Negotiation is a fact of life.We discuss a raise with our manager, we try to agree with a stranger on a price for his goods . Everyone negotiates something every day.
This paper discusses my natural preferences for influencing tactics, my views on negotiation compared to my prior knowledge, my future work on negotiation and some opinions about the role play activity.
My natural preferences for influencing tactics
At the preparing time I read over different types of influence tactics and the ‘Exchange’&’Rationality’ is what I chose to use first. Later the using of ‘Emotional appeal’ is purely based on the character I play – Pat Taylor -a senior worker who has two young grandchildren and has been in the company for many years.
When I faced the first Dale I (Shirley), my tactics went well. I asked questions actively and kind of leading this conversation. I offered to replace the safety glasses to other kinds which have a clear-sight and easy to use. And when the replacing is taking place, we do not need to use the current safety glasses. Due to my many years experience in this company and I am really admired by other workers, Dale I said it was a good idea and she will do what I said. My chosen tactics went well when I faced a weak leadership.
However,things changed when I faced Dale II(Lisa). Dale II was so strong at the beginning that I did not even have the chance to discuss something. During the negotiation, I was interrupt several times by Dale II and this made me distracted so I gave up listing the facts and reasons and began to play the emotion card .It did not work as well. The two grandchildren I have gave Dale II a great cause to explain why I should be more careful about my safety. Moreover, Dale II offered me the replace of the safety glasses but only in one condition – we have to wear the current one until the new
one comes.I agreed to her offer.
It is clear that I should use different tactics when I face different negotiation opponents. The tactics I used on Dale I went well because ‘Exchange’ is an excellent choice as an initiative offer when facing weak leadership or weak negotiation opponent , so does the ‘Rationality’.When facing a strong opponent, it is hard to convince him in the logical way and the ‘Emotional appeal’ hardly works.
My views on negotiation
Before I step into the systematic study of negotiation, I think negotiation is only related to the way how to make the greatest profit for my own. Now I know what I thought is called ‘Positional bargainers’ .What I ignore is the sustainable development and so many influence tactics I can use.In my everyday life, I prefer to use influence tactics such as ‘ Exchange’ and ‘ Rationality’ based on my personality.I choose ‘Exchange’ because if we want to create a win-win situation, a compromise must be made, by which I mean if we need to get one thing we like, we have to give up another thing we have. “Rationality’ is another tactic I prefer to use because I am good at bringing out the facts and reasons in the negotiation.
Negotiation is not about how I can reach the outcome as I assumed or stick to what I want ,it is all about to reach an understanding, to resolve point of difference and intended to aim at compromise.As a beginner to contact with negotiation in nearly five weeks from lectures and tutorials, I realize that I should be a principled bargainer instead of a positional bargainer.As a principled bargainer I need to consider the continuous improvement and interests of the other party in order to maximize mutual gains.
My future actions on negotiation
Firstly, I need to improve my language skills. After the role play, it occurred to me that the communication speaking is the key point in a negotiation. For example , Dale II led this negotiation mostly due to her fluent and accurate English.I could not catch up with what she said and this left her sufficient time to organize her tactics.
Secondly,I will try to use more influence tactics in everyday life. Negotiation can take a wide variety of forms , formally or informally. Bargain in a store ,convincing a friend to take part in a ball game is all about negotiation, the utility of influence tactics may occur in many times and I shall seize every opportunity to practice my negotiation tactics.
Moreover, I will pay more attention on different tactics especially those I’m not familiar with. The utility of different influence tactics would lead me to a better outcome in a negotiation.
Do the role play one more time
When I finished my negotiation with two Dale, I regret that I use the wrong tactics.With Dale I, a weak opponent, I should use ‘Coalotion building’ to achieve a higher level outcome such as no using of safety glasses anymore . Because when Dale is in a weak leadership, a group will do better than the individual ,which would bring Dale much more stress and make he compromise more easily.
As to Dale II, a strong and tough opponent, the combination of ‘Pressure’ and ‘Coalotion building’would be a better way.I should threat Dale about our unsafe working environment with the company of my six-people group because the safety glasses make us take more chances.And I should use my two grandchildren as ‘Pressure’ instead of ‘ Emotional appeal’ based on the reason that Dale II seemed to care more about the company rather than the worker himself.
The most interesting part
The role play activity is really helpful to my daily life and future career.The most interesting part of this activity is that as a Pat I talked to two different Dale. I can experience distinctly different styles via this way and it really helps me understand the difference between diverse influence tactics.
Negotiation is almost everywhere. It has become an integral part of people’s daily life and it differs greatly in the methods and tactics people use.In my future study, I will pay more attention to the connotation of negotiation tactics and apply them more frequently and wisely.