MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYSchool of Architecture, Industrial Design, and Built Environment| Proposed Redevelopment of Provincial Jail of Batangas| AR 200 – Thesis Research Writing| BY| CALINGASAN, NANCY APRIL2005109704| 5/10/2012| Crowding, degrading physical and mental health of prisons, and deteriorating environmental quality are common issues in Philippine jails. This research aims to suggest built environment improvements in provincial jails considering both its punitive and reformative functions.
Architectural recommendations include (1) exclusionary and inclusionary space planning, (2) planning to increase security, and (3) modular planning for limited spaces. | ————————————————- Table of Contents 1THE PROBLEM6 1.
1Background6 1. 2Statement of the problem7 1. 2. 1Problem Field7 1. 3Initial Problem Statement7 1. 3. 1Problem Statement7 1. 4Goals and Objectives8 1. 4. 1Project Goal8 1. 5Objectives8 1. 6Significance of the Study8 1. 6. 1Social8 1. 6. 2Architectural8 1. 7Prison Environment9 1. 8Scope and Limitation9 1. 9Conceptual Framework10 2REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE11 . 1Literature Related to Prison System11 2. 1. 1Philippine Prison System: Bureau of Jail Management and Penology11 2. 2Literature Related to Security13 2. 2. 1Crime Prevention through Environmental Design13 2. 3Literature Related to Prison Architecture History and Design17 2. 4Literature Related to Reformation Program of the Philippines19 2. 4. 1Inmate Work Program20 2.
4. 2Education and Skills Training20 2. 4. 3Recreation and Sports21 2. 4. 4Religious Guidance21 2. 4. 5Therapeutic Community Program21 2. 5Five components of workable reformation program:21 2. 5. 1Reception and Diagnostics Center21 2. 5. Classification System21 2. 5. 3Individualized treatment. 22 2. 5. 4Merit system22 2. 5. 5Holistic Program22 2. 6Literature Related to Designing and Planning a Prison22 2. 6. 1Direct Supervision Jail Management22 2. 7Case Studies24 2. 7. 1Local Case Studies24 2. 7. 2Foreign Case Studies24 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY26
3. 1Focus Interview26 3. 2Summary the interviews27 3. 2. 1Interview on Provincial Jail of Batangas27 3. 2. 2Interview on Bureau of Jail Management and Penology27 3. 3Pictorial documentation28 4FINDINGS AND DESIGN RECOMMENDATION29 4. 1Summary of findings29 4. 2Design guidelines/recommendations29 . 2. 1Arsenal of Exclusion and Inclusion29 4. 2. 2Line of Sight and Hearing31 4. 2. 3Small Space Design31 4. 2. 4Design for Activity Facilities31 5ARCHITECTURE APPLICATION32 5. 1Project profile and analysis32 5. 1. 1Description of the project32 5. 1. 2Project Rationale33 5. 1. 3Project Practicability33 5. 2Site profile and analysis34 5. 2. 1Description of site34 5. 2. 2Laws and ordinances pertaining to the site36 5. 2. 3Bureau of Jail Management and Penology: Manual on Habitat: Space and Quarters, Water and Sanitation and Hygiene37 5. 3Site analysis38 6DEFINATION OF TERMS41 7BIBLIOGRAPHY42 APPENDIX44 8. 1Details of Provincial Jail of Batangas44 8. 1. 1Perimeter Fence44 8. 1. 2Barracks46 8. 2Tables Related to Crime Statistics of the Philippines47 8. 3Picture Related to Jail Dormitories48 8. 4Manuals and Tables Related to Jail Design48 8. 4. 1Tables from Zoning Ordinance48 8. 4. 2Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Habitat in Prisons50 List of Figures Figure 1 Conceptual Framework: 11 Figure 2 The Five Pillars of Criminal Justice Syste12 Figure 3 Criminal Procedures in the Philippines13 Figure 4 Photo by Linus Escandor II, 200825 Figure 5 Source: The Sunday Telegraph25
Figure 6 The West Australia: Jail beds on floor ‘degrading’26 Figure 7 Multi-storey proposed jail. 26 Figure 8One of the facilities holds a powerful presence on the skyline. 26 Figure 9 Pictures show Front Elevation of the Provincial Jail of Batangas29 Figure 10 The map of Batangas Province showing the municipalities33 Figure 11 As cited above the population of Provincial JAil. 34 Figure 12Vacinity Map: Provincial Jail of Batangas. 35 Figure 13 Site Development Plan of Provincial Jail of Batangas36 Figure 14 Sun Path Diagram39 Figure 15 Wind Analysis39 Figure 16 Noise Analysis39 Figure 17 Location Map40
Figure 18 Tower Post Detailed Section44 Figure 19 Perimeter Fence Detail45 Figure 20 Perimeter Fence Elevation and Tower Post Detail45 Figure 21 Barracks Elevation46 Figure 22 Barracks Floor Plan46 the problem Background Philippine Prison is heavily congested. The main problem with every jail in the Philippines is the lack of space for the inmates. According to the statistics released by the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, 76. 34 percent of jails in the Philippines are congested. This data clearly shows that there is lack of space for the both detainees and convicted criminals.
Most of holding facilities are way beyond the original design capacity of prisons. This fact denies the inmates the basic right to sleep well. If our jails have more humane conditions in the heart of the holding facilities, major reforms in the criminal justice system could take place that could give prison inmates a chance at rehabilitation and a meaningful life after imprisonment. At present, most jails are poorly maintained and deprived of necessary health care facilities as well as work program facilities. Proper visitation facilities are also not available for the inmates.
These facilities are essential to programs to safely contain the prisoners and detainees. It is well known that in the early years of Philippine prison, it is the place where offenders are tortured and severely punished. In addition to the torment of the prisoners, the place was dirty and almost uninhabitable. In later years, misfits, beggars and vagabonds started to fill up the prison. In 1949, the Department of Justice issued rules for the treatment of prisoners that aimed to rehabilitate and reform the criminals and not just punish them. (According to “Albis, Madrona, Marino, Respicio” 1977, p. 3) It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things super-human, of all true manifestation of the heads, of the heart of the soul, that the life is recognizable in this expression, that form ever follows function. Prisons are no different. Providing human activity on multi-disciplinary environment includes architecture and law. From dungeons of medieval castle to cellblocks of modern times, tutelary architecture stands a symbol on how society see fit to discipline and rehabilitate those who go against the law.
Prison therefore continues to evolve based on what society demands. Statement of the problem Problem Field Prisons and their many variants are built environments whose intended purpose is punishment, deterrence, rehabilitation and incapacitation Reasons [ (Reasons, C. E. ;Caplan R. L. , 1975) ]. Modern prison bases their design on the idea of punishment as our predecessors did, such as severity and lack of privacy as well depravation of liberty. This implication of prison, however, leads to the heath of the inmates and as well as their living conditions paying the price.
The architecture of the prisons therefore undervalues the prisoners’ health. The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology releases statistics of congested jail facilities on February 2012. The statistical datum shows that out of 414 prisons in Philippines, 316 prisons are congested. These figures show that our prisons are way beyond their capacities. Overcrowding is of course dangerous to everyone’s health. It not only breeds diseases but also breaks down discipline and exacerbates tensions. The current system of the prison is built to penalize and not to rehabilitate. Initial Problem Statement
Crowding, degrading physical and mental health of prisons, and deteriorating environmental quality are common issues which should be addressed in design and redevelopment of jails and prisons. This thesis aims to put forth recommendations on answering this problem. Problem Statement * How can prisons/jails be designed to make it more reformative notwithstanding its punitive function? How can the security of jails/prisons be improved through built environment design? How can spaces in prison be made flexible considering both welfare of prisoners and limited prison space? Goals and Objectives Project Goal
Address common issues, such as crowding, degrading physical and mental health of prisons and deteriorating environmental quality in creating a clear sense of space planning, built environment and security through the principle of Line of Sight and Hearing and Arsenal of Exclusion and Inclusion. Objectives To design a prisons/ jails to make it more reformative notwithstanding its punitive function To improve the security of jails/prisons through built environment design To create flexible spaces in jail that considers the limited prison space and prison welfare. Significance of the Study Social
As it focuses on community’s relationship in the existing prison /jail, it explores the idea that the jail and the community can coexist in a given locality. The study forces society to ask the question, “Do we want our prison to punish or to help reform the behavior of the prisoners? ” It largely involves the symbolic import of prisons to the community. Through rehabilitation society will benefit for the better. The safe and humane environment creates and enriches not only the prisoners but the urban fabric of our cities. It will help reform people to face society with a better behavior and become a better member of the community.
Architectural In this study, design techniques are explored in order to solve the congestion and security concerns of Philippine jail. The thesis explores principles in modular design of the building. The modular design strategy harmonizes the mobility and social activities within the space. With that the architecture and space inevitably affects and enhances the activity within space. The environment not only produces rhythms in the activity and space but also provide users another way to experience the environment. Also the principle of Arsenal of Exclusion and Inclusion and Line of Sight nd Hearing was introduced on the design approach of the study. The Arsenal of Exclusion and Inclusion is a principle of design that isolates and combine the activity within the space. The principle was used to bring the community within the prison and isolate the visitors and prison guards as well as the inmates when required. It restricts the path where users needed not to be in. Prison Environment This study will be a significant endeavor in promoting good environment in the correctional amenities and motivate the inmates to behave better. A more humane environment creates a more productive environment.
This study investigates inmates’ perceptions, attitudes, viewpoints, and their participation towards a good environment. In this study, design techniques are explored in order to solve the congestion and security concern of the Philippine jail. The thesis also explores techniques in modular design that surrounds the building. The modular design strategy harmonizes the mobility and social activities within the space. With that the architecture and space inevitably affects and enhances the activity within space. The environment not only produces rhythms in the activity and space but also provide users another way to experience the environment.
Scope and Limitation This study focuses in designing a jail using safe and humane environment. The scope of this study is concentrated on creating a space that effectively detains inmates and preparing inmates to reenter the community or to enter a penal facility. Establishing modular design is the approach towards designing congested space. It is an approach that supports inmates’ space for activities and the sleeping facilities. The design initiates in supporting humane and disciplined inmates. The study also focuses introduction of Line of sight and hearing and arsenal of exclusion and inclusion to the architecture design.
Conceptual Framework According to the aforementioned Philippine jails are crowding, degrading physical and mental health of prisons, and environmental deteriorating quality, inmates and prison guards alike need an environment to live and work properly toward reformation. The current study was related in a way that the researcher who conducted study induced changes in inmates’ environment. By studing the guideliness for designing jails, the thesis researcher constructed limitation in designing jail design and knowing what facilities should be available for the inmates.
Also the study prison system the researcher have better understanding on how Philippine prison function. Figure [ 1 ] Conceptual Framework: The researcher had constructed the following figure to represent the relationship among the variables used in the study Also the study of Inmates Reformation adds additional consideration on designing jails. By giving thought to the reformation system cited by Bureau of Correction, the researcher sought to provide a better facilities to help reform the inmtas. This studys are considered in the design solution for this thesis. Review of Related Literature
This chapter will explain the Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, History of Prison Architecture, Philippine Prison System and Rehabilitation Program for Prisoners as bases for this study. This chapter also contains review of related literature tables and graphs explaining crime statistics of the Philippines and Batangas Province. Literature Related to Prison System Philippine Prison System: Bureau of Jail Management and Penology Figure [ 2 ] The Five Pillars of Criminal Justice Syste, CPRM CONSULTATION, INC. ,2006 The Five Pillars of Criminal Justice System
The criminal justice and flow by which offenders or persons suspected of having committed a crime pass through the sequential processes of investigation and apprehension, prosecution, trial and sentencing, correction or rehabilitation, and re-integration to the community after complete satisfaction of penalties, or through alternative release programs. [ (CPRMConsultation, 2006) ] Criminal Procedures in the Philippines Criminal procedures in the Philippines are contained in established rules and regulations governing the operations of the Five Pillars of Justice.
Figure provides an overview of these procedures based on the Rules on Criminal Procedures of the Rules of the Court. The processes involved in the investigation and prosecution of criminal cases comprise of Police Investigation, Preliminary Investigation, Issuance of the Prosecutor’s Resolution, Filing of the Information in Court, Arrest of the Accused and Posting of Bail, Arraignment [Plea of Guilty or Not Guilty to the Offense Charged], Pre-Trial, Trial and Sentencing or Judgment. (CPRMConsultation, 2006) Figure [ 3 ] Criminal Procedures in the Philippines Literature Related to Security
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Introduction “The proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and improvement of the quality of life. ” – CPTED, as defined by the National Crime Prevention Institute Until the late 1960, security has been given a low priority in the building process. When the federal government took an interest in crime prevention in urban housing attempts were made to develop a workable developed a philosophy for controlling crime through architectural planning and design.
Throughout the decade studies are made that demonstrating the architectural design to influence crime rates in housing development. [ (Robert A. Gardner, 1981) ] Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, CPTED is an idea that with proper built environment the quality of life can be safer hence improving the quality of life. It anticipated and recognized as well as appraised crime risk to remove or reduce it. In an attempt to create safer designs in new and existing development CPTED also study the site design and working with the public development agencies. (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: General Guidelines For Designing Safer Communities, 2010) ] Concept The basic concept of CPTED is the idea that criminal behavior in a way reduces the incidence and fear of crime and improve the quality of life through physical environment. [ (Gary R. Cook) ] Design and Planning Process Purpose of Design Guidelines based on Crime Prevention through Environmental Design: General Guidelines for Designing Safer Communities: To make members of the Development Community and City Staff aware of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design and implement creative solutions whenever possible.
To inform developers, design professionals and the public of the possible reduction of criminal opportunity when CPTED principles are used during the initial planning stages of a development. To describe design alternatives which could have an adverse affect on opportunities for criminal activity? Access Control Cook said access control’s main purpose is to keep unauthorized people out of a particular area. However, given that there are private, public and semi-public space the application of access control become much more complicated. St.
Petersburg Police Department Crime Prevention Unit believed the design strategy of natural access control is directed to crime opportunity. To deny access to a crime target and to create a perception of risk to the offender is the primary goal of this strategy. [ (Gary R. Cook) ] There are design features that should be considered. Using design elements like doors, shrubs, fences, and gates to act as a barrier denies entrance. Cook also mention that physical barriers imposed by natural forms, existing manmade forms and artificial forms designed expressly as impediments serve to restrict movement. (Gary R. Cook) ] Natural Surveillance Natural Surveillance is a design strategy directed toward the observing trespassers. Observing space around the given site is very important in security measure. The design features focus in the visibility areas within the site. Gardner mention in his paper that criminals are least likely to act when there is a high risk of their actions being witnessed. [ (Robert A. Gardner, 1981) ] There are two different directions to take in designing base on Natural Surveillance’s design strategy. There are informal or natural surveillance and formal.
The direct result of architectural design that occurs in the establishment of natural surveillance is natural or informal surveillance. Gardner wrote that minimizing the visual obstacles and eliminating the places that conceal potential assailants offers protection against crime. He also said that open designs encourage safer and active environment. This establishes a clearer environment as well as it help recognized a transition zones for both public and private. It creates attention to the intruder entering restricted area. [ (Robert A. Gardner, 1981) ] Formal Surveillance method is a design strategy recognizing the use of technology.
Because there are still possibilities of concealment especially in isolated area or inactive space it is recognized that formal surveillance is a design strategy to keep in mind. However Gardener points out that this approach should only be use if natural surveillance alone cannot sufficiently protect an area. He also stated the elevators, interior corridors, parking lots public areas of building accessible after business hours, and exterior pedestrian pathways are potentially vulnerable location where the application of formal surveillance methods is justified.
Note that the areas mentions are isolated and have the possibility of hiding spots. [ (Robert A. Gardner, 1981) ] Territorial Reinforcement Territorial reinforcement is a design strategy that focuses on sense of ownership. Clearly defining which is private and which is public even semi-public is good way to create ownership. Cook quoted that “Territorial concern, social cohesion, and a general sense of security can be reinforced through the development of the identity and image of a community.
Recognized consciously, this approach can improve not only the image the population has of itself, and its domain, but also the projection of that image to others. ” [ (Gary R. Cook) ] To be clear the idea of ownership is not the term ownership when used in this context does not necessarily mean actual legal ownership. It is a perception of ownership resulting from an individual’s relationship with the environment. Gardner agrees that an office worker feel a sense of ownership to his or her office in which he or she works in. (Robert A. Gardner, 1981) ] Employing design elements such as sidewalks, landscaping and porches helps distinguish public and private areas. However these are not meant to prevent anyone from entering but create a feeling of territoriality and send a message to offenders that the property belongs to someone. Also providing obvious entries, law walls and paving will help clear delineate private spaces. Gardner also mentions that “It is not enough for a person simply to be able to defend his environment; he must also want to defend it.
That “wants” results from territorial feelings of pride and ownership. ” [ (Robert A. Gardner, 1981) ] Maintenance Maintenance is the most neglected design strategy in CPTED but one of the most important. Proper maintenance not only established a pleasing environment but also shelter a health and safe atmosphere. As quoted in the guidelines of St. Petersburg Police Department Crime Prevention Unit, a good maintenance strategy directly impacts the fear of crime in a community due to residents’ perceptions of responsibility and caring in the neighborhood. (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Improving the Quality of Life) ] Landscape Landscaping design is also an important design strategy in CPTED. Gardner quoted that “From a surveillance stand point, Landscaping can be critical. Such factors as growth characteristics of plants and their placement in relation to potentially vulnerable areas are extremely important” [ (Robert A. Gardner, 1981) ] Landscaping is a symbolic barrier that marks the transition between zones.
Design Features such as ground covering and plants or even varies pattern of cement works can show separation between zones. However visibility should be maintained. Limiting plants and branches should be dealt accordingly. Gardner mentions that maintaining the height between three and six feet from the ground ensure the visibility within a specific area. [ (Robert A. Gardner, 1981) ] Activity Support Gary R. Cook quoted the following: “The general design concept of activity support involves methods for reinforcing existing or new activities as a means of making effective use of the built environment.
Support of these activities can bring a vital and coalescing improvement to the community, along with a reduction of the vulnerable social and physical gaps that permit criminal intrusions. Such an approach might focus on a geographic area (e. g. , block, neighborhood, and city sector), a target population (e. g. , vulnerable elderly victims, opportunistic youthful offenders) or an urban system (e. g. , health delivery, transportation, and zoning). This is design strategy is use in playground design that allows the parents watch over their children while the children freely play.
Literature Related to Prison Architecture History and Design “First we shape our buildings; then they shape us” Ancient Rome’s Lamartine dungeon complex, built under the city’s main sewer, to the human cellblocks of modern prison, architecture reveals what society’s perception of discipline and rehabilitations on those who contravene penal codes. [ (Niyi Awofeso, 2011) ] The architecture of prison thus reflects its function. Prison architecture continues to evolve based on each society’s social climate and sociological demands.
Early prison architecture was modeled after monasteries, when Catholic Church frowned upon the death penalty and other punishments directed at the body. The idea of “house of penitents” not to be released until there was evidence of divine pardon was documented on the confinement design of St. John Climacus (16th century). [ (Johnston, 2000) ]The introduction of imprisonment as punishment in the general community by Pope Boniface VIII (1298) replaced the idea of brutal punishments such as executions and amputations, which had been practice since 400 BC.
It also has the effect on the development of prison architecture. The cellular design typical to the church and monastery buildings supports the idea that religious buildings served as template of early prison architecture. [ (Niyi Awofeso, 2011) ] Since the introduction of imprisonments as punishment in the general community, the design of prison cell plan were built to resemble the house of penitents on monasteries. [ (Niyi Awofeso, 2011) ]The bare room with a solitary window and a door contributes to the modern prison design.
Until now, modern prison advocates have adopted qualities of monastic architecture. In Pennsylvania and New York prison design activities implemented a rehabilitation concept that promoted isolated, silent contemplation. This is the reason behind the chapel facilities within the prison area. [ (Niyi Awofeso, 2011) ] This however causes high construction cost that prevents expansion of this type of system. [ (Brand, 1975) ] In more recent design the use of discipline system was modeled. Panopticon prison design was popularized by Jeremy Bentham.
It is a prison design that allows observers to observe all prisoners without being able to tell whether or not they are being watched. The metal uncertainty implicit in prisoner’ not knowing when they are being watched plays a crucial role in disciplining them. This approach contribute windows front and back to the prison cells. [ (Niyi Awofeso, 2011) ] By inducing the inmate in a state of conscious and permanent visibility, panopticon architecture assured the automatic functioning of power by prison authorities.
Bentham’s panopticon concept was partially included in the architecture of England’s first modern prison, the Milbank Prison, designed in 1812 by William Williams. Based on records from the Handbook of London, published in 1850, the external walls of the prison formed an irregular octagon and enclosed upwards of sixteen acres of land. Its ground plan resembled a wheel—with the governor’s house occupying a circle in the center—from which radiated six piles of building, terminating externally in towers [ (Miller & Miller, 1978) ] There are theories regarding the purpose o punishment in modern prisoners.
Punishment is essentially a consequence, delivered after a behavior, which serves to reduce the frequency or intensity with which the behavior occurs. The consequence either provides an undesirable stimulus or removes a desirable stimulus [ (Lefton, 1991) ]. The most popular punishment is solitary confinement, loss of liberty, but modern prison architecture still reflects design emphasizing punishment of austerity and incapacitation. There is a lot of prison design has many alternative solution.
The implication whether this is the case is based on the punishment function of prison. [ (SYKES, 1971) ] While Bentham suggest the principle of power should be visible and unverifiable. The inmates have central tower to watch their every moves and never knows whether he is watched or not. [ (Foucault, 1989) ]This type of prison design suggests that punishing the mind is accepted by the public compare to punishing the body. While Goffman views prison as a place of residence and work.
Prison as is defined as “a place of residence and work where a large number of like-situated individuals cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period of time together lead an enclosed formally administered round of life” ( [ (Goffman, 1968) ]From an architectural point of view, this introduces the perception of private and public in prison design. By creating a minimum contact to the community inmates are cut off to the society. It is also regarded by the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology that the prison cells dimension and the other facilities is traditionally been dictated by the budget.
Especially to the jails which do not hold convicted criminals. This also suggest as to why our prison architecture is designed this way. But prison architecture must be designed to accommodate the inmate’s every need and activities. Everything, from eating to sleeping and from working to exercise, needs to be under one roof. Since the 1950s, prison designers have faced the complex challenge of building prisons that serve many functions in a confined space, and health improvement is usually accorded low priority in this regard.
The challenge is clearly greater with old prisons that were designed with different objectives. [ (Niyi Awofeso, 2011) ] Unfortunately modern prisons have low priority in promoting health of inmates. Congestion is one of the reasons why prison health of the Philippines is in question. The prison’s architectural design particularly influences the prison’s role in the amplification of diseases such as tuberculosis, whereby poorly ventilated and claustrophobic shared prison cells and common areas facilitate tuberculosis transmission (Johnsen, 1993).
The positive impact of such prisons on prisoners’ health is also affirmed by reviews showing that good prison designs facilitate custodial harmony, improve the wellbeing of prisoners and staff and improve the prospects of prisoners’ rehabilitation [ (Fairweather & S, 2000) ] Literature Related to Reformation Program of the Philippines Cited on Freedom and Death Inside the Jail: A look into the condition of the Quezon City Jail by (Narag, 2005) Old school FOR PUNISHMENETwhen a person commits a crime, he should be made realize the pain he inflicted on his victim by actually inflicting pain on him as well.
This argument is loosely derived from the ancient concept of justice: “ An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. ” FOR DETERRENCE when a person commits a crime, he should be punished according so that he and the other members of society will be deterred from flouting the social contract again. FOR ISOLATIONwhen a person commits a crime, say murder, he should be isolated (by keeping him in prison) to prevent him from committing murder again. New school FOR REHABILITATION (the individual with himself). People commit crime mainly because of psychological or behavioral problems.
Therefore, they have to be incarcerated so they can undergo rehabilitation and cure hem of such “illness. ” FOR REFORMATION (the individual with others). People commit crime because they cannot live within the norms of society. Imprisonment should help them unlearn such anti-social behavior and, instead, learn how to live harmoniously with other members of society. FOR RESTORATION ( the individual with the community) When a person commits a crime, he no only offends his victim but himself and the rest of the community.
Imprisonment should help him realize this and, in turn, strive to seek forgiveness from his victim or his victim’s family, the community and himself. This principle embodies the concept of restorative justice. To complement the “New School Program” inmates should be provided with basic services, facilities, personnel, and programs. Food, clothing and proper bedding, is provisions that helps them maintain human dignity. Human dignity is the first step of reformation. The facilities should include not only beddings but also mess hall, proper kitchen, livelihood area, visiting area, infirmary, and employee quarter.
This allows them to make them care about themselves and let them know society still cares about them. (Narag, 2005) Jail must also have a workable reformation program. Training opportunities for skills and personality development, and opportunities for career improvement and personal improvement should be provided. Inmate Work Program The purpose of the inmate work program is to provide the inmate a hobby while making money for their personal expenses and their families. This also helps them gain livelihood skills, in order to become productive citizens. (Bureau of Corrections) Education and Skills Training
Improving an inmates’ academic and job skills is one way of reforming inmates. Prison education for remedial schooling is to help inmates to obtain basic skills in reading, writing and mathematics. Vocational programs are incorporated into jobs assignments and serve as on-the-job training. The goal is to provide inmates a chance to have a eligibility for jobs upon release. The traditional trainings are electronics, auto mechanics and handicrafts. Also a basic computer literacy course with typing as a support course is part of the training program. (Bureau of Corrections) Training Program and social education focus on job readiness.
In order to reenter society, they must be employable and have the basic tools necessary to function as responsible citizens. (Bureau of Corrections) Recreation and Sports Recreation and sports is the best way to keep inmates busy and healthy. Indoor and outdoor sports activities, programs, tournaments and leagues promotes good reforming program. Music, painting and other recreational activities should also be provided. (Bureau of Corrections) Religious Guidance Inmates should be capable to have the freedom of religion. All inmates should have a place to perform rituals of their faith supervised by prison authorities.
Restrictions, however, should be imposed in the course of religious activities for expensives and security. (Bureau of Corrections) Therapeutic Community Program This program represents an effective, highly structured environment with defined boundaries, both moral and ethical. The goal of this program is to encourage personal growth. Self confidence, self respect, and preparing them for re-integration into their families and friends as productive members of the community is Therapeutic Community Program primary goal. (Bureau of Corrections) Five components of workable reformation program: Reception and Diagnostics Center
Gathering all data of the inmates’ personal history, Socio-economic background, Educational attainment, Medical and psychological condition and the inmates’ personal assessment of their cases is important in order to better cater for inmates’ reformation. (Narag, 2005) It is also important that at this period an orientation on the rules and regulation, their rights and privileges as well as their obligation on the jail. Classification System Case Inmates are classified related to their rehabilitation needs. Drug related cases for example should undergoes a program that suites their needs. (Narag, 2005) Physical and mental condition
To avoid the spread of diseases mentally and physically ill inmates should be placed separate cells. It also wise to administered medical and physical illness. (Narag, 2005) Special Concerns . Females, Males, youth inmates as well as gays should be grouped in separate cell. (Narag, 2005) Individualized treatment. Classified, reformation and rehabilitation programs must be design according to their individual needs. (Narag, 2005) Merit system Inmates who show considerable improvement in character and performance are given due recognition so that they will serve as role models to the inmates. The inmates should be recognized and rewarded.
On the other side of the coin, inmates who repeatedly cause trouble are subjected to disciplinary action, like menial labor such as cooking, sweeping of floor and such. Moreover the disciplinary action should be base on the trouble committed. (Narag, 2005) Holistic Program Inmates should undergo group therapy, where members will be there family. The community therapy setup will help inmates to talk and freely express their feelings about their situation. The feeling of belonging will help reform inmates. This will lead to a better way to reintegrate into society. (Narag, 2005) Literature Related to Designing and Planning a Prison
Direct Supervision Jail Management New generation jail refers to new or remodeled jails that are designed around a podular architectural design in conjunction with a direct supervision inmate management orientation. ( Nelson,1983) While the operation of federal jail system was introduced, it wasn’t until 1970’s that the operational principles and dynamics have been documented and the concept has begun to gain acceptance in local jurisdictions. The principles and dynamics of new generation of jail management focused on controlling the environment of the jail and cost cutting. Saunders’s (1998) study found the following:
Direct supervision is no longer an untried concept. Since the mid-1970’s the “New Generation” or direct supervision application has been superficially probed and studied, intensively visited and reviewed, and ultimately incorporated in over 100 operating facilities, with an equal number in the planning and design stages. As long as communities, for whatever reason, continue to neglect a real commitment to alternative programs for minor offenders and treatment programs for drug users, more jail space is going to be needed. Achieve total supervision on the design requires a central control room in the center o a circular incarceration center.
This allows the prison guards to observe the inmates without obstructing vision from the central control room. There are no structural blind spots are no environments of opportunity. All inmate activity is visible to staff in the central control room. (Omni View, 2005) The principles of Direct Supervision are the following Effective Control, Effective Supervision, Need for Competent Staff, Safety of Staff and Inmates, Manageable and Cost-Effective Operations, Effective Communications, Classification and Orientation, Justice and Fairness and Commitment.
Most of the principle of Direct Supervision doesn’t allow the community inside the jail to grow. It also doesn’t allow individual to grow. Its focus is punished by depriving them of their personal space not to help inmates to move in the due process of law. Although there are some points that should be considered the general idea of Direct Supervision will not help reform or improved the well-being of the inmates. Case Studies Local Case Studies Manila City Jail Figure [ 4 ] Photo by Linus Escandor II, 2008 Manila City Jail is located at the heart of the shopping mall and stores, railway stations, major streets and a university.
The Manila City Jail currently holds 5,000 prisoners with a design capacity of 1000. Prisoners are lawfully detained as detention prisoners and youth offenders as well as city prisoners. Prisoners undergoing trail and convicted prisoners are mixed together in this prison. The Manila City Jail houses men and women in separate compounds. There are four main compounds that house juvenile delinquents, adult prisoners and prisoners with mental illness. Typical dormitory is cramped, poorly lit and with hardly any ventilation. Because of the congestion inmates are sleeping on floors. Alfaro, 2005) Manila City Jail doesn’t have enough facilities to cater even the basic needs of inmates. This is a view port of what Jail in the Philippines are. Philippine Jails are always the least concern of the government especially when it comes to funds. Foreign Case Studies Hakea Prison Figure [ 5 ] Source: The Sunday Telegraph (http://www. news. com. au/national/inmates-break-back-into-prison-after-crime-spree/story-e6frfkvr-1226256292794) Hakea Prison manages male prisoners. It open on 1982 and have an original capacity of 325. But in 2011 the operational capacity of the prison is 919.
Additional bed spaces are place to accommodate more prisoners. However the designated bed spaces are intended for temporary use. Its detainees are taken in custody while waiting to appear in court or those who have just been sentenced. Hakea Prison focus is on rehabilitation as well as employs prisoners in a number of areas including laundry, carpentry, concreting and other domestic duties. Hakea Prison is located at Canning Vale, West Australia. Department of Corrective Services manages the facilities on behalf the government of West Australia. (Australia, 2011) ] Figure [ 6 ] The West Australia: Jail beds on floor ‘degrading’ (Source: http://au. news. yahoo. com/thewest/a/-/breaking/7403700/jail-beds-on-floor-degrading/) This Prison is also congested. The reason for the congestion is that the temporary space for sleeping becomes permanent. This is a concern in designing jail as most facilities can easily use as temporary sleeping space that will eventually be a permanent one. Oasis Urban Prison: ACSA Steel Competition entry This prison at the corner of 30th and Walnut Streets in Philadelphia contains 26 living pods holding 468 inmates.
The housing pods are lifted individually high above ground level, affording security from the outside world and providing views and access to light. Their height also gives the prison a powerful presence on the skyline. Support services extend from ground level to two levels above upper 30th street. The roof surface acts as an outdoor recreation garden for the inmates and cylindrical voids are cut down through the floors to let light into the spaces below. (Russoniello) The design of the Proposed Oasis Urban Prison is considered in the design process of the thesis as it offers more facilities in limited space.
Figure [ 7 ] Multi-storey proposed jail. Figure [ 8 ]One of the facilities holds a powerful presence on the skyline. Research Methodology This chapter presents the research methodology produced by the thesis. This shows a how Chapter Two: Related Literature translates into practical research strategy, by analyzing its three keys stages. These also include the collecting of documentation of fact regarding prison system other related subjects. The research strategy comprises three key stages. The aim of the first stage is to identify the need of the community by collecting data on the problem in the community of jail.
This stage particularly focuses on the state of Provincial Jail of Batangas and the reaction of the community toward it. The aim of the second stage is to identify the prison system in Philippine by natural observation and informal and formal interview of community near the site and personnel of Provincial Jail of Batangas. This stage particularly focuses on the factor and relation of security and reforming inmates with the first stage. The third stage involves textual analysis of the documentation about current condition of Provincial Jail of Batangas. This stage aims to identify the nature facilities and the community it affects. 2 3 Focus Interview The interview is with the warden of Provincial Jail of Batangas and the officials/ personals of Bureau of Jail Management and Penology. The interview focuses on the prison system of jail and the statistic regarding crimes. It also involves the physical condition of the jail. The Provincial Engineer of Batangas interview focuses on design recommendation. The interviewees are for Provincial Jail of Batangas are Warden Calingasan Renato G. , Prison Guard III Carlos Cantos, Prison Guard III Carlos Gonzales, Prison Guard II Amalia Comia and Prison Guard I Eugenia Fernandez.
Joseph Delos Reyes of Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, Department of Logistics and the Provincial Engineer of Batangas Engineer Nerio L. Ronquilio were interviewe. Summary the interviews Interview on Provincial Jail of Batangas Provincial Jail of Batangas is located at Barangay Cuta, Batangas City near the Batangas International Port. The main function of Provincial Jail of Batangas is to detain accused people around the province of Batangas. It only holds those with commitment order by the Provincial Prosecutor. Once transferred to Provincial Jail, a physical and medical examination and documentation is conducted.
It has an original capacity of 350 inmates but currently holds 540 inmates. In 2004 it reached almost 700 inmates just about double the original capacity of the jail. It holds adult male and female with separate dormitories. Even with the step the provincial jail of Batangas took, (Helping inmates in the due process of law) it is still congested. The facilities within the Provincial Jail of Batangas are the following are Inspection Area, Office, Record Office, Small Canteen, Male Prison Guard Barracks, nine cells for male and female, Open Area (function as a sleeping area and gathering) and Tower guard posts.
When asked what other facilities the Provincial Jail of Batangas should have, all of the interviewee answered – the clinic as well as larger holding facilities. The reason for this is quite obvious there is admittedly congestion and the absence of a clinic for conducting medical documentation. The Warden also mentioned that during the visitation of the doctor especially for those who have tuberculosis and HIV the doctor have no proper place or facility to conduct a routine checkup. Interview on Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
According to Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, almost all Philippine prisons are congested and in need of new facilities. It is however in the government budget hands to make this possible. Facilities of jail are directly affected by the money the government have. The following should be the priority structure for a newly established facilities are Jail Building (Holding Facilities), Perimeter Fence, Kitchen and Administration Office with provision of small clinic. (The facilities mentioned above are should only be constructed when there is staggered allocation of budget. When asked about the congestion and what steps are they doing in order to solve it, Joseph Delos Reyes said that the Manual or Guidelines are being restudied with regards to the planning and design. Pictorial documentation Figure [ 9 ] Pictures show Front Elevation of the Provincial Jail of Batangas Provincial Jail of Batangas is located Barangay Cuta, Batangas City has 42 prison guards with the original design capacity of 350 but currently holds 540 inmates. Findings and Design Recommendation Summary of findings From the data gathered it is found that there is lack of space for the both detainees and convicted criminals.
Most of holding facilities are way beyond the original design capacity of prisons. This fact denies the inmates the basic right to sleep well. The large implication that healthy environment should be also given priority to the design since the effect is damaging. The starting point is the architecture of the prison should be productive not destructive. Through research and observation the productivity of prisoners is more beneficial to the society than punishment. Therefore, it is essential to have an active and benevolent environment and still support the disciplinary prison system.
The building typology of the prison is the also key element of design to consider. The idea of Small Space Design is the technique use to maximize small spaces. The small space design strategy harmonized the mobility and social activities within the space.. Design guidelines/recommendations The design development should be focused on the lack of space for the holding facilities and the provision of infirmary. It also should focus on the visitation facilities as well as the correctional and work program facilities. Arsenal of Exclusion and Inclusion Arsenal of Exclusion and Inclusion is weapons to open and close spaces in a creative ways.
Prison spacing is not simply a function of detaining; it is also a function of discipline that determines how you live. Integration of yellow line There should be a caution line or visible warning that let the visitors, inmates and prison guards where should stay. It is to let the public at large, the inmates and prison staff knows where a certain activity should take place and when. Visitor Ripple Facilities or amenities should be designed to reassure and entertain visitors while steering him or her away from restricted area. Not only will it envelop the activity but also change the environment of the prison.
Spaces should enable individual to have a space for skills-enhancing activities. This should be a accessible for both the visitors and inmates who are in good behavior and under watchful eyes of the prison guards. Sexual Nature Spaces should convey what the sexual orientation the user have. Since most jail still caters both male and female, the space and environment of the facilities should be seen throughout the design. For example female toilet should have more privacy because of it sensitive towards it body. Environmental Isolation A space should be provided for the isolation of those who have special needs.
For example, individuals who are suffering from tuberculosis or other communicable diseases as well as those individual who is in need of counseling. No Cruising Zone Parking spaces for the public should be discouraged or limit the traffic of the prison. Designation of time period for parking and the duration of parking should be defined. This will not only affect the safety of the visitors but also the number of parking lots it provides. Cultural Steering There is a community within the four walls of the prison. There are “mayors” who are the leader of each cell house.
It is a good way to organize the inmates around the prison. However danger may arise due to the fact miscommunication and disagreement. Activity spaces should provide a place for each community to flourish. Line of Sight and Hearing Since the environment of prison design is sensitive to the security. The design of the building should focus on seeing and being seen. Voices as well as footsteps should be heard in addition. Prison guards should immediately know where and who is inside an activity space. To have a visual-tactile orientation avoids people who may go unnoticed.
This concept is essential to detaining inmates and insuring the security of the visitors. Factors that should be considered: 1. Use of partial walls- less than floor to ceiling height Placement of windows- diffused light, avoid glaring light Use of building materials such as clouded glass to create privacy and still feel open. Use curved corners Create wide hallways Lighting: Switch outside the space Noise from the outside should be avoided Small Space Design The dormitories should have enough space for the basic necessity of the prisoners such as sleeping, sanitation as well as a place to work their own personal project.
It also should provide a temporary sleeping area for a temporary detainee. The sleeping area should be converted to activity space. But since prison dormitories are have 4. 7 square meters per person standard dimensions, the space design should be focus on the idea of modular design. Design for Activity Facilities The activity facilities should hold the different stages of the prison system. The different stages are counseling, workshops, sports and allotments. The activity space should have the maximum capacity of 50 inmates per room. Architectural Application Project profile and analysis Description of the project
The project focuses is redeveloping the Provincial Jail of Batangas. In this study, developing the environmental design of Provincial Jail of Batangas will be explored. The thesis locale is in the province of Batangas. Batanguenos area peace loving people. Strengthening the peace and public safety is of great importance to the Province of Batangas. The current location of Provincial Jail of Batangas is Cuta, Batangas City. Figure [ 10 ] The map of Batangas Province showing the municipalities Provincial Jail of Batangas is overcrowded and does not have enough facilities to detainee inmates properly.
It also does not have enough facilities to take care the necessary need of the inmates. The architectural research steers into jail redevelopment more specifically its space planning and the security and defense planning. The design approach for this thesis study leads to idea of Arsenal of Exclusion and Inclusion , Modular Design and Sight and Line of Sight and Hearing. The province of Batangas is situated at the intersection of 14 north latitude and 121 east longitudes in south-western Luzon in the midst of the southern Tagalog Region.
Its boundary is Cavite on the north side, Province of Quezon and Laguna on the east, on the south is Verde Island Passage and on the west by the South China Sea. It has a land area of 316,165. 81 sq kilometers. The population is 2,245,869on the 2012 Census. Province of Batangas Municipalities are Aqoncillo, Alitagtag, Balayan, Balete, Bauan, Calca, Calatagan, Cuenca, Ibaan, Laurel, Lemery, Lian, Lobo, Mabini, Malvar, Mataas na kahoy, Nasugbu, Padre Garcia, Rosario, San Jose, San Juan, San Luis, San Nicolas, San Pascual, Sta.
Teresita, Sto. Tomas, Taal, Talisay, Taysan, Tingloy, and Tuy Project Rationale Philippine prisons are deeply congested and have low priority towards health. Amenities of the prisoners have destructive environment rather than productive. This research aims to provide a clear sense of activity space and throughout the prison facilities. A clear sense of activity space will solve facilities problem of congestion. This study focuses in designing a Provincial Jail of Batangas using safe and humane environment.
Provincial Jail of Batangas was elected for this study on the need identified towards the congestion and low priority of health care to determine the viability of implementing principle of design. The purpose of this study was to provide a clear sense of productive environment and space for inmates holding facilities. Project Practicability Figure [ 11 ] As cited above the population of is averaging to almost 700 detainees to 500 detainees. Note that the Provincial Jail of Batangas original capacity is 350 inmates. Because of the congestion and lack of facilities, it is only practical to redevelop or redesign the Provincial Jail of Batangas.
The present facilities of the Provincial Jail of Batangas are not able to cater basic necessity of inmates and prison guards as well as the visitors. Currently the Provincial Jail is ill maintained and doesn’t comply with the BJMP Manual for Prison Jail Design. Site profile and analysis Description of site Figure [ 12 ]Vacinity Map: Provincial Jail of Batangas. It is located at Barangay Cuta, Batangas City The site is located at Barangay Cuta, Batangas City. The site is near the Batangas International Port. The Provincial Jail of Batangas is a one storey building with a separate building for prison guard barracks.
Around the site perimeter fence are build with four post towers erected on the four corners of the perimeter fence. The fence have 6. 25 meters in height, this including the bar wire. Figure [ 13 ] Site Development Plan of Provincial Jail of Batangas Laws and ordinances pertaining to the site Barangay, Cuta is under Primary Urban Core Zone. Height Regulation Residential in PUCZ allowed density of sixty six (66) or more dwelling units per hectare. High rise dwelling units of eight or more stories are allowed provide it conforms with the zones prescribe Floor Area Ratio (FAR).
The FAR or residential building in PUCZ shall be based on the planned density of development intended for the zone. Area Regulation Area regulation in all shall conform with the munumum requirement of the existing laws such as: a. PD 957- The Subdivision And Condominium Buyer Protective Law And Its Revised Implementing Rules And Regulation. b. BP 220 Promulgation Of Different Levels Of Standards And Technical Requirements For Economic And Socialized Housing Projects And Its Revised Implementing Rules And Regulations c.
PD 1096 National Building Code Of The Philippines And Its Implementing Rules And Regulation d. Fire Code e. Sanitation Code f. Plumbing Code g. Structural Code h. Executive Order No. 648- Reorganizing the Human Settlements Regulatory Commission Area regulation in residential district in PUCZ- all buildings, including accessory buildings, shall cover not more than eighty five percent (85%) of the total area of the lot. The remaining area excluding the parking area shall be landscaped and planted with ornamental and green plants and trees. Land Use Intensity Controls
PLO- Percentage of Land Occupancy FAR- Floor Area Ratio BHL- Building Height Limit Land use intensity controls for PUC-1, PUC-2, PUC-3 shall governed by the following maximum requirement. Refer to Table 3 for Percentage of Land Occupancy, Floor Area Ration and Building Height Limit. Residential in PUCZ allowed density use sixty six (66) or more dwelling units per hectare. Building setback No structure or facility shall be allowed in a setback portion abutting a permanent public open space or streets. Refer to Table 4 for Setback measurement.
Bureau of Jail Management and Penology: Manual on Habitat: Space and Quarters, Water and Sanitation and Hygiene The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology base their manual for designing prison in United Nations Standards Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, ICRC Manual on Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Habitat in Prisoners, The National Building Code of the Philippines and its Revised IRR, Revised 2005, Architectural Code of the Philippines, 2000, National Plumbing Code of the Philippines, 1994 Edition and National Electrical Code of the Philippines, National Structural Code of the Philippines.
Habitat: Space and Quarters Philippine prisons are congested. In Region IV – “A” alone there are 7,814 inmates with jail capacity of 1,282. On an interview with BJMP Department‘s Joseph Delos Reyes, he mentioned that the congestion of prison is a problem for BJMP.
For a jail to function properly basic structures are needed such as Administration Building, Jail Building, Primary and secondary fences, Kitchen, Yard for Sunning Area and Sports/Recreational Facility, Sanitary installations for maintaining personal hygiene: toilets, showers and laundry facilities, Infirmary with separation rooms for inmates with mentally illness and communicable diseases, Multi-purpose building, Elevated water tank, Adequate drainage and Garbage collection facility. Maintaining and reinforcing security aspect is priority structures for designing prison system.
Therefore the facilities that should be priority are jail building, perimeter fence, kitchens and administration office with provision of small clinic. This prevents escape and ensures security in jail. “The jail compound may be enclosed by a buffer zone which is provided by a secondary fence. This will serve as the first line of defense against any untoward incidents” The minimum height of the perimeter fence from the finish grade line to the top shall be less than 4. 00m. Additional 1. 00m shall be added for barbed wire provision. The minimum height of the secondary fence from the finish grade line to the top shall not be less than 2. 0m. Additional 0. 60m height shall be added for barbed wire provision. Main Perimeter Fence (6” CHB) Height minimum| 4. 00m| | Provide 1. 00m barbed wire at 0. 10m horizontal spacing on top| Secondary Fence (Welded wire/ Steel matting) Height minimum| 2. 50m| | Provide 0. 60m barbed wire at 0. 10m horizontal spacing on top| Minimum distance of the nearest building wall to Perimeter fence| 4. 00 meters| Capacity and Calculation of Occupancy Rate The capacity of a jail is the total number of detainees that it can accommodate while respecting minimum requirements, specified beforehand, in terms of floor space per inmate or group of inmates.
When the jail is built, individual or collective floor space is determined according to standards set by the BJMP administration. The occupancy rate, also known as the population density in the jail, is determined by calculating the ratio of the number of detainees present at date “t” to the ideal capacity of the jail. Occupancy Rate=Number of detainees present at date “t”Ideal capacity ? 100 Note that ideal capacity is the usable cell area. When the ratio obtained exceeds 100, the situation is overcrowded, if the figure is lower than 100, the jail is not congested.
The classification of jail type is divided by jail population and ideal lot area. Type A Jail is populated above 500 and have a lot area more than 1. 5 Ha. Type B Jail 101 to 500 prisoners with 1. 5 Hectares and Type C Jail is populated 1 to 100 with 3,000 sq. m ideal lot area. The ideal cell capacity of a standard layout for the prison is 1 inmate per 4. 7 square meters with the maximum capacity of 10 inmates per cell. Also the cell should have wash area, water closet and a bath area. With the floor to ceiling height of 3. 00m and a main cell door of 1. 00m ? 2. 10m (sliding type).
The toilet have a partition height of 1. 20m for male and 1. 60 for female built in 4”thick CHB with tile finish at inner sides and have doors with . 60m. Also open shelves are provided as a standard design. This allows clutters inside the cell. This provision also limits the detainee things inside the cell. The bunk beds for layout are provided with open spaces use for their leisure time, dining, group meetings and livelihood activities. Ventilation and Lighting The minimum standard for treatment is base on the United Nation standard. The windows shall be large enough to allow ventilation and natural light.
The artificial light shall be sufficient to have enough light to read or work. Ventilation Standard Minimum air space per person| 14. 00 m3| Size of opening (minimum)| 10% of total floor area (TFA)| Site analysis Strength The relation of inmates and prison guard creates a more productive form of communication and in eventually leads to more discipline environment. The facilities have recently started to utilize security technologies. There has significantly been no case of riot. Weakness It is deeply congested and does not have enough facilities to give the inmates the benefits of health care and activity space.
A budget is also the limited and is the main reason why the facilities are not well maintained and are limited to the principle of security and discipline. Also the jail does not offer enough security for the inmate’s visiting family and lawyers. Opportunity The awareness of the government that there is growing problem in jail management offers a lot of future development. Bureau of Jail Management and Penology laid down clear guidelines on standard prison design and although it is not enforced, the fact that the government recognizes and continuously improves the jail management is an opportunity driven concept.
Also the recognition of the rehabilitation rather punishment ideology offers a unique opportunity to create different type of spaces and functions. It allows the idea of employment inside the system to be possible and educate the community that there still is hope for the better. Threat Also the population of the inmates grows while the prison guard population stay the same creates a threat in security inside the facility. Figure [ 14 ] Sun Path Diagram Figure [ 15 ] Wind Analysis
Figure [ 16 ] Noise Analysis Figure [ 17 ] Location Map Definition of Terms JAIL- Is a place for the confinement of persons in lawful detention, especially persons awaiting trial under local jurisdiction. [ (FARLEX) ] REFORMATION- The act of reforming, or the state of being reformed; change from worse to better; correction or amendment of life, manners, or of anything vicious or corrupt; as, the reformation of manners; reformation of the age; reformation of abuses. (Thinkexist. com) ] PENITENTIARY- Is a word relating to or used for punishment or reform of criminals or wrongdoers. [ (FARLEX) ] CPTED- Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is a multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior through environmental design. CPTED strategies rely upon the ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts. As of 2012, most implementations of CPTED occur solely within the built environment. (Wikipedia) ] BJMP –Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, a government agency that address growing concern of jail management and penology problem [ (Wikipedia) ] BOC- Bureau of Corrections, a government agency of the Department of Justice which is chard with the custody and rehabilitation of national offenders, who have been sentenced to three years of imprisonment or more. [ (Wikipedia) ] ARSENAL OF INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION- Is a design principle that uses elements to restrict or promote access to the space.
LINEOF SIGHT AND HEARING- Is a design principle that uses elements to maximize the use of sight and hearing as a form of security. Bibliography Albis, Madrona, Marino, & Respicio. (1977). The study of effectiveness of Philippine prisons. Alfaro, M. R. (2005). Human Rights Behind Bars: The Manila City Experience. Focus . Australia, G. o. (2011). Hakea Prison. Retrieved from Government of Western Australia: Department of Correction Services: http://www. correctiveservices. wa. gov. au Brand, I. (1975). The ‘Separate’ or ‘Model’ Prison, Port Arthur. London: Geneva Press. Bureau of Corrections. (n. d. ).
Retrieved from http://www. bucor. gov. ph/ CPRMConsultation. (2006). Conduct of Further Study on Operations and Linkages of the 5 Pillars of Justice. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: General Guidelines For Designing Safer Communities. (2010). Virginia Beach Municipal Center Virginia Beach. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Improving the Quality of Life. (n. d. ). St. Petersbury Police Department. Davis, J. M. (2007). Rethinking the architecture: An action researcher’s resolution to writing and presenting their thesis. Action Research , 181-198. Fairweather, L. , & S, M. (2000).
Prison architecture: policy, design and experience. Oxford: Elsevier Sciences. FARLEX. (n. d. ). Retrieved from The Free Dictionary: http://www. thefreedictionary. com/jail Foucault, M. (1989). Discipline and punish-the birth of the prison. New York: Knopf. Gary R. Cook, P. (n. d. ). CPTED Makes a Comeback. Security Design Newsletter . Goffman, E. (1968). Asylums. Harmondsworth: Penguin. III, S. I. (n. d. ). Direct Supervision Jails: A Management Model for the 21st Century. Johnston, N. (2000). Forms of constraint: a history of prison architecture. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Lefton, L. A. 1991). Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Miller, J. A. , & Miller, R. (1978). Jeremy Bentham’s panoptic device. The MIT Press. Narag, R. E. (2005). Freedom and Death Inside the City Jail: A look into the condition of the Quezon City Jail. Niyi Awofeso, P. (2011). Disciplinary architecture: prison design and prisoners’ health. Hektoen International Journal . Reasons, C. E. ;Caplan R. L. (1975). Tear down the walls? Some functions of prisons. . In C. Reasons, & C. R. L. , Crime and Delinquency. Robert A. Gardner, C. (1981). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. Security Management Magazine .
Russoniello, D. H. (n. d. ). Oasis Urban Prison: ACSA Steel Competition. Retrieved from http://cargocollective. com/danhruss/Oasis-Urban-Prison-ACSA-Steel-Competition SYKES, G. M. (1971). The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison. Thinkexist. com. (n. d. ). Thinkexist. com. Retrieved from http://thinkexist. com/dictionary/meaning/reformation/ Wikipedia. (n. d. ). Crime prevention through environmental design. Retrieved from Wikepedia The Free Encyclopedia: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Crime_prevention_through_environmental_design Appendix Details of Provincial Jail of Batangas Perimeter Fence
Figure [ 18 ] Tower Post Detailed Section * * Figure [ 19 ] Perimeter Fence Detail * * * Figure [ 20 ] Perimeter Fence Elevation and Tower Post Detail Figure [ 21 ] Barracks Elevation Figure [ 22 ] Barracks Floor Plan Barracks * Tables Related to Crime Statistics of the Philippines Table [ 1 ] In February of 2012 the total number of jail in the Philippines is 414 and 316 of it us congested. The ideal design capacity of 15,846 is four times the number of Jail Population. Table [ 2 ]Note that the Jail Population of the Sentenced (Those who are convicted and was move to penitentiary reformative prison) is lesser that
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