 30 tons with standard lifts of 100 feet or more. Common Applications: Moderate service including heavy machine shops, metal fabricating plants and steel warehousing. Selection Considerations: Durable, welded steel frame; geared limit switches; variable hoist and trolley speeds and controls; heat treated wheels; heavy-duty crane rated motors; double reeving for true vertical lift; heavy-duty, long-life bearings.
b) Forklift Trucks:
A forklift truck (also called a lift truck, a fork truck, a forklift, or a tow-motor) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials. The modern forklift was developed in the 1960s by various companies including the transmission manufacturing company Clark and the hoist company Yale & Towne Manufacturing. The forklift has since become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing operations.
Fig – Forklift Truck
Safety tips while operating a Forklift Truck:
1. Operators must receive thorough training, evaluation, and testing. 2. Forklifts must be inspected for safety before each shift. 3. Drivers should always wear seat belts to prevent being thrown out and crushed if the
vehicle falls over. In case of a tipover, the vehicle’s frame will offer protection. 4. Never load a truck beyond its rated capacity.
5. Make sure the load is secure before moving.
6. Whenever they reach an intersection or other location where vision is obstructed, they should always slow down and sound the horn.
Sudhir gensets Ltd. Jammu have two units:
a) Unit – I, In which outer body of the generator is made. b) Unit – II, Where the remaining processes are done i.e Base preparation, assembly of the generator parts(Engine,alternator,radiator,control panel etc.).
Unit – I
In unit-I the outer body of the generators are made. Unit-I consists of following areas: i. CRCA/HR sheet area
ii. M/C shop
iii. Fabrication area
iv. Pretreatment area
v. Paint shop
vi. Stuffing area
vii. Dispatch area
1) CRCA/HR Sheet area: CRCA means “cold rolled close annealed”. This means that after hot rolling and pickling, the steel is cold rolled to a reduced thickness (which makes it brittle and not too useful), which is then followed by annealing in a closed atmosphere of nitrogen or other non-oxidizing gases (which softens it back up while protecting it from oxidation). The thickness of CRCA sheets varies from 0.10 to 4.00 mm and width ranges from 10 to 1700(max). Hot rolling is a hot working metalworking process where large pieces of metal, such as slabs or billets, are heated above their recrystallization temperature and then deformed between rollers to form thinner cross sections. Hot rolling produces thinner cross sections than cold rolling processes with the same number of stages. Hot rolling, due to recrystallization, will reduce the average grain size of a metal while maintaining an equiaxed microstructure where as cold rolling will produce a hardened microstructure. ). The thickness of HR sheets varies from 1.60 to 20.0 and maximum width upto 2000. 2) M/C shop: In machine shop shearing,bending and cutting is done on CNC machines.
Shearing: SGL use GS-3106 CNC shearing machine for shearing metal sheets. Shearing, also known as die cutting, is a process which cuts stock without the formation of chips or the use of burning or melting. Strictly speaking, if the cutting blades are straight the process is called shearing; if the cutting blades are curved then they are shearing-type operations.The most commonly sheared materials are in the form of sheet metal or plates, however rods can also be sheared. Shearing-type operations include: blanking, piercing, roll slitting, and trimming. It is used in metal working and also with paper and plastics. When shearing a sheet, the typical tolerance is +0.1 or -0.1, but it is feasible to get the tolerance to within +0.005 or -0.005. While shearing a bar and angle, the typical tolerance is +0.06 or -0.06, but it is possible to get the tolerance to +0.03 or -0.03. Surface finishes typically occur within the 250 to 1000 microinches range, but can range from 125 to 2000 microinches. A secondary operation is required if one wants better surfaces than this.
Cutting: Cutting in SGL is done with the aid of AMADA’S VIPROS 2510C CNC turret punch press. Specifications:
» 20 ton press capacity
» 1270mm x 2500mm maximum travel
» 1270mm x 5000mm maximum sheet size (with one reposition) » 6.35mm ready Maximum Material Thickness
» 150 Kg Maximum Material Weights
» 5000 IPM Positioning Speed
» ±0.1mm Punching Accuracy
» ±0.015mm Repeatability
Bending: Bending in SGL is done with the aid of AMADA RG-100 CNC turret press.
• Capacity: 110 Ton
• Overall Length: 9’10”
• Distance Between Housings: 8’4″
• Stroke: 3.94″
• Throat: 15.76″
• 2-Axis Hurco Autobend 7 Control
• Single Axis Backgauge
• Dimensions and Weight
130″x 65″x 95″
Safety precautions while operating on CNC machine:
i. Always keep the area around the machine clear of obstacles. ii. Always stack material where you can reach it but where it is clear of the moving parts of the machine. iii. Always stack material where you can reach it but where it is clear of the moving parts of the machine. iv. Always check that the correct tool data is entered into the CNC program. v. Always make sure that all guards are in position while the machine is in operation. vi. Always make sure that all work and fixtures are clamped securely before starting machine. vii. Always make sure spindle direction is correct for right-hand or left-hand operation. viii. Always conduct a dry run to ensure the program is correct ix. Always follow company policy on correct procedures when handling or lifting parts or tooling x. Do not use the machine table as a workbench.
xi. Do not use compressed air to blow chips from the parts of the machine, machine surfaces, cabinets, controls or floor around the machine.
3) Fabrication area: Under fabrication area different work stations are set up where MIG welding is done on metal sheets on each work station which is transformed into various outer body parts of the generator.Fabrication area is of 6 different work stations and a Grinding Station. Mig welding (Metal inert gas welding):
In this welding we use inert gas ( helium and argon) carbon dioxide is also used in place of these gases bcause carbon dioxide is non reacting. In weld gun ms wire is used ( copper is coated on the ms wire) current range ( 18- 20 volts , 100- 120 amperes). Weld wire dia in light fabrication is 0.8 mm.
Types of Electrodes Used for Welding In SGL:
Electric arc welding using 8 no. Electrode having ( 4 mm dia) 8 no. Electrode with 4 mm dia is widely used in industries
Other electrodes which can be used are 10 no. With 3.15 dia and 12 no. With 2.15 mm dia For extra strength which can be provided by applying weld of greater thickness as compare to normal weld We have to first make a single root weld using 10 no. Electrodes with 3.15 mm dia and then by using 8 no. Electrode with 4 mm. Dia we can make aweld of greater thickness / width This is required in some cases only where extra strength is required Otherwise 8 no. Electrode is used for making welds and it has sufficient strength Work Station 1: MIG welding is done on sheet which turn into the upper head of the generator.
Work station 2: MIG Welding is done in order to made side Doors and Windows of the Generator.
Work Station 3: MIG Welding on sheet to made corner edges.
Work Station 4: MIG welding to get side Walls.
Work Station 5: MIG welding to get pen window for radiator air. Work Station 6: Arc welding of sheets are done.
Grinding Station: Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a
grinding wheel as the cutting tool. Angle Grinder(An angle grinder, also known as a side grinder or disc grinder, is a handheld power tool used for cutting, grinding and polishing ) is used to grind abrasive material of the welded portion.
4) Pretreatment Area:
Pre treatment is a process in which the surface of the component to be painted is chemically cleaned and prepared for the painting operation.Metallic components can be freed from impurities with proper PRE TREATMENT, using degreasing and derusting solutions, coated with a protective layer of phosphates and passivated for lasting effects. The process of pre treatment can be broken up into the following stages in Powder Coating System :- 1. Degreasing in pre treatment : In this stage, the component is freed of grease, oil and other unwanted contaminants like dirt and swart adhering to its surface. Degreasing can be achieved by- a) Spraying hot water or steam on the component. This is generally used where the component is very large and heavy, so that the operator can clean it by walking around it. For example, heavy castings and engines. As an alternative, kerosene or petrol can also be sprayed. b) Tri-choloroethylene degreasing: In this the component is suspended in a specially designed tank containing tri-choloethylene liquid or vapour. The tri-choloethylene condenses on the surface of the component, dissolves oil and grease and carries them away with it. The grease and dirt collect at the bottom of the tank in the form of sludge, which can be removed from time to time. This system has excellent oil and grease dissolving capabilities, but since there is very little mechanical rubbing action between tri-chloroethylene and the component surface one often finds a thin layer of dirt remaining adhered to the surface of the component just degreased. Also, tri- chloroethylene cannot dissolve and, therefore, remove any soap which is generally present in the coolants used during machining processes. It should also be noted that tri- choloroethlene, though quite harmless as such, decomposes when heated beyond is boiling point, forming very toxic products of decomposition. These are harmful and care should be taken to avoid this decomposition. With the tri-chloroethylene degreasing system there is a very high percentage of solvent recovery. C ) Alkali degreasing: In this method
the component is cleaned by a solution of alkali which generally contains sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), sodium carbonate(soda ash) and some sodium ortho or metasilicate. The solution often has an additive of detergent or a wetting agent to help the degreasing action. The degreasing is achieved by saponification of oil and grease and is assisted by mechanical agitation which gives a scrubbing action to dislodge the dirt from the component surface. As the degreasing action is a saponification process, the alkali solution is consumed as the process continues. Bath name Decreasing
Volume 3500 ltr
Temperature 75 oc-850c
Dip temp 10-15 min
2. Water rinse: Whenever components are degreased by using alkali, they should be rinsed, preferably twice, to remove all traces of alkali which may have remained on the components. Bath name water rinse
Volume 2500 ltr
Temperature ambient temp
3. Pre treatment for pickling or derusting : In this process, rust and scales are removed from the component by means of acid solution. Acids used are generally dilute hydrochloride or sulpuric along with an inhibitor to minimise their attack on the bare metal. Bath name Descaling
Volume 2300 ltr
Time 5-10 min
4. Water rinse : The above operation is followed by one or two water rinses
to remove all traces of acid. Bath name water rinse
Volume 2300 ltr
Time 3-7 min
5. Pre treatment in phosphating / chromatising: In this operation, the clean surface of the component is coated with a thin layer of phosphate or chromate salt by using a phosphating / chromatising solution. Bath name water rinse
Volume 2500 ltr
6. Pre treatments in water rinse :The above operation is followed by one or two water rinses. Bath name water rinse
Volume 2300 ltr
Temperature 70-75 0c
Time 10-15 min
7. Pre treatments for passivating: The surface of the phosphated component is chemically very clean and hence very easily susceptible to rusting immediately, unless passivated. The components are, therefore, dipped into a solution of hot chromic acid which tends to passivate the phosphated surface and protect it from rusting for a period of 12 to 24 hours until the components are ready for painting. Bath name water rinse
Volume 2500 ltr
time flash ph 7-10
This briefly indicates the sequence of operations involved in pre treatment. The phosphated components can be, if absolutely necessary, stored overnight, but it is recommended not to store, them for too long a period, or else they will start rusting. It will also prevent any rusting underneath the paint film at a later stage after painting. In most pre treatment applications, the series of tanks are lined up in a row with an overhead monorail and hoist.For very large production for pre treatment volume, an automatic dipping system with an overhead conveyor can be provided, so that there is no intermediate handling from tank to tank. For large volume pre-treatment of small items, the components in each basket can be transferred from tank to tank automatically. These are naturally expensive system to install. One of the modern powder coating system pre treatment system is called also spray phosphate. The amount of solution required is also less, as it is being re-used by continuous recirculation, but he capital cost involved in setting up this system is very high. As a result, the use of Spray type of pre treatment can be justified only when the production volume is extremely high.
5) Paint Shop:
Powder coating: Basically Powder Coating is the process of applying a dry paint (powder) to a piece of metal and baking it in an oven where the paint liquefies and cures. The powder is fairly coarse, about 1200 grit or so. There are to types of powder coat, Thermoplastic and Thermosetting. The Thermoplastic process uses a material that melts when it is heated, hardens when it cools, and can be re-melted. Thermoplastic is only used for special applications. The most common Powder Coating is Thermosetting. In this case the heat is used to cure the material. Once cured, the coating can stand-up to rather high temperature without melting or decomposing. Some Thermosetting coatings can even be used to coat barbeque grills and exhaust headers. The powder is “sprayed” on the part using a gun that produces a soft fog of powder. Since the gun operates at low pressure, 10 to 15 psi, you don’t need much of a compressor. (You do need to make sure your air is as dry as possible) To make the powder stick to the part, the powder in given an electrostatic charge of high-voltage. The guns have a power supply
that produces about 10,000 volts at very low current. Just before the powder leaves the gun, it passes by some corona wires that give the power its charge. It’s amazing how strong this force is. If you bring the gun too close to the part, the part will actually move toward the gun because of the electrostatic attraction. The powder is available in several different formulations. The main types are Epoxy, Polyester, and Acrylic. There are also mixtures of these technologies called Hybrid. Epoxy coatings are great where chemical resistance, such as the inside of a tank, is important. But they are not well suited for exterior use because epoxies tend to chalk when exposed to ultraviolet. Epoxy/Polyester Hybrids improve some of the characteristics of epoxy, but will still chalk under high ultraviolet.
Step by Step Powder Coating:
1. The first step is to clean and prep the part to be coated. Since the dry powder does not contain any solvents that help to displace oil, the work piece must be free of oil deposits. Cleaning the piece with a good water based de-greaser works well. generally sand blast the part with 70 grit aluminum oxide. This removes loose rust and gives the surface a good texture for the powder coat to adhere to. After sandblasting, wash the part to remove any grit, and then treat the part with either a Phosphate or Chromate conversion coating. The conversion coating is not absolutely necessary, but it never hurts. 2. Pre-heat the part to prevent later out-gassing problems. This step helps drive out water and oils that are traps in pores in the metal. If you preheat the part to the same temperature as you plan to cure the coating, it is unlikely that you will have any problems with trapped contaminates. The step is not necessary if your part is made from billet or sheet and there is no danger of trapped contaminates. 3. Spray on the coating. It takes a little practice, but the goal is to produce a coating with a film thickness of 1.5 to 3 mills. (.0015” to .003”) The easiest way to do this is to hang the part on an “S” hook while spraying. Avoid getting the gun too close to the part, because you can generate a spark that can ignite the powder. Most powders are coarse enough that ignition is un-likely, but it can happen. If I have parts with a lot of recessed areas to be painted, I pre-heat the part and put it in the spray booth while it is still hot. The recessed areas tend to be shielded from the
static charge (Faraday Cage effect). I start spraying the recessed areas with the high voltage turned off. This allows me to get in close and the powder will stick to the hot metal. After getting the recessed areas, I switch the high voltage on and do the rest of the part. 4. Cure the coating. Most coatings, of the Polyester TGIC type, cure at 380 degrees for 20 to 25 minutes. The base metal must be at temperature before curing can start, so if you have a very thick section, the curing may take longer. If you watch the part while it is curing, you will see the powder melt and convert into a thick syrup and flatten. This is an indication that you will be getting a very smooth surface on the finished piece.
Safety Precautions While Doing Powder Coating:
a. Make sure you, your work area, and your equipment are dry. b. If you are using an extension cord, make sure it is in sound condition with no damage or frays, and of the correct wire gauge. c. Never bypass the ground plug. Grounding is important for operation of the unit and prevents shock. d. Do not touch the emitter until after the activation switch is released and the emitter has been touched to the ground clip. Once you are spraying the part with the powder, avoid touching the gun to the part or other grounded objects. e. Do not step on, kink, or pull the wires. Before using the gun inspect the condition of all wires. f. Do not use a vacuum unless it is equipped with an explosion proof motor. g. Do not touch or hold the part while coating.
h. The powder is considered a nuisance dust and and consists primarily of pulverized plastic (polyurethane or polyester). i. Wear a Dust Mask to protect your lungs when handling, applying powder and clean up. j. Oven cure powder coat in an electric oven only. Use an oven other than the one used for food, as mildly toxic fumes are given off by the powder residue during the curing process and may remain in the oven. k. Oven should be operated in a well ventilated shop or open area, not inside a house or enclosed living space. l. Always work in a well-ventilated area! Wear an activated charcoal respirator when oven curing the powder.
Project on Maintainance of Overhead Chain Conveyor System:
In SGL the maintainance of Overhead Conveyor System is a done in every 7-8 days and each and every essential espect is checked during maintainance period. During checking time each and every thing is checked like smooth movement of the chain, chain breakage, Gear ratio of both moter and pulley. What i had observed during maintainance period is that there are 6 major problems a maintainanace Inspector has to Face these are as: 1. Poor take-up adjustment
2. Lack of lubrication
4. Product Handling
5. Drive Train
6. Bad Belt Tracking or Timing
A conveyor system is often the lifeline to a company’s ability to effectively move its product in a timely fashion. The steps that a company can take to ensure that it performs at peak capacity, include regular inspections, close monitoring of motors and reducers, keeping key parts in stock, and proper training of personnel. Increasing the service life of your conveyor system involves: choosing the right conveyor type, the right system design and paying attention to regular maintenance practices. A conveyor system that is designed properly will last a long time with proper maintenance. Here are six of the biggest problems to watch for in overhead type conveyor systems including I-beam monorails, enclosed track conveyors and power and free conveyors. Poor take-up adjustment: This is a simple adjustment on most systems yet it is often overlooked. The chain take-up device ensures that the chain is pulled tight as it leaves the drive unit. As wear occurs and the chain lengthens, the take-up extends under the force of its springs. As they extend, the spring force becomes less and the take-up has less effect. Simply compress the take-up springs and your problem goes away. Failure to do this can result in chain surging, jamming, and extreme wear on the track and chain. Take-up adjustment is also important for any conveyor using belts as a means to power rollers, or belts themselves being the mover. With poor-take up on belt-driven rollers, the belt may twist into the drive unit and cause damage, or at the least a noticeable decrease or complete loss of
performance may occur. In the case of belt conveyors, a poor take-up may cause drive unit damage or may let the belt slip off of the side of the chassis. Lack of lubrication: Chain bearings require lubrication in order to reduce friction. The chain pull that the drive experiences can double if the bearings are not lubricated. This can cause the system to overload by either its mechanical or electrical overload protection. On conveyors that go through hot ovens, lubricators can be left on constantly or set to turn on every few cycles. Contamination: Paint, powder, acid or alkaline fluids, abrasives, glass bead, steel shot, etc. can all lead to rapid deterioration of track and chain. Ask any bearing company about the leading cause of bearing failure and they will point to contamination. Once a foreign substance lands on the raceway of a bearing or on the track, pitting of the surface will occur, and once the surface is compromised, wear will accelerate. Building shrouds around your conveyors can help prevent the ingress of contaminants. Or, pressurize the contained area using a simple fan and duct arrangement. Contamination can also apply to belts (causing slippage, or in the case of some materials premature wear), and of the motors themselves. Since the motors can generate a considerable amount of heat, keeping the surface clean is an almost-free maintenance procedure that can keep heat from getting trapped by dust and grime, which may lead to motor burnout. Product Handling: In conveyor systems that may be suited for a wide variety of products, such as those in distribution centers, it is important that each new product be deemed acceptable for conveying before being run through the materials handling equipment. Boxes that are too small, too large, too heavy, too light, or too awkwardly shaped may not convey, or may cause many problems including jams, excess wear on conveying equipment, motor overloads, belt breakage, or other damage, and may also consume extra man-hours in terms of picking up cases that slipped between rollers, or damaged product that was not meant for materials handling. If a product such as this manages to make it through most of the system, the sortation system will most likely be the affected, causing jams and failing to properly place items where they are assigned. It should also be noted that any and all cartons handled on any conveyor should be in good shape or spills, jams, downtime, and possible accidents and injuries may result. Drive Train: Notwithstanding the above, involving take-up adjustment, other
parts of the drive train should be kept in proper shape. Broken O-rings on a Lineshaft, pneumatic parts in disrepair, and motor reducers should also be inspected. Loss of power to even one or a few rollers on a conveyor can mean the difference between effective and timely delivery, and repetitive nuances that can continually cost downtime. Bad Belt Tracking or Timing: In a system that uses precisely controlled belts, such as a sorter system, regular inspections should be made that all belts are traveling at the proper speeds at all times. While usually a computer controls this with Pulse Position Indicators, any belt not controlled must be monitored to ensure accuracy and reduce the likelihood of problems. Timing is also important for any equipment that is instructed to precisely meter out items, such as a merge where one box pulls from all lines at one time. If one were to be mistimed, product would collide and disrupt operation. Timing is also important wherever a conveyor must “keep track” of where a box is, or improper operation will result. Since a conveyor system is a critical link in a company’s ability to move its products in a timely fashion, any disruption of its operation can be costly. Most “downtime” can be avoided by taking steps to ensure a system operates at peak performance, including regular inspections, close monitoring of motors and reducers, keeping key parts in stock, and proper training of personnel.
Stuffing: Rockwool insulation refers to a type of insulation that is made from actual rocks and minerals. It also goes by the names of stone wool insulation, mineral wool insulation, or slag wool insulation. A wide range of products can be made from rockwool, due to its excellent ability to block sound and heat. Rockwool insulation is commonly used in building construction, industrial plants, and in automotive applications. Further a sheet ( paper sheet ) is used to cover the rockwool. To make rockwool insulation, minerals and other raw materials are heated to about 2910°F (about 1600°C) in a furnace, through which a current of air or steam is blown. More advanced production techniques are based on rotating the molten rock at high speeds in a spinning wheel, in some ways resembling the way that cotton candy is made. The finished product is a mass of very fine intertwined fibers, bound together with starch. Oil is also added during production to decrease the formation of dust.
Purpose of stuffing: 1. To damp the noise produced during working of Genset.
2. To prevent Gensets from catching fire.
The individual fibers of rockwool insulation are good conductors of heat on their own, but rolls and sheets of this insulation are highly efficient at blocking heat transfer. They are often used to prevent the spread of fire in buildings, in light of their extremely high melting point. As with other types of insulation, rockwool can play a large role in reducing energy consumption in homes and businesses. Made of natural materials, rockwool insulation is safe to manufacture and use, when proper guidelines are followed. Decades of research have shown that it poses little to no health risk to humans, including that of respiratory and other cancers.
While it is not attractive to rodents, rockwool can pose problems in other ways, especially if allowed to become wet. Rockwool insulation is able to retain a large amount of water, although gravity will make it slowly drain out, as long as it has a way to escape. This ability to hold water, coupled with the fact that it retains a certain amount of air at all times, has made rockwool a popular growing medium in horticulture and hydroponics. These properties of rockwool allow for good root growth and nutrient uptake. It also provides a good mechanical structure for the plant, keeping it strong and stable. In its natural state, rockwool has a relatively high pH, which is unsupportive of plant growth. In order for it to be suitable as a medium for growing plants, it must be treated to lower the pH to a more stable and neutral value that will allow the plant to thrive. This treatment involves soaking the rockwool in pH-adjusted water for at least 24 hours before use.
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
In UNIT-II the assembly of the Generators are done Including Fuel tank
manufacturing, Assembly of the generator parts(Engine,alternator,radiator,control panel), Testing of the generator made and then loading. The Unit is divided into following sections/Areas: i. Fuel Tank Fabrication area
ii. Assembly area
iii. Control panel Area
iv. Testing cell
v. Loading Area
Fuel Tank Fabrication area: A fuel tank (or petrol tank) is a safe container for flammable fluids. Though any storage tank for fuel may be so called, the term is typically applied to part of an engine system in which the fuel is stored and propelled (fuel pump) or released (pressurized gas) into an engine. Fuel tanks range in size and complexity from the small plastic tank of a butane lighter to the multi-chambered cryogenic Space Shuttle external tank. Fuel tanks must be designed, constructed and tested to prevent the risk of ignition of leaking fuel or explosion of leaking vapours. The most common failure found in fuel tanks is the failure of the weld joins of the tank. Welding requirements:
1. Fuel tanks must be double continuous (DC) welded on all the boundary joins of the tank. 2. As it is not possible to achieve this with smaller free standing tanks, the closing plate or the lid installed on the tank top must be single continuous (SC) welded. 3. Internal baffle plates should be suitably flanged (or rider bar attached), and the top lid slotted to facilitate welding of the top plate to the baffle flange. 4. Plate edges must be cleaned of all contaminants and oxides just prior to welding. Only nonferrous grinding or cutting wheels should be used for the aluminium plate preparation.
Paint Coating on the fuel tank is done manually with the help of Spray gun. Equipments used on fuel tank:
Fuel tank steel,12 gauge
5/8” Tank Vent
Roll over Valve
Carbon canister Bracket
Stainless steel Bezel
Fuel pump kit
Assembly area: The Specific Area of the plant where all the workers are working on assembling the various parts of the generator. The Base/fuel tank which is prepared in the fuel tank fabrication area is brought to this assembly are using a forklift truck which is capable of holding fuel tank foundation having weight upto 1 ton(1000Kgs).
Major points to be considered While doing Assembly:
Allignment of engine and alternator ( coupling and alignment ) Bushes are used for proper grip between engine crankshaft and alternators rotor shaft. If problem occurs during allignment or fitting of coupling , the coupling is heated to a temperature range of ( 400 degrees to 500 degree celsius) so that coupling fits properly. In engine alternator assembly , allignment is very much necessary bcause if there is no proper allignment then during working vibration and balancing problems will occur and this will effect machinery ( engine parts , alternator and alternator parts ( rotor , rotor shaft ) badly and can even lead to damage of the equipment ( whole machinery with passage of time. There are certain instruments used for checking the allignment properly and which ensures the proper allignment . These are pressure gauge instruments .
Tools used by the Workers in the Assembly area: Pneumatic torque screwdriver: The pneumatic torque screwdriver is widely used for assembly requiring higher levels of torque. Pneumatic tools require a constant pressurized air source. Torque for this type of torque screwdriver ranges from 1.5 in lb (0.17Nm) to 265 in lb (30Nm), and speeds range from 800 to 2600 RPM. These tools must be near their compressed air source, not a problem in manufacturing but less suitable for general maintenance. Torque may not be controlled as accurately as by electrically powered tools.
Mallets: A mallet is a kind of hammer, usually of rubber, or sometimes wood smaller than a maul or beetle and usually with a relatively large head. Plastic mallets are made of nylon, polycarbonate, or polystyrene are used for hammering metal sheets of the body of the Generator.
Pliers: Pliers (sometimes known as pincers) are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, possibly developed from tongs used to handle various objects. Generally, pliers consist of a pair of metal first-class levers joined at a fulcrum positioned closer to one end of the levers, creating short jaws on one side of the fulcrum, and longer handles on the other side. This arrangement creates a mechanical advantage, allowing the force of the hand’s grip to be amplified and focused on an object with precision. The jaws can also be used to manipulate objects too small or unwieldy to be manipulated with the fingers.
Wrench/Spanner: A wrench (or spanner) is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects—usually rotary fasteners, such as nuts and bolts—or keep them from turning. Higher quality wrenches are typically made from chromium-vanadium alloy tool steels and are often drop-forged. They are frequently chrome-plated to resist corrosion and ease cleaning.
Pistol – Grip corded Electric Drills: A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for drilling holes in various materials or fastening various materials together with the use of fasteners. The attachment is gripped by a
chuck at one end of the drill and rotated while pressed against the target material. Drills with pistol grips are the most common type in use in SGL.
In this assembly process the various parts of the generator i.e Engine, Alternator, Radiator, Control Panel and the Fuel tank are joined together with the help of Nut- Bolts, Rivets etc. The Following Steps are taken While Assembling a Generator: 1. Firstly the Base of the Generator is Brought from the Fabrication Area with the help of a Forklift Truck and placed on the floor of the Assemby area then the Dust and other particles are removed from the surface of the base by the workers by Blowing air at high pressure. 2. Before this surface cleaning process the next is to fit/fix various assessories on the base like carbon canister, Diesel fillnecks, fuel tank etc. 3. The 3rd step under assembly section is to brought a Engine of the desired Specification of the Customer and this is done by using a EOT crane which can hold upto 20 tons of weight. 4. In this Step the Alternator is brought from the Storage section with the help of EOT crane and is made perfectally fit with the Engine. 5. The other remaining parts i.e Radiator, Control panels etc are assembled in the same manner as done in step2,3 & 4. 6. Finally the outer body which is fabricated in UNIT-I is brought to this assembly section and are also assembled with the base. Now the Generator is ready to be Tested in the Test section/Test Cell.
Control Panel Area:
Powder coated control panel manufactured with 14/16 gauge CRCA sheet and provides ›
ACB of suitable rating with overload and short circuit protection ›
Voltmeter and ammeter with selector switch
Indicating lamps for “Load On” and “Set Running”
Aluminium busbars of suitable capacity with incoming and outgoing terminations ›
Instrument fuses duly wired and ferruled
Test cell: All Tests in the test cell of SGl are done on the Bases of IS/IEC codes. Testing of a generator is done by considering following factors: 1. Towing
2. Visual Inspection
3. Cooling System
4. Fuel system
5. Batteries and Wirings
6. Generator Exercise
The following instructions must be kept in mind while towing a generator: 1) Attach the generator to the towing vehicle using the front leveling jack. 2) Lock the hitch and insure that it is connected securely.
CAUTION: If the hitch is not secured properly, the trailer couldseparate from the towing vehicle and cause equipmentdamage or personal injury. 3) Connect the taillight wiring harness to the towing vehicle. Check thetaillightsfor proper operation. 4) Position the leveling jack to its traveling position by pulling the pinand rotating 90 degrees. 5) Check the wheelsto insure that the lug bolts are tight. Make sure tiresare inflated to 35 PSI(MAX). 6) Make sure all doors are latched.
7) Remove wheel chocks, if required.
Visual Inspection: The surrounding area should also be kept free of debris and provide sufficient ventilation during operation. When the generator is not running, conduct weekly inspections of the surrounding area to ensure fluids, such as oil and coolant, are not leaking. Inspect the exhaust system, including the manifold, muffler, and exhaust pipe. All connecting
gaskets, joints, and welds should be thoroughly checked for potential leaks. Clean the starting and electrical system terminals. Connections should be tight and free from corrosion. Any adverse conditions should be corrected promptly by a qualified technician.
Cooling System: Periodically check the coolant level. The cooling fluid mix is a balanced solution and varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. Don’t mix your own. Make sure the solution you use is approved for use in your engine. Clean the radiator to remove any dust and/or debris, taking care not to damage the fins. Check that the coolant heater is operating correctly by monitoring the discharge temperature.
Fuel System: Check the fuel delivery system periodically for leaks and correct pressure during exercise. Check fittings and connections; tighten them as needed. Drain and clean fuel filters monthly. Examine charge-air piping, and supply hoses for leaks, holes, and damaged seals. The fuel system and charge-air cooler should also be free of dirt and debris. Also check the fuel delivery system for leaks and the correct pressure.
Fuel maintenance is another important aspect of generator maintenance. Gasoline and diesel fuel degrade over time, separating and even growing micro-biological organisms. The fuel tank should be equipped with a plug or valve which allows the water to be drained from the tank periodically. A fuel sample, taken from the bottom and from the supply line, should be visually examined monthly. The fuel should look like new fuel; otherwise it should be filtered or replaced. Fuel tanks should be sized so that the fuel is turned over on a regular basis. As a rule of thumb diesel fuel should be turned over or replaced on an annual basis. A proper fuel maintenance program is important.
Batteries and wiring: Batteries should be checked to make sure they are fully charged. The batteries must be tested under load. Simply checking the voltage is an inaccurate method of testing power, as batteries change internally over time. They should be kept clean and free of corrosion. Where appropriate, check the specific gravity and electrolyte levels. All engine
wiring should have tight connections and be free of corrosion or damage. Check with your generator manufacturer for their recommended battery and wiring practices, cleaning agents and solutions.
Generator Exercise: Exercise your engine-generator under a load monthly. Like humans, regular exercise keeps generators fit and in prime condition. During dynamic testing engine parts become lubricated, oxidation is prevented, old fuel is consumed, and overall functionality is ensured. Operate the generator monthly at a load of at least 30% of the nameplate rating for no shorter than 30 minutes. The generator should be operated for a minimum of 1 hour at 100% of the nameplate capacity at least annually. When testing a stationary unit, testing should be done through the ATS to ensure the entire system works properly. If it is not possible or practical to use a site load for the test a load bank should be used. Sometimes problems only become noticeable during operation. Therefore it is important operators remain attentive for unusual circumstances, e.g. abnormal sights, sounds, vibration, excessive smoke or changes in fuel consumption. Remember to check for leaks, loose connections or components, and abnormal operating conditions. Correct these as necessary.
List of some of IEC codes used in Testing of a generator in SGL: IEC 60027, Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology. IEC 60034, Rotating electrical machinery.
IEC 60038, IEC Standard Voltages.
IEC 60068, Environmental Testing.
IEC 60076, Power transformers.
IEC 60204, Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines. IEC 60233, Tests on Hollow Insulators for use in Electrical Equipment. IEC 60270, High-Voltage Test Techniques – Partial Discharge Measurements. IEC 60317, Specifications for particular types of winding wires. IEC 60331, Tests for Electric Cables under Fire Conditions.
IEC 60479, Effects of current on human beings and livestock. IEC 60502, Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1kV up to 30kV. IEC 60651, Sound level meters.
IEC 60726, Dry type power transformers.
IEC 60898, Electrical accessories. Circuit breakers for overcurrent protection for household and similar installations.
For Quality check purpose:
Diagonal distance is of very much importance and to find diagonal distance pythagoras theorem is used. No scratch should be there on the CRCA sheet because this scratch becomes visible after painting. During punching if the tools are not with sharp edges ie. The tool needs to be grinded otherwise scratches occur on sheets .( in order to prevent these scratches the tool should be grinded time to time) Before painting the sheet should be well cleaned and dried so that the oil covering the sheet should be cleared . This is done by passing the sheets through chemical bath . The surface of the sheets should be smooth.
There should be no black spots after the chemical treatement proceess black spots means impurity in material hence rejected at time of inspection. There should be no burrs on the outer edges of the sheets.
Calculation of Efficiency of the Generator Under Test Cell:
Typically, a generator set has a rating expressed in kW and power factor or kW and kVA. In order to check for proper operation of all emergency system support systems, it is important to test the generator at rated power factor or kVA. A generator operating at rated kW at 0.8 power factor lagging load requires more kW from the engine than when running at rated kW on a resistive load bank. This is due to a change in alternator efficiency and will result in increased operating temperatures and fuel consumption.
Sudhir Power Generation recommends every generator set be tested at rated power factor either at the factory or on-site during acceptance testing, but not necessarily both. Sudhir tests production generator sets at rated load and power factor at the factory prior to shipment, hence, specifications need not require 0.8 PF testing of Sudhir generator sets during on-site installation acceptance. NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power
systems, allows the option of full load rated power factor testing either at the manufacturer’s factory or during installation acceptance testing on site. If factory tested at rated power factor, then NFPA 110 permits on-site acceptance testing at unity power factor.
Project on Production Planning:
“Production Planning is concerned with the determination, acquisition and arrangement of all facilities necessary for future operations.” Objectives of Production Planning:
1. Effective utilization of resources.
2. Steady flow of production.
3. Estimate the resources.
4. Ensures optimum inventory.
5. Co-ordinates activities of departments.
6. Minimize wastage of raw materials.
7. Improves the labour productivity.
8. Helps to capture the market.
9. Provides a better work environment.
10. Facilitates quality improvement.
11. Results in consumer satisfaction.
12. Reduces the production costs
My Production Planning Project is to check regulary the wastage of time between Work Station 6(Arc welding station) and grinding station and to minimise it, using Production Planning process. Since Manufacturing of generator body is done as according to the demand in the Plant. So i started with one of SGL’s generator whose demand arrive us on 5th of February 2013 so it took 1 day for CNC machining operations on sheets. On 7th Feb the sheets are on our work station for welding purpose. There are 3 welding experts on our welding station and it took about 5-7 minutes on a single sheet for welding purpose during this time the worker on the grinding station has to wait for that much time so thats why we lost 5(minimum) minutes on grinding station which can be properly utilised. The distance between our welding station and grinding station is about 10 mts so little of time say 30 seconds also gets wasted on shifting purpose from welding station to grinding station.so according to my calculations at that time we
were wasting nearly 5 minutes and 30 seconds(min.) to 7 minutes and 30 seconds(max.) on a single sheet. On the same day i take permission from my Senior production planning and control officer to made a little of updation on the plant layout for few hours for my project need. I decided to do two different jobs on the same work station i.e welding and then grinding on the same work station number 6. It proved useful according to my calculations. We do both welding and grinding on 11 sheets in that hour and hence i saved company’s nearly 40 minutes in that hour.
Dispatch/Loading Area: All the tested generators are now ready to be dispatched to the client after going through test cell. Various company logos are then put on the body of the generator like Ok Tested, company’s own logo, Cummins logo. After this the generator is covered in a polyester cover which protects it from scratches during loading /unloading from truck. The generator is then loaded on a truck using EOT crane/forklift truck.
SGL serves some of the largest, most prestigious and demanding clients across India, including many Fortune companies. Read further, for a description of clients: Realty
Anant Raj Ind
Dr, B. L. Kapoor
Dharamshila Cancer Hospital
DAV Public School
Food Chain/ Restaurants
Café Coffee Day
IDBI Fortis Life
Aditya Birla Retail
Gokul Mega Mart
Honda Motorcycle & Scooter