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1. 0INTRODUCTIONThe pupils industrial work experience ( SIWES ) is a skill preparation plan designed to expose and fix pupils of higher establishment for the working environment they are likely to run into after graduation. SIWES was established by industrial preparation fund ( ITF ) in 1973 to work out the job of deficiency of equal practical accomplishments. in readying for employment in industries by Nigeria alumnuss. The SIWES plan tallies in the Nigeria universities in concurrence with the industrial preparation fund unit. to advance practical in third establishment.

The purpose of the plan is to bridge the spread bing between theoretical facet of what is being taught in the talk suites and what is really obtained in the field it is aimed at exposing pupils to challenges they are likely to come across upon their graduation from the universities and to adequately expose pupils to professional work methods. Engagement in Industrial preparation is a well-known scheme. Classroom surveies are integrated with larning through hands-on work experiences in a field related to the student’s academic major and calling end.

It enhances an experiential acquisition procedure that non merely promotes career readying but besides provides chances for larning. to develop accomplishments necessary to go leaders in their chosen professions. Engagement in SIWES has become a necessary pre-condition for the award of Diploma and Degree enfranchisement in specific subject in most establishments of higher acquisition in the state. in conformity with the educational policy of authorities. OPERATORS OF THE SIWES PROGRAM: The industrial preparation fund ( ITF ) . employers of labor. the higher establishments and some coordinating bureaus like Nigeria university committee ( NUC ) . ( NCCE ) and ( NBTE ) are the operators of this plan. Support: The Federal Government of Nigeria fund this plan BENEFICIARIES: Undergraduate pupils of the followers: Agribusiness. Engineering Technology. Environmental. Science. Medical Science and pure and Applied Sciences DURATION: Four month for Polytechnic institutes and Colleges of Education. and Six months for the Universities 1. 1 OBJECTIVES OF SIWES

1. It provides an avenue for pupils to get industrial accomplishments and experiences in their class of survey. 2. It prepares pupils for the work state of affairs they are likely meet after graduation. 3. It develops the accomplishments and techniques straight applicable to their callings. 4. It makes the theodolite from universities to the labor market easier. and therefore enhances pupils contact for ulterior occupation arrangement. 5. It provides pupil with an chance to use their theoretical cognition in existent state of affairs. thereby bridging the spread between universe and the practical twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours environment. 6. It enlists and strengthens employers’ engagement in the full educational procedure of fixing university alumnuss for the employment in the industry. 7. SIWES increases a student’s sense of duty.

8. It affords pupil the chance to develop attitudes contributing to effectual interpersonal relationship 9. SIWES affords pupils the chance to get good work wonts. 10. SIWES helps pupils integrate leading development into experiential acquisition procedure.

1. 2 HISTORY OF THE INSTITUTE ( I. A. R & A ; T ) The establishment of agribusiness research and preparation ( IAR & A ; T ) Obafemi Awolowo University is a multi trade good institute for research. services and developing for agricultural development in Nigeria The pioneer school of agribusiness in Nigeria was established on moor plantation in 1921. The constitution of the college of carnal wellness and production engineering. Ibadan followed in 1964. The three colleges and research divisions of the western part ministry of agribusiness and natural resources became the institute of agribusiness research and preparation. Ibadan in 1969. Following a charter signed by the frailty Chancellor of the Exchequer of the university of Ife ( now Obafemi Awolowo University ) and the governor of the former western part of Nigeria. IAR & A ; T serves the demands of the Nigerian husbandmans in general and husbandmans in southwesterly Nigeria in peculiar within the context of its incorporate agricultural resources. development and preparation scheme.

The institute has 560 staff members 1. 3 MISSION AND FOCUS OF THE INSTITUTE To function as a national centre for incorporate betterment of the familial possible output. use and nutritionary qualities of major nutrients and agro-industrial harvests every bit good as farm animal strains adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones of southwesterly Nigeria. IAR & A ; T investigates. evaluate. develops and promotes farming systems based on improved engineerings aimed at increasing and maximising the overall agricultural productiveness and production. IAR & A ; T provides recent junior. intermediate and high degree manpower preparation for national agribusiness development. The institute besides collaborates with other universities. national. regional and international establishments in the practical application and acceptance of improved agricultural production engineerings.

The institute has six research plans which are land and H2O resource direction plan. cereal betterment plan. farming system research and extension plan. industrial harvest betterment plan. livestock betterment plan and grain leguminous plants betterment plan. It besides comprise of four service units viz. ; harvest production unit. library and documental unit. information engineering unit and bora agro ventures unit. IAR & A ; T is located in Ibadan the capital metropolis of Oyo province and has seven bomber Stationss ( Ikenne. Ilora. Akure. Ballah. Orin Ekiti. Ile ife and Kisi ) with experimental sites in Amakama. Umuahia in Abia province. Niger province. Eruwa in Oyo province every bit good as adopted small towns for engineering airing in Moloko-Asipalogun in Ogun province and Oniyo-Ogbomoso in Oyo province

1. 4 ORGANISATION CHART

1. 5 INFORMATION & A ; TECHNOLOGY UNITThe Information and Technology Unit was officially known as Statisticss and Computation Unit until 2004. The Information Technology Unit ( ITU ) is the gateway of the Institute to the planetary small town and the success of the Institutes’ engineering coevals and airing attempts depends to a big extent on the active support of the unit. 1. 6 ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION & A ; TECHNOLOGY UNIT

The activities of ITU revolve around five subdivisions. These are: . Biometricss and agro weather forecasting.. Experiment and statistical Analysis. . Computer Services.. Applied Research and Training.. Administrative Services.

1. 7 Experimentation Statistical Analysis Experimentation and statistical Analysis is a subdivision under Information Technology Unit. with activities runing from: ? Experimental Design.

? Analysis of Statistical Data ( primary informations ) .?Interpretation of Analyzed Results.?Process of questionnaire for Analysis.?Documentation of Analyzed Statistical Data ( secondary informations ) .

Chapter TWO2. 0Introduction:Decision shapers make better determinations when they use all available information in an effectual and meaningful manner. The primary function of statistics is to supply determination shapers with methods for obtaining and analysing informations. do illations that will assist in determination devising. Statistics is used to reply long-range planning inquiries. such as when and where to turn up installations to manage future gross revenues. Statisticss trades with both numerical and non-numerical informations. the purpose is to supply meaningful information from the informations being analyzed and to supply possible conjecture about future. and this can be done with the aid of some statistical tools or expression which depends on the premises followed by the information. Due to the trouble in transporting out nose count. statisticians depend majorly on sample which is the subset of the population and utilize the information obtained about the sample ( RANDOM SAMPLING ) to deduce decision about the whole. Statistics as a class consist of different facets runing from aggregation. forming. sum uping. showing. analysing. and construing of informations to acquire meaningful information.

Each of the facet is really critical before meaningful information about any research can be reached. Statisticss are used in the scientific survey of agribusiness as a tool to find if the differences in variables are existent or due to opportunity. This translates to the husbandman to allow him cognize with assurance which assortments are better than other assortments or which fertiliser interventions will give better outputs than others. The usage of statistical analysis and experimental design was rapidly embraced in all countries of agricultural scientific discipline because of the ability to construe the consequences right and so to successfully ( and confidently ) use this freshly garnered information to work outing existent universe jobs. Many scientists will admit that without this connexion the version of new agricultural cognition would hold been much slower and there is no manner to understand how dramatic that consequence would hold been seen in the universe at big.

2. 1 SOME DEFINITIONSStatisticss has been defined as a scientific ways of traffics with Numberss. is a scientific discipline that trades with aggregation. forming. sum uping. showing. analysing and reading of informations in such a manner to minimise any uncertainness and to be able to set degree to such uncertainness. Statisticss are measurement. numberings or estimations of natural or societal phenomena consistently arrangement to exhibit their interior relation. By Statistics we mean quantitative informations affected to a marked extend by a multiplicity of causes. The scientific discipline of Statistics is basically a subdivision of applied mathematics and can be regarded as a mathematics applied to observation. Statistics as a class is divide into two types. these are 2. 11 Descriptive Statisticss:

Descriptive statistics allow a scientist to rapidly sum up major properties of a dataset utilizing steps such as the mean. average. and standard divergence. These steps provide a general sense of the group being studied. leting scientists to put the survey within a larger context. Descriptive Statistics is the type of statistics that trades with portion of population without doing illation about the whole population. 2. 12 Inferential Statisticss:

Inferential statistics are used to pattern forms in informations. do judgements about informations. place relationships between variables in datasets. and do illations about larger populations based on smaller samples of informations. It is of import to maintain in head that from a statistical position the word “population” does non hold to intend a group of people. as it does in common linguistic communication. A statistical population is the larger group that a information set is used to do illations about – this can be a group of people. maize workss. meteor impacts. oil field locations. or any other group of measurings as the instance may be. 2. 13 Variables

Variables are measures or qualities that may presume any one of a set of values.

Variables may be classified as nominal. ordinal. interval and ratio

1. Nominal variables use names. classs. or labels for qualitative values. Typical nominal variables include gender. ethnicity. occupation rubric. And so forth.

2. Ordinal variables: Like nominal variables are categorical variables. However. the order or rank of the classs is meaningful. For illustration. staff members may be asked to bespeak their satisfaction with a preparation class on an ordinal graduated table runing from “poor” to “excellent. ” Such classs could be converted to a numerical graduated table for farther analysis.

3. Interval variables are strictly numeral variables. The nominal and ordinal variables noted above are distinct since they do non allow doing statements about grade. e. g. . “Person A is three times more male than individual B” or “Person A rated the class as five times more first-class than individual B. ” Interval variables are uninterrupted. and the difference between values is both meaningful and allows statements about extent or grade. Income and age are interval variables.

4. Ratio graduated table: have the belongingss of interval graduated table and true nothing point. 2. 2 Statistical Datas:Data ( the plural signifier of the word data point ) are scientific observations and measurings that one time analyzed and interpreted can be developed into grounds to turn to a inquiry. Data prevarication at the bosom of all scientific probes. and all scientists collect informations in one signifier or another. Ungrouped Datas: Data which have been arranged in a systematic order are called natural informations or ungrouped informations. Grouped Data: Data presented in the signifier of frequence distribution is called sorted informations. 2. 21Beginnings of Datas

There are two types ( beginnings ) for the aggregation of informations. ( 1 ) Primary Data( 2 ) Secondary Data?Primary DatasThe primary informations are the first manus information collected. compiled and published by organisation for some intent. They are most original informations in character and have non undergone any kind of statistical intervention. Example. Population nose count studies are primary informations because these are collected. complied and published by the population nose count organisation. ?Secondary Datas

The secondary informations are the 2nd manus information which is already collected by person ( organisation ) for some intent and are available for the present survey. The secondary informations are non pure in character and have undergone some intervention at least one time. Example: Economics study of Nigeria is secondary informations because these are collected by more than one organisation like Bureau of statistics. Board of Revenue. the Banks etc…

2. 22 Collection of informationsstatistical informations can be obtained through:?Personal Probe: The research worker conducts the study him/herself and collects informations from it. The information collected in this manner is normally accurate and dependable. This method of roll uping informations is merely applicable in instance of little research undertakings.

?Through Probe: Trained research workers are employed to roll up the information. These research workers contact the persons and fill in questionnaire after inquiring the needed information. Most of the forming implied this method. ?Questionnaire: The research workers get the information from local representation or agents that are based upon their ain experience. This method is speedy but gives merely unsmooth estimation.

2. 3 DESIGN OF QUESTIONAIREQuestionnaire is a list that contains lists of inquiries that respondents are to reply and it should be design in such a manner to promote respondent. The assorted signifier of Questionnaire includes:

1. The Dichotomous2. The Open Ended Type3. The Multiple Choice

2. 31 The DichotomousThis is the simplest signifier of Questionnaires and it requires the respondents to take between the responses e. g. •Do you go to school everydayYes ( ) No ( )•Do you agree with this statementYes ( ) No ( )Although the dichotomous is easy to build. it sometimes over simplifies an issue and does non give room for via media 2. 32 The Multiple ChoicesThe multiple picks are more appropriate in certain state of affairs. For illustration. in a public sentiment study. we could inquire the undermentioned inquiry •Is female pupils brilliant than male pupilsStrongly hold ( )Agree ( )Undecided ( )Not hold ( )Strongly differ ( )2. 33 THE OPEN /END TYPEThis is a type of questionnaire that allows a individual. the must freedom of responses. For illustration. the type of inquiry below requires an unfastened / terminal reply. What is your sentiment about Nigeria go oning with the devaluation of Nigeria programmed? The obvious disadvantage of such questionnaire is the trouble in sorting the consequences or the responses. No affair the type of questionnaire being used. inquiry must be simple and phrased to give the same significance to all individuals. Chief points in Designing Questionnaires. 1. The figure of inquiries should be kept at a lower limit

2. Questions should be short and clear3. Offensive inquiry should be avoided4. Influential or deceptive inquiry should non be used5. Questions should be easy to reply6. Questions should necessitate simple reply

Features of a good questionnaire1. A good questionnaire should non be equivocal2. A good questionnaire must be easy understood3. A good questionnaire should non necessitate that boring computation be made4. It should cover the exact object of the enquiry5. A good questionnaire should non be excessively long.

?Through Telephone: The research workers get information through telephone ; this method is speedy and gives accurate information. 2. 4 Screening of Data Sorting arranges informations into either alphabetical or numerical order. For illustration. a list of parts might be sorted by portion figure. and a list of experimental unit might be sorted by last name. You usually screen alphabetic information ( shop names. client names. and so on ) into alphabetical order ; you sort numeral information ( gross revenues figures. measure of units sold. and so forth ) into numerical order. In either instance. you can screen the informations from Low to High which is A to Z or 1 to 10. or High to Low–Z to A or 10 to 1. Screening statistical Datas: arrange informations into meaningful. utile sequences so that you can easy analyse the information and fix studies. For illustration. a long experimental unit name will be sorted to short meaningful name. Pivoting rows and columns: reorganizes informations to derive different positions on it. When swiveling informations. travel the information from one axis to another to set up it for efficient analysis. That is. you can travel rows to go columns. or columns to go rows.

For illustration. you might desire to see intervention and replicate or weight and length of a information side-by-side on a worksheet for easy analysis and comparing severally. In most instances. merely by swiveling the information you can rapidly and easy exchange between different positions of the information. Drilling into and out of degrees of item: you use boring to either consolidate informations to see it at an aggregative degree. or to see finer degrees of item. You drill out to acquire the large image ; you drill in to see the inside informations. Drilling helps you easy turn up related information in a worksheet. For illustration. say you’re analysing informations demoing measurings runing from 3 to 4. To see a measuring at a higher degree. such as 45. you can bore out of that information. Totaling Data–numeric informations on worksheets is presented in rows and columns. You can sum their informations to bring forth sums and sub-totals. 2. 5 ORGANIZING OF DATA:

Having obtained some quantitative information from your research. you now wish to do some findings. This quantitative information is referred to as natural informations. These natural tonss. more frequently than non are normally big therefore cumbersome to manage and so you required to form them. Organization of informations brings methodicalness and better perceptual experience of the informations. For forming of informations the cognition of some basic constructs are required. These include: frequence tallying of tonss. category intervals. category bound. category boundaries. mid-point. co-ordinates etc. 2. 6 ANALYSING OF DATA

Analysis of informations is a procedure of inspecting. cleansing. transforming. and patterning informations with the end of foregrounding utile information. proposing decisions. and back uping determination devising. Data analysis has multiple aspects and attacks. embracing diverse techniques under assortment of names. in different concern. scientific discipline. and societal scientific discipline spheres. The analysis given to any informations depends majorly on the aims of the study and to a greater extent on the figure of variables in the study. For illustration Analysis of Variance is of greater used in Agricultural research where the consequence of interventions is being measured on variables. Arrested development and Correlation are used. when the relationship and strength of relationship between variables is to be measured. The analysis given to a information depends on the purpose and the aims of the information. There many statistical tools that are used in the analysis of informations like ANOVA. t-test. correlativity. arrested development. multivariate analysis. bunch analysis and so on.

Chapter THREE

3. 0 debutsThe usage of statistical analysis like correlativity / arrested development and experimental design was rapidly embraced in all countries of agricultural scientific discipline because of the ability to construe the consequences right and so to successfully ( and confidently ) use this freshly garnered information to work out existent universe jobs. Many scientists will admit that without this connexion the version of new agricultural cognition would hold been much slower and there is no manner to understand how dramatic that consequence would hold been seen in the universe at big.

3. 1 Experimental designIn experimentation we attempt to supervise the effects of certain inputs or stuff on the capable affair of involvement. The inputs could be different hedgerow leguminous workss planted under indistinguishable conditions. while the effects to be monitored could be the alterations in dirt birthrate position. the output of agricultural harvests planted between the rows. the productiveness of the animate being being fed with the leaf from the tree harvests. or the tree harvest public presentation. The allotment of interventions ( inputs ) to the experimental units ( secret plans ) may be slackly referred to as the design.

3. 2 Basic Concepts in Experimental DesignThe cognition of experimental design is based on some nomenclatures which are experimental unit. intervention. experimental mistake. 3. 2. 1 The secret plan or experimental unit is the smallest unit having a certain intervention. The information or-data for comparing are from such individual units. Examples include a individual animate being or group of animate beings having the same provender from the same beginning. a little secret plan holding the same type of trees or agricultural harvests. and so on. 3. 2. 2 The intervention is the stuff being forced on the topic ( unit ) and whose consequence is to be monitored. The intervention can be either qualitative ( e. g. . species. fertiliser types ) or quantitative ( e. g. . clip periods. quantified degrees of a fertiliser type ) . 3. 2. 3 The experimental mistake is a step of the amount of fluctuation between secret plans or units having same interventions. Built-in variableness in the topic. uncontrolled external influences. and deficiency of uniformity in the application of interventions are possible causes of experimental mistake.

Experimental mistake should be controlled so that we can gauge the intervention effects decently and compare effects of assorted interventions efficaciously. 3. 2. 4 Reproduction: Experiments of the same nature. when presented under similar conditions should give similar consequences. In other words. research workers would desire to guarantee consistence in their consequences. The simplest manner to accomplish this is through the “repetition. ” i. e. “replication. ” of the same intervention on several secret plans or experimental units. Repeat on the same secret plan is non recommended as observations are improbable to be independent. Furthermore. the usage of several little secret plans alternatively of one big secret plan ensures minimisation of the consequence of uncontrolled variableness in the field. 3. 2. 5 Coverage or Blocking: A block is a comparatively big country or several indistinguishable units having all or most of the interventions.

One is encouraged to “block” if one can vouch for the homogeneousness within blocks and the heterogeneousness between blocks. Because of the restriction of homogeneous secret plans and the comparatively big country required for alley-farming and agro forestry tests. one could besides see a location as a “block. ” The differentiation between “replication” and “blocking” should be apparent. Blocking is another manner of bettering the appraisal of the error term. but merely if the blocking is justified. 3. 2. 6 Randomization: This refers to the allotment of interventions to plots in such a manner that. within a specific experimental design. units are non discriminated for or against. Each unit is supposed to hold the same opportunity of having a peculiar intervention. Randomization is a necessity as no two units or secret plans are precisely the same. Statistically. the randomisation process allows riddance of prejudice and ensures the calculation of valid sampling mistakes. 3. 3 classs of experimental design

We by and large classify scientific experiments into two wide classs. viz. . single-factor experiments and multifactor experiment. In a single-factor experiment. merely one factor varies while others are kept changeless. In these experiments. the interventions consist entirely of different degrees of the individual variable factor. Our focal point in this chapter is on single-factor experiments. In multi-factor experiments ( besides referred to its factorial experiments ) . two or more factors vary at the same time. The experimental designs normally used for both types of experiments are classified as: • Complete Block Designs

Wholly Randomized Design ( CRD )Randomized Complete block ( RCBD )Latin Square design ( LSD )• Incomplete Block DesignsLatticeGroup balanced block3. 31 Wholly Randomized Design ( CRD )This is the simplest design. In CRD. each experimental unit has an equal opportunity of having a certain intervention. The wholly randomised design for P interventions with R reproductions will hold rp secret plans. Each of the P intervention is assigned at random to a fraction of the secret plans ( r/rp ) . without any limitation 3. 32 Randomized complete block design Randomized Complete Block Design ( RCBD ) is characterized by the presence of every bit sized blocks. each incorporating all of the interventions. The randomised block design for T interventions with R reproductions has rt secret plans arranged into R blocks with t secret plans in each block. Each of the “t” interventions is assigned at random ( Randomization ) to one secret plan in each block. The allotment of a intervention in a block is done independently of other blocks. 3. 33 Latin Square Design ( LS )

The Randomized Complete Block design is utile for extinguishing the part of one beginning of fluctuation merely In contrast. the Latin Square Design can manage two beginnings of fluctuations among experimental units In Latin Square Design. every intervention occurs merely one time in each row and each column. The Latin Square ( LS ) design therefore minimizes the consequence of differences in birthrate position within each block. The entire beginnings of fluctuation are made up of row. column. intervention differences. and experimental mistake. 3. 34 Incomplete Block Designs

One stipulation for both the RCB and LS designs is that all interventions must look in all blocks and all rows ( For RCB ) or columns ( For LSD ) . Sometimes with big figure of interventions ( say 20 accessions ) . each necessitating comparatively big secret plan sizes. this status may non be operable. Latin Square and RCB so fail to cut down the consequence of heterogeneousness ( s ) . The designs in which the block phenomenon is followed but the status of holding all the interventions in all blocks is non met are called Incomplete Block designs. In Incomplete Block state of affairss. the usage of several little blocks with fewer interventions consequences in additions in preciseness but at the disbursal of a loss of information on comparings within blocks. The analysis of informations for uncomplete block designs is more complex than RCB and LSD. Thus where calculation installations are limited. uncomplete block designs should be considered a last resort. Among uncomplete block designs. lattice designs are normally used in species and assortment testing.

3. 4 CorrelationsCorrelation is a statistical tool which surveies the relationship between two variables and Correlation Analysis involves assorted methods and techniques used for analyzing and mensurating the extent of the relationship between the two variables. Two variables are said to be in correlativity if the alteration in one of the variables consequences in a alteration in the other variable. 3. 41 Linear and Non-linear correlativity

The correlativity between two variables is said to be additive if the alteration of one unit in one variable consequence in the corresponding alteration in the other variable over the full scope of values. The relationship between two variables is said to be non – linear if matching to a unit alteration in one variable. the other variable does non alter at a changeless rate but alterations at a fluctuating rate. 3. 42 Positive and Negative Correlation If the values of the two variables deviate in the same way i. e. if an addition ( or lessening ) in the values of one variable consequences. on an norm. in a corresponding addition ( or lessening ) in the values of the other variable the correlativity is said to be positive. Correlation between two variables is said to be negative or reverse if the variables deviate in opposite way. That is. if the addition in the variables deviate in opposite way. That is. if addition ( or lessening ) in the values of one variable consequences on an norm. in matching lessening ( or increase ) in the values of other variable. . A correlativity of nothing agencies there is no relationship between the two variables.

3. 43 Coefficient of CorrelationOne of the most widely used statistics is the coefficient of correlativity ‘r’ which measures the grade of association between the two values of related variables given in the information set. It takes values from + 1 to – 1. If two sets of informations have r = +1. they are said to be absolutely correlated positively if r = -1 they are said to be absolutely correlated negatively ; and if r = 0 they are uncorrelated. The coefficient of correlativity ‘r’ is given by the expression R =

3. 44 Rank CorrelationData which are arranged in numerical order. normally from largest to smallest and numbered 1. 2. 3 —- are said to be in ranks or ranked informations. These ranks prove utile at certain times when two or more values of one variable are the same. The coefficient of correlativity for such type of information is given by Spearman rank difference correlativity coefficient and is denoted by R. In order to cipher R. we arrange informations in ranks calculating the difference in rank‘d’ for each brace. . When administer questionnaires. some of the variables are ranked informations. I used rank correlativity in such instances. R is given by the expression

Where is the square of the difference between the two ranks

3. 5 Arrested development AnalysisArrested development analysis. in general sense. means the appraisal or anticipation of the unknown value of one variable from the known value of the other variable. if the two variables are significantly correlated. It is one of the most of import statistical tools which are extensively used in about all scientific disciplines non Agricultural Science merely. Regression analysis is a mathematical step of the mean relationship between two or more variables in footings of the original units of the informations 3. 51 Regression equation

Suppose we have a sample of size ‘n’ and it has two sets of steps. denoted by ten and Y. We can foretell the values of ‘y’ given the values of ‘x’ by utilizing the equation. called the REGRESSION EQUATION. y* = a + bx

Where the coefficients a and B are given by

The symbol y* refers to the predicted value of Y from a given value of ten from the arrested development equation. Simple correlativity and additive arrested development analysis are analyzed in the following chapter utilizing statistical bundles.

3. 6 DESCRIPTIVESDescriptive statistics include the Numberss. tabular arraies. charts. and graphs used to depict. form. sum up. and present natural information. Descriptive statistics are Most frequently used to analyze:

1. Cardinal inclination ( location ) of information. i. e. where informations tend to fall. as measured by the mean. average. and manner. 2. Dispersion ( variableness ) of information. i. e. how dispersed out information is. as measured by the discrepancy and its square root. the standard divergence. 3. Skew ( symmetricalness ) of information. i. e. how concentrated informations are at the low or high terminal of the graduated table. as measured by the skew index. 4. Kurtosis ( peakedness ) of information. i. e. how concentrated informations are around a individual value. as measured by the kurtosis index

Chapter FOUREXPERIENCE GAINED/WORK DONE4. 0 IntroductionsIn the present universe. information is a resource and like any other resource. its proper. efficient and effectual usage is the key to success. Information is extracted from informations after its proper processing. We are garnering a batch of informations every twenty-four hours by seting in considerable efforts/money. Next is the inquiry of its utilization/processing. The immense sum can non be processed seasonably and expeditiously through manual methods.

Raw information handling. its tabular matter and preliminary analysis is the most clip devouring. cumbersome and deadening undertaking in research. So in the experimentation and statistical analysis subdivision at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training. we were taught different statistical bundles like EXCEL. SPSS. EASY FIT. KYPLOT. WINSTAT. PAST. STATISTICAL. INSTAT. SAS. JMULTI. STATASSIT. etc. which can assist in this respect. absolutely. Analysis of informations in relation to descriptive statistics. trial of Significance. correlativity. arrested development. Anova and multivariate analysis etc. can be had expeditiously with the aid of these aforementioned bundles. This chapter deals with how to do utilize some of these bundles for simple analysis of informations. 4. 1 Microsoft Excel

A spreadsheet is an electronic papers that shops assorted types of information. There are perpendicular columns and horizontal rows. A cell is where the column and row intersect. A cell can incorporate informations and can be used in computations of informations within the spreadsheet. An Excel spreadsheet can incorporate workbooks and worksheets. The workbook is the holder for related worksheets.

4. 11 Entrance of Data in Microsoft ExcelWhen Microsoft Excel opens. at the top of the screen you will happen the chief bill of fare points ( Home. Data. View. Insert. Formulas. Review. Page layout. and ) . In the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training Ibadan. at the Experimentation and Statistical Analysis Section. we make usage of Microsoft excel for the entrance of the experimental information. cryptography of questionnaires before imported to any of the statistical bundles for Analysis. The information is entered in the infinite called cell. 4. 2 SAS ( Statistical Analysis Software )

SAS Institute Inc. ( pronounced “sas” ] ) . headquartered in Cary. North Carolina. USA. has been a major manufacturer of package since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr. James Goodnight. John Sall and Jane Helwig. SAS was originally an acronym for Statistical Analysis System but. for many old ages. has been used as a trade name to mention to the company as a whole and its line of package merchandises. which have since broadened beyond the statistical analysis sphere. SAS Institute is one of the largest privately-held corporations in North Carolina and in the package concern. 4. 2. 1 Statistical Package ( SAS )

At the Institute of Agricultural Research And Training Ibadan ( I. A. R & A ; T ) . the most sooner statistical bundle for research workers and the Institute ( I. A. R & A ; T ) functionary Analysis is SAS. All other aforementioned statistical bundles are used for single research workers Analysis. It contains many constitutional processs for making descriptive. analytic and explorative analyses. It allows users to carry on broad scope of statistical analyses. including analysis of discrepancy. arrested development. categorical information analysis. multivariate analysis. survival analysis. bunch analysis. and nonparametric analysis. etc. 4. 2. 2 FEATURES OF SAS

SAS has two chief ways of analysing informations. One manner is to come in bids through the SAS bid editor the other manner is to utilize the ‘point and click’ or synergistic options provided in SAS Analyst. The point and chink is the easiest. and that was what we made usage at the Institute ( I. A. R & A ; T ) . SAS has five Windowss. The EDITOR window is where you will compose plan codification with SAS bids. The LOG windows state you if your SAS bids have worked. The OUTPUT window is where the consequences will look. It is really of import to ever look into the LOG window for of import notes or warnings before presuming the end product is right. The RESULT window is where you can voyage and pull off SAS end product. It contains a tree diagram of your end product and enables you to see and publish single points. The EXPLORER window enables you to see and pull off your SAS files

4. 2. 3 Point and chinkUsing this attack you do non hold to retrieve the process names or the appropriate bids. While utile for most straightforward analyses. nevertheless. the point and click attack is limited if you need to execute complex informations use stairss. or to compose or raise certain macros. Still. for most analyses. this is likely the manner novices should get down. Data may be input manually in the organic structure of the plan. or they may be read in from a file ( Excel ) . 4. 2. 4 Importing Data into SAS Analyst The informations to be imported into SAS analyst must hold been to the full entered and saved into Microsoft Excel. so unfastened SAS for window on the computing machine. SAS environment is displaced. as shown below.

Travel to File Import DataChoose Data format ( default is Excel ) Next Browse for the fileNext Create a name for your new file under member ( Make sure to maintain work folder unchanged ) Nextyou may jump this measure and chink on Finish. The SAS environment will displace Data imported successfully as shown below. On the left manus side of the SAS window there is perpendicular sub- window called Explorer and the default shows two directories. Libraries and File. Shortcut as shown above. Double chink on the Library. so work booklet and turn up your informations file. Double chink on it to see your loaded information. It should open in a new window and have the undermentioned name – VIEETABLE: WORK name of your file. In the new sub- window which must hold loaded your informations. travel to solution so Analyst as shown below.

?Now the informations have been successfully imported in a new sub-window. ready for Analysis as shown below.

4. 2. 5 Experimental Data Analysis utilizing SASOnce the informations have been loaded. they will look in the spreadsheet. You can analyze the informations by utilizing the coil bars to travel up and down and from side to side. Snaping the maximize button on the top right manus corner of the window will besides let you to see more of the informations. Note that losing informations are indicated by a point. 4. 3 SPSS Statistics

SPSS Statistics is a comprehensive system for analysing informations. SPSS Statistics Can take informations from about any type of file and utilize them to bring forth tabulated studies. charts. and secret plans of distributions and tendencies. descriptive statistics. and complex statistical analyses. SPSS Statistics makes statistical analysis more accessible for the novice and more convenient for the experient user. Simple bill of fare and duologue box choices make it possible to execute complex analyses without typing a individual line of bid sentence structure. The Data Editor offers a simple and efficient spreadsheet-like installation for come ining informations and shoping the working informations file.

4. 4 EASYFITEasyFit is a information analysis and simulation application leting fitting chance distributions to try informations. choose the best theoretical account. and use the analysis consequences to do better determinations. Easy Fit can be used as a stand-alone Windows application or with Microsoft Excel and other 3rd party Excel-based simulation tools. 4. 4. 1 Key Features

EasyFit combines the classical statistical analysis methods and advanced informations analysis techniques. doing it a tool of pick for anyone covering with chance informations. Merchandise characteristics include: •support for more than 50 uninterrupted and distinct distributions ; •powerful automated suiting manner combined with flexible manual adjustment capableness ; •interactive graphs ;

•goodness of fit trials ;•random figure coevals ;•easy to utilize interface ;•Comprehensive Help system.

4. 4. 2 Excel IntegrationExcel users can use the power of EasyFit without the demand to go forth their favourite spreadsheet application. EasyFit seamlessly integrates into the chief bill of fare of Excel. leting you to execute informations analysis and simulation right in Excel. EasyFit provides more than 650 extra Excel worksheet and VBA maps which can be used to transport out advanced chance computations such as Monte Carlo simulation.

4. 5 KYPLOTKyplot offers you an environment for informations analysis and visual image. In kyplot you can analyse informations with a wide scope of calculating and statistical methods on a spreadsheet interface like Excel and visual image consequences as various graphs. Kyplot can function as a presentation tool every bit good. Below is Kyplot chief window.

KyPlot supports the undermentioned methods of informations analysis.Measurement of amplitudes and countries of extremumsAmplitudes and countries of extremums in signals can be interactively measured. 2D Fourier transformKyPlot now supports computation of 3D fast Fourier transform and end products as graphs or images. Spreadsheet computations with mathematical expressions ( Excel compatible ) Removal of additive tendency and numerical filtering for clip series informations Numerical differencing. distinction and integrating

Creation of histograms. cumulative distributions. regressograms and denseness secret plans Matrix and vector operationsNumeric solutions of algebraic equations. nonlinear equations and differential equations Numeric integrating of mapsNonlinear least squares appraisal and maximal likeliness appraisal Linear/quadratic scheduling and unconstrained or constrained additive least squares estimation Numeric deconvolutionFourier transforms

Spectral analysis( Appraisal of autoconvariance and spectral denseness maps by FFT. Blackman-Turkey method or AR theoretical accounts ) Time series analysis( ARM theoretical account. seasonal accommodation theoretical account. time-varying discrepancy appraisal. time-varying coefficient AR theoretical account. locally stationary AR theoretical account and alteration point appraisal ) Gabor ( Short-time Fourier ) transform

Wavelet analysis( distinct and uninterrupted ripple transforms and wavelet thresholding ) Simulation of random informations

4. 6 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTHere we see how statistical Consequence is being interpreted after it has been analyzed. the reading given to any informations depend majorly on the type of analyses done and in some instances on the HYPOTHSES being hypothesized. The informations used here was non collected from any beginning nor was it collected from where I did my Industrial Training fond regard. the purpose is merely to give small account on how some analyses is being interpreted. Here consequence of five interventions are compared to see if the agencies are important or non and the consequence of three seasonal seting period are every bit compared on the variable to see if there is any seasonal consequence on the parametric quantities or non and the interaction between the interventions and the season are every bit determined utilizing TWO WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE. the correlativity between the parametric quantities are every bit obtained and the descriptive. All these are done utilizing SAS PACKAGE. For the TWO WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE. the hypothesis are given by H = interventions agencies are non significantly different

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