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PSY1200 Exam Practice

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    Ivan Pavlov pioneered the study of
    learning
    Psychologists who today focus on the adaptive functions of behaviors and emotions (that is, those who study how behaviors and emotions appear to have helped our ancestors to survive) would likely consider _____ an early representative of their approach to psychology.
    William James
    Titchener is to _____ as Freud is to psychoanalysis.
    structuralism
    Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with the study of:
    sensory experiences
    Who was the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology?
    Washburn
    Researchers today can use technology such as fMRI scans to measure brain activity. Some researchers use the introspection technique with their subjects while obtaining the scans, which is similar to the methodology used by the early psychologist _____.
    Edward Titchener
    You’re having trouble coping with stressful life events, so you begin seeing a therapist. The therapist does not focus on your childhood experiences or on any learned behaviors, but rather she emphasizes the importance of your need for love and acceptance. Her approach is best described as _____.
    Humanistic
    A focus on how the body and the brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
    Neuroscientific
    Watson is to _____ as Rogers is to _____.
    behaviorism; humanistic psychology
    You have a friend who tends to make errors based on hindsight bias, which is also known as:
    The I-Knew-It-All-Along phenomenon
    In a psychology class, Paul makes the claim that women are more empathetic than men but then immediately questions it, saying, “Hmm, could I be wrong about that?” He is demonstrating _____, which is one of the three main components of the scientific attitude.
    humility
    The American Psychological Association’s guidelines for animals lead to more effective science because pain and _____ would distort the animals’ behavior during experiments.
    stress
    Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to rely too much on intuition and common sense. A(n) _____ attitude can more reliably help us answer questions about psychological phenomena.
    Scientific
    What is not a main component of the scientific attitude?
    Critical Thinking
    Psychological studies conducted in _____ settings reveal general principles that help explain many behaviors in everyday life.
    Laboratory
    Questions like What do you mean? and How do you know? reflect a curious skepticism, which is an important aspect of what?
    the scientific attitude
    Is psychology free of value judgments?
    No
    Doubting a claim because it is based on intuition and not on evidence exemplifies _____ thinking.
    Critical
    Researchers’ values influence their choice of topics. Perceptions can bias observations and interpretations. In other words, psychology is NOT:
    value free
    In a survey, stockbrokers are asked to predict whether stock markets will rise or fall over the coming year and to say how confident they are in their predictions. Based on what you have read about overconfidence, the most likely results of this survey are that the stockbrokers will be more _____ than _____ in their predictions.
    confident; correct
    A local school board is setting up a program to help prepare children to become scientists. To carry out this program, teachers should encourage _____, skepticism, and humility.
    Curiosity
    When psychologists apply laboratory research on aggression to actual violence, they are:
    applying theoretical principles of aggressive behavior.
    The idea that parental behaviors determine a child’s sexual orientation may seem plausible to you, while the idea that your future can be predicted on the basis of the positions of the planets at your birth may not. However, both ideas should be _____ using _____ to see if they hold up under scrutiny.
    Tested; an empirical approach
    How does the scientific attitude relate to critical thinking?
    The scientific attitude prepares us for critical thinking.
    Ethical principles developed by psychologists urge investigators to treat information about individual research participants _____.
    confidentially
    The American Psychological Association’s guidelines for animals mandate minimizing _____ and infection of animal subjects.
    pain
    Operational _____ help psychologists repeat the essence of a research study; this process is known as _____.
    definitions; replication
    Most of our early knowledge about the brain came from _____ of individuals with brain damage.
    case studies
    To examine the effect of hunger on taste sensitivity, groups of research participants are deprived of food for differing lengths of time before they engage in a taste-sensitivity test. This research is an example of a(n) _____ because it tests cause and effect.
    experiment
    When trying to interpret a bar graph, do not be fooled. Make sure to check the scale _____ and note their range.
    labels
    “What is true of all of us can be glimpsed in any one of us.” This sentence expresses the idea that a case study can reveal:
    universal principles
    When something extraordinary happens, such as when one person wins the lottery twice, we tend to see a pattern, such as a streak of unbelievable luck. In actuality, the two winnings are:
    random events
    The _____ method enables a researcher to focus on the possible effects of one or more factors by manipulating and controlling factors.
    experimental
    Dr. James found a correlation of -0.43 between exercise and weight loss in men over 40. This would be considered a _____ correlation.
    weak negative
    Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether caffeine consumption causes increased athletic performance?
    the experiment
    A good theory has which of the following characteristics?
    it includes an integrated set of principles
    Random samples provide _____ estimates of population averages if the samples have small _____.
    good, standard deviations
    The best basis for _____ about human behavior is from a representative sample of cases.
    generalizing
    The vast majority of neurons in the body’s information system are _____.
    interneurons
    The peripheral nervous system consists of _____ and motor neurons.
    sensory
    The _____ is an important part of the endocrine system, but is not an endocrine gland.
    hypothalamus
    The neurons that carry information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord are called _____ neurons.
    sensory
    The peripheral nervous system includes _____, which carry/carries messages from the body to the central nervous system.
    sensory neurons
    In addition to controlling other endocrine glands, the pituitary also has primary responsibility for regulating:
    growth
    A number of antiepileptic medications work to increase _____, as low levels are linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.
    GABA
    If you were trying to describe the function of the somatic nervous system to a middle-school child, which of the following analogies might you use?
    It functions like a remote control that moves a robotic arm
    Dr. Paivio studies the ways in which the endocrine system and the nervous system are similar. After researching the ways in which they function, he concludes that both systems secrete _____ that activate receptors elsewhere.
    molecules
    Less than a millionth of an inch wide, the _____ separates neurons.
    Synaptic gap
    This part of the peripheral nervous system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.
    Somatic
    The peripheral nervous system includes the _____ neurons, which carry messages from the body to the central nervous system.
    Sensory
    Information from the peripheral nervous system is carried to the central nervous system by neural “cables” called:
    Nerves
    The spinal cord is like an information highway that connects the _____ nervous system to the brain.
    Peripheral
    Jillian is a new mother. The first time she nursed her baby she instantly bonded. This is most likely caused by the release of:
    Oxytocin
    After being startled awake in the middle of the night, it turns out that the noise the woman heard was the closet rod breaking from the weight of her winter coats. Knowing that, she begins to calm down and her heart stops racing. Clearly her _____ has now been activated.
    Parasympathetic Nervous System
    The correct order of the feedback system that reveals the intimate connection of the nervous and endocrine systems is:
    brain, pituitary, other glands, hormones, brain.
    The parasympathetic nervous system conserves energy, while the _____ nervous system consumes energy.
    Sympathetic
    The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine _____ blood pressure and _____ blood sugar levels.
    Raises; raises
    When a young child starts taking ballet lessons several times a week, the neurons involved in the complex ballet moves will connect with one another to form neural _____.
    Networks
    Sex hormones are released by the _____ in males and the ovaries in females.
    Testes
    The _____ gland triggers ovaries and testes to release sex hormones.
    Pituitary
    Although Naeem has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Naeem’s experience is most indicative of a:
    Severed Spinal Cord
    An example of the interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems can be seen in our response to danger. The _____ orders the adrenal glands to release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which act to provide a surge of energy.
    Autonomic Nervous System
    A medical equipment company is thinking of expanding by developing lie-detection machines that measure perspiration, cardiovascular, and respiration changes. Their research should focus on the _____ nervous system.
    Sympathetic
    Whenever you turn the pages of a book, use your pen to take notes, or raise your hand, you know that this is possible due to your _____ nervous system.
    Somatic
    Your boss tells you some news that disturbs you, but a phone call from your spouse distracts you. After you get off the phone, you have a lingering feeling that something is not quite right, but you cannot pinpoint what it is. It is likely you are reacting to the continued effect of:
    Hormones
    Ed has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. He is taking an experimental medication. This medicine is designed to:
    Increase the AcH level
    Who was the first to recognize that the mind is in the brain?
    Plato
    Autonomic
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
    Nerves
    bundled axons that form neural “cables” connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
    Nervous System
    the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
    Central Nervous System
    the brain and spinal cord.
    Peripheral Nervous System
    the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
    interneurons
    neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
    Motor neurons
    neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
    Sensory Neurons
    neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
    Somatic Nervous System
    the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system.
    Sympathetic Nervous System
    the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
    Autonomic Nervous System
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
    Action Potential
    a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.

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