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The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution Reservation System

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AP US Period 6 Review Sheets 2010 Chapter 26 -treaties at Fort Laramie and Fort Atkinson marked beginnings of reservation system in the West. They established boundaries for the territory of each tribe. – In 1860s government intensified this policy and herded the Indians into smaller confines, famous was the “Great Sioux reservation” in Dakota territory. Important Battles Important Massacres – Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864 Colonel J. M.

Chivington’s militia massacred 400 Indians who thought that they had been promised immunity – In 1866 a Sioux war party attempting to block construction of Bozeman Trail to Montana goldfields ambushed Captain William J.

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Fetterman’s command of soldiers and civilians in Wyoming’s Bighorn Mountains – In 1884 the government outlawed the sacred Sun Dance. When “Ghost Dance” spread to the Dakota Sioux the army stamped it out in 1890 at Battle of Wounded Knee The Black Hills – In 1874 Custer led a “scientific” expedition into Black Hills of South Dakota (part of Sioux reservation) and announced that he had discovered gold. Enraged Sioux began to leave the reservation – Custer’s Seventh Cavalry set out to suppress the Indians and to return them to the reservation.

They attacked 2,500 well-armed warriors camped along the Little Bighorn River in Montana. The “White Chief with Yellow Hair” and 264 officers and men were completely wiped out in 1876. Other Tribes – Apache tribes of Arizona and New Mexico were hardest to subdue. Led by Geronimo they were pursued into Mexico. Apaches eventually surrendered. They became successful farmers in Oklahoma. – Indians were “tamed” by railroads which shot right through the heart of the West. U. S. ould bring troops and settlers quickly. Also ruined by diseases and firewater. Extermination of Buffalo destroyed their way of life. Inspiring Literary Works – Helen Hunt Jackson was a Massachusetts writer of children’s literature published A Century of Dishonor. It chronicled the sorry record of government ruthlessness and chicanery in dealing with the Indians. Ramona inspired further sympathy for the California Indians – In 1890 the frontier line was closed inspiring one of the most influental essays ever written about American history—Frederick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” in 1893. The Coin’s Financial School (1894) was written by William Hope Harvey and showed how the little professor overwhelmed the bankers and professors of economics with his brilliant arguments on behalf of free silver. Assimilation of Indians – Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 dissolved many tribes as legal entities. It set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If Indians behaved themselves like “good white settlers” then they would get full title to their holdings, as well as citizenship, in 25 years. Full citizenship was granted to all Indians in 1924.

Fifty-Niners and Helldorados – In 1858 “fifty-niners” or “Pike’s Peakers” rushed west to rip at the ramparts of the Rockies. However, there were more miners than minerals. – Lucky strikes drew frantic miners in boomtowns, known as “Helldorados” – A spectacular feeder of the new slaughter-houses was the “Long Drive. ” The Frontier – Homestead Act of 1862 allowed a settler to aquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years. They would only have to pay a fee of $30. However many were not successful on their farms because of extreme droughts.

Corporations would send “dummy” homesteaders(employees bribed with cash or beer) to grab the best properties containing timber, minerals, and oil. – New technique of “dry farming” took root on plains. It included frequent shallow cultivation but over time contributed to the “Dust Bowl” several years later. – Barbed wire invented by Joseph F. Glidden solved the problem of how to build fences on the treeless prairies. Farmers Unite – The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry- known as the Grange- was organized in 1867. Its leader was Oliver H. Kelley.

His 1st objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities. Their next goal was improvement of farmers’ collective plight. To avoid the trusts, they established cooperatively owned stores for consumers and cooperatively owned grain elevators and warehouses for producers. – Farmers found a home in the Greenback Labor party. In election of 1880, they ran Gen. James B. Weaver, an old Granger, but he only polled 3 percent of popular Vote. – Discontent came through the Farmers’ Alliance founded in Texas in late 1870s.

The farmers came together to break the grip of the railroads and manufacturers through cooperative buying and selling. The alliance was weakened by ignoring landless tenant farmers, also by the exclusion of blacks. – Queen of Populist Party was Mary Elizabeth(“Mary Yellin’”) Lease. She demanded Kansans should raise “less corn and more hell. ” – In 1892 the Populist canidate James B. Weaver won more than 1 million votes. Panic – Most famous marcher was “General” Jacob S. Coxey. He set out for Washington in 1894 with many supporters.

He demanded that the government relieve unemployment by an inflationary public works program – Pullman Strike of 1894 in Chicago. Eugene V. Debs, a labor leader, had helped organize the American Railway Union of 150,000 members. The Pullman Palace Car Company was hit hard by the depression and cut wages by 1/3 but held the line on rent for the company houses. The workers struck and paralyzed railway traffic from Chicago to the Pacific coast. U. S. Attorney General Richard Olney urged the dispatch of federal troops. He claimed strikers were interfering with the U. S. mail.

Federal troops crushed the Pullman strike. Election of 1896 – William McKinley beat William Jennings Bryan in the election of 1896 Gold – The Gold Standard Act of 1900 provided that the paper currency be redeemed freely in gold. Yixin Shen Imperialism Packet 1. Increase Importance of Trade a. Foreign trade became increasingly important to the American economy in the late 19th century b. Exports in i. 1870- $392 million ii. 1890- $857 million iii. 1900- $1. 4 billion c. Americans were aware of the imperialist fever that was raging in Europe and leading powers to partition most of Africa among themselves . Intellectual Justification for Imperialism a. Josiah Strong declared that the Anglo Saxon represented the great ideas of Civil Liberty and pure Christianity and was “divinely commissioned” to spread its institutions b. John W Burgess stated that the Anglo Saxon and Teutonic nations possessed the highest political talents. c. It was their right to spread to the less fortunate countries 3. Alfred Thayer Mahan-sea captain a. Countries with sea powers were the great nations b. The greatness of the US would rest on its sea power c. The perquisites for sea power were i. A strong merchant marine i. A navy to defend trade routes iii. Colonies- to provide raw materials, markets, and serve as naval bases d. Mahan feared that the US did not have a large enough navy to play the role he envisioned 4. Hawaii a. The islands of Hawaii and Somoa had been an important station for ships to China. b. Pearl Harbor permanent base for US ships c. Hawaii had developed an agricultural and fishing society in different islands d. Arrival of merchants, missionaries and planters devastated Hawaiian society e. In 1887, US negotiated treaty with Hawaii that permitted US’s naval base (pearl Harbor) 5.

Queen Liliuokalani a. Hawaii did not accept US rule willingly. b. In 1891, they elevated a nationalist to throne, Queen Liliuokalani, who challenge the US c. In 1890, US eliminated Hawaii from the sugar in international trade d. As a response, Hawaii staged a revolution in 1983 for protection and escape from tariffs e. The provisional government of Hawaii sent delegation to DC to negotiate annexation. 6. Samoa a. Samoan islands has long served as a way station for American Ships in the Pacific b. Great Britain, Germany, and US agreed to share power over Samoa i. Created a protectorate c.

In 1899, U. S and Germany divided the islands between them and compensated Britain with territories elsewhere in the Pacific. 7. Spanish War-Controversy over Cuba a. War emerged out of the event in Cuba, Cubans had been resisting Spanish since 1868 b. In 1895, the Cubans rose up again to force the Spanish to leave. c. Spanish (General Weyler), confined civilians in areas to concentration camps i. Thousands died of malnutrition and disease ii. Butcher Weyler d. Growing population of Cubans emigres in US gave support to help the Cuban revolution. e. Chances of a peaceful settlement vanished because . Letter by Dupuy De Lome calling McKinley a weak president ii. The Maine (“Remember the Maine”) 8. Splendid Little War a. 460 American died in battle, 5200 died of disease b. Supply and Mobility issues i. Shortage of rifles and ammunition ii. Uniforms too heavy iii. Inadequate Medical supplies and services iv. Bad food c. Racial tensions continued in Cuba even though many blacks played crucial roles. 9. Seizing the Philippines a. George Dewey was instructed to attack Philippines once the war started b. May 1st, 1898, Dewey attacked Spanish Philippines, lost only 1 man. c.

What began as war to free Cuban became war to strip Spain’s Colonies. 10. Battle for Cuba a. Roosevelt’s rough riders became famous for charge up kettle hill directly into Spanish. b. Armistice ended war on August 12th i. Recognized independence of Cuba ii. Ceded Puerto Rico and Guam iii. Accepted US occupation un Manila 11. Puerto Rico a. Jones Act – made Puerto Rico as US territory and made all Puerto Ricans American citizens b. Sugar industry grew b/c it had the US market open to them 12. Debate over Philippines a. 4 options i. Return to Spain-cowardly and dishonorable ii.

Give to another imperialist power- bad business and discreditable iii. Grant independence- irresponsible iv. Keep it- only logical option 13. Treaty of Paris a. Anti imperialist league i. Fearing polluting the American population ii. Fearing cheap labor iii. Fearing army entanglement iv. Fearing threaten American liberties v. Fearing unwanted competition b. Pro Imperialist i. Business opportunities ii. More land iii. Because we could 14. The Philippine War a. Involved 200,000 troops and 43,000 deaths and 50,000 native deaths b. Philippines led by Emilio Aguinaldo c. Key to victory was the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo in 1961 5. Hay’s Open door notes a. Each nation with a sphere of influence in Chain had to respect other nations’ rights and privileges b. Chinese officials were to continue to collect tariff duties in all spheres c. Nations were not to discriminate in levying port dues and rail road rates. 16. Roosevelt a. “Speak softly and carry a big stick” b. Great White fleet to force Japan to sign treaty 17. Panama Canal a. Dispatched John Hay to negotiate an agreement with Columbian diplomats. b. US would pay c. Columbian wanted $20 million. 18. Panamanian revolt a. US helped panama b.

Got the deal $10 million and annual rental of $250,000 Chapter 28: America on the World Stage Review Sheet Intro: Filipinos expected independence. When they were denied, fighting began under Emilio Aguinaldo (Feb. 4, 1899). The fighting was long and sordid. Philippines: Filipinos fight as guerillas. American forces resorted to “water curing” in order to extract information—pouring water down victim’s throats until they died or spoke. Aguinaldo was captured in 1901, crippling the insurrection. Pres McKinley appoints the Philippine Commission to make recommendations. Called “benevolent assimilation”—moved slowly.

Money went in; education and infrastructure expanded. Most Flipinos emigrate to USA, the rest were given freedom on July 4, 1946. China: China defeated by Japan in 1895. Russia and Germany move in. American churches worry about missionaries, manufactures about markets. John Hay, Secretary of State, makes a bold move: 1899, sent out Open Door note. Declared fair competition and Chinese rights in all spheres of control. Italy accepted it—it had no holds in China. Brit, Germ, Fran, all accept conditionally. Russia declines. 1900, Boxers rise up, and kill two hundred missionaries/ Foreign forces quell Boxer Rebellion.

Powers demand money, USA takes $18 million. Hay now declares Open Door applicable to territory and commercial integrity. McKinley and Bryan, 1900: McKinley was renominated by Republicans in 1900. Teddy Roosevelt is VP (it was thought he would be less proactive than as gov of NY, where he served previously). Democrats take William Jennings Bryan. Bryan is pro silver. TR toured the country, and out did Bryan. Bryanites are anti-imperialism. McKinley wins 292-155. TR: Takes presidency in Sept 1901, when McKinley is assassinated. Age 42, youngest pres by far. High energy. He loved to fight. Speak softly, and carry a big stick”. He was an outspoken moralist and reformer. He was a direct-actionist. He made many mistakes, but he always led. Panama: After the Oregon’s navel blunder, America looks to build canal. Britain gives US permission in South America. USA settles on site of abandoned French project in Panama, created by Philippe Bunau-Varilla. New Panama Canal Company drops price from $109 million to $40 million. Columbia rejects the treaty which, if passed, would grant the USA 6 miles wide of land, for $10 million, and annual payments of $250K. TR’s Response to Panama: Panamanians revolt.

Bunau-Varilla raised a puppet army. The revolution occurred on Nov. 3, 1903. US navy wouldn’t allow Columbia to end revolt. Panama is recognized as a country, and three days later allow the canal to be built in a 10 mile stretch (not 6). Completing the Canal: US upset relations with South America. TR needed canal to be started by 1904 election time. Work starts slow, taken over by Colonel George Washington Goethals. Sanitation a major problem. 1914, Canal completed. TR and the Monroe Doctrine: Germany sank two Venezuelean gunboats, because Venez. was not paying debts.

TR feared violation of the Monroe Doctrine. He created “preventative intervention. ”—Roosevelt Corollary to M. D. Next, USA takes over management of Domincan Republic tariff collections. This intervention proved a success. TR gave off “bad neighbor” impression. TR and the World: Russia and Japan fight in 1904. Russia wants Chinese Manchuria. Japan fears Russia. Japanese use preemptive strike on Russia in Port Arthur. Japan was short on supplies, and requests America intervene for peace. The two sides met at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Japan wants Sakhalin Island. Russians won’t admit defeat.

Japan ends up with no indemnity for losses, and only southern part of Sakhalin. TR gets Nobel Peace Prize. Japanese in California: Japanese didn’t allow immigration to the US until 1884, with Hawaiian sugar plantations in need of labor. Millions then recruited to CA, to become servants and railroad workers. Faced racism and brutal work. San Fran orders segregation of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students—tensions soar. TR invited S. F. school board to the white house, and broke the deadlock. “gentleman’s agreement” created—Japan stops allowing immigration to America, and the segregation is repealed.

Then sent navy on trip around the world, to show Japan who is boss- “Great White Fleet. ” • Progressive-widespread many sided effort after 1900 to build a better society Progressive Thinking: • Fredrick W. Taylor- scientific management to stop inefficiency and social ills by making all aspects of life more efficient • Robert La Folette-progressive politician turned when bribed by a judge, came up with direct primary • Lochner v. New York (1905) – stopped law limiting working hours of bakers because said it violated liberty of contract o Emerged legal realism that the law should be on the side of betterment for society William James- society not shaped by unchanging laws, pragmatism: judge ideas by consequences the philosophical part of legal realism Wakening of Progressives: • Henry George wrote Progress and Poverty (1879) about America’s poverty wanted solution of land tax, it awoke many progressives o Edward Bellamy wrote Looking Backward (1888) and Demarest Lloyd wrote Wealth against Commonwealth (1894)which did the same thing • Socialist leader Eugene V. Debs also awoke progressives • Social Gospel emerged from Protestant churches for the social aims of Jesus Many progressives grew up in pious homes • Muckraking was a new form of journalism that exposed American life, most were moralists, term given to them by Teddy Roosevelt o Started by Lincoln Steffens article which exposed political machines and business o Ida M. Tarbell, David Graham Phillips, and William Hard were all muckrakers Women Progressives • Middle class women were some of the first progressives • Josehpine Shaw Lowell created New York Consumers’ League in 1890 to improve wages and working conditions for female clerks, created white list of cooperating stores Became National Consumers’ League in 1899 led by Florence Kelley and became lobbiest for protective legislation for women and children • Muller v Oregon (1908) limited women’s workday, National Consumer’s league hired Louis Brandeis who used evident showing it was bad for women’s health and family roles • Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr created Hull House in 1889 the first settlement house • The women’s suffrage movement began again especially in 1910 when Alice Paul who wanted a constitutional amendment for women’s suffrage o 1916 Paul crated National Woman’s Party 1903 National Women’s Trade Union League crated for organized women workers • Carrie Chapman Catt took over National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1916 • Feminism emerged in young college educated women who wanted freedom for full personal development, wanted right to vote because equal to men o Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Margaret Sanger (advocate for birth control) were feminists • Feminists and Jane Addam’s social reform didn’t mix because women didn’t want compensation or special legislation Progressive Politics: Robert La Follette wanted bosses unable to choose party candidates, wanted it chosen by popular vote o 1903 primary created which showed his democratic idealism • Progressive politicians wanted to change politics because felt it had changed from representative government o Came up with initiative (allowed citizens to have issues placed on ballots) and recall (that allowed public to remove officers) • Municipal reformers disliked patronage system and wanted more efficient government o Galverston, Texas business leaders replaced mayor with five member commission Urban masses became involved in progressive politics which counteracted municipal reform o Became urban liberalism who wanted active intervention by the state to help the middle classes • 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Company had a fire in the factory that killed many women, created much new labor legislation led by Robert Wagner and Alfred Smith who both worked with Tammany Hall o Realization that social problems too big to be covered by political machines • Political machines became reformers because attacked by candidates and saw errors of ways • Moral and cultural norms laws movement increased in 1900 Anti-saloon league wanted prohibition, said were revolt of decent citizens o Also wanted to restrict southern and eastern European immigration, didn’t want to become inferior so formed Immigration Restriction League • Urban liberals were against prohibition and anti immigrant proposals, democrats became urban liberals because immigrant vote • Organized labor such as AFL didn’t like urban idealism because labor movement attacked by courts o Danbury Hatters case (1908) ruled against a boycott and hurt ability to stop antitrust suits, courts also began prohibiting unions to strike or boycott AFL creates Bill of Grievances for Congress to grant unions immunity from antitrust suits and injunctions, got organized labor into politics • Liability favored employers and workplace was very dangerous, workers wanted insurance • Pensions, unemployment compensation, and health insurance not popular in US because pension system for Civil War veterans not favored, wouldn’t become popular until great depression Racism and Reform • Direct primary started in south and known as white primary, to exclude African Americans from nominating and basically disfranchised them White resentment grew when many African Americans migrated to the north and caused some race riots due to much racist feelings • Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William Monroe Trotter all African American reformers o Niagara Movement came from a meeting of African American supporters and it encouraged black pride, wanted civil and political equality, and denial blacks were inferior in any way • Mary White Ovington created a settlement house for urban African Americans and helped form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909 NAACP gained membership when Niagara Movement fell apart • National Urban League began working for social welfare, was interracial • In South social welfare left to black women who formed National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs in 1896 o Allowed to form because seemed unthreatening, joined with some white southern women Progressive Packet Part 2 (Replaces Ch. 30) Teddy Roosevelt o Expanded national forests, upgraded land management, prosecuted violators of fed land laws o Newlands Reclamation Act – uses $ from public land sales for irrigation in dry Westerns regions (1902) TR threatens gov’t takeover of mines ( mine owners cave and agree to workers’ demands. 1st time a president took the side of org. labor o Roosevelt (Rep) vs. Parker (Dem) ( Roosevelt wins in landslid <> o Bureau of Corporations – est. by TR to investigate business practice and add to Justice Dept. ’s capacity to mount anti-trust suits (1903) o Northern Securities Co v. U. S. – combo of NW RR systems, dissolved by court case. Reasserts authority of gov’t to fight monopolies under Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1904) o Trusts evaluated individually, TR decides whether they’re good or bad o Gentlemen’s Agreement w/ U.

S. Steel – they open their books to gov’t and if evidence of bad things comes up they’d be warned privately (1904) o Elkins Act of 1903 – prohibits discriminatory rates and rebates o Hepburn Railway Act – gave ICC power to set max. shipping rates and rebates, set uniform methods of bookkeeping. Court retains power to review ICC decisions (1906) o Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle ( Pure Food and Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act, and formation of the Food and Drug Administration Election of 1908 William H. Taft Chief of Forestry Gifford Pinchot accuses Ballinger of conspiring to transfer Alaskan public lands to private owners (Pinchot = TR’s buddy) o Taft fires Pinchot ( conflict w/ TR (Jan. 1910) Election of 1912 Woodrow Wilson o Promotes antitrust modifications, tariff revision, banking/currency reform Chapter 31 WWI People • Woodrow Wilson- president, attempted to keep US out of war, envoy to Paris for peace agreement • Arthur Zimmerman- German Foreign secretary, writer of Zimmerman telegram • George Creel- headed Committee of Public Information, US propaganda • Bernard Baruch-headed War Industries Board William H. Taft- headed National War Labor Board • Samuel Gompers- headed AF o L, loyally supported war • Herbert Hoover- headed Food Administration, led voluntary act to reduce usage of materials to save it for the troops • Bolsheviks- communist revolutionaries in Russia • John J. Pershing- leading American general, led Muese-Argonne offensive • Big Four- Wilson=US, Orlando=Italy, France=Clemenceau, Britain= George • Republicans Lodge, Borah, and Johnson- opposed to League and 14 points • Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge- Republican nomination of 1920 • James M. Cox and FDR- Democratic nomination of 1920 Kaiser Wilhelm II- leader of Germany • J. P. Morgan- bails out government • Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire • Archduke Franz Ferdinand- assassinated by member of the Black Hand, set off chain of events that would lead to war Places • France- western front, most US troops were stationed here • Russia- Bolshevik revolution • Archangel- US naval landing to prevent munitions from falling into German hands • Mexico- intended destination of Zimmerman telegram • Versailles- peace talks after war • Rhineland, Saar Valley, Fiume- fought over for possession by victorious allies • Shantung Peninsula- given to Japan Germany- aggressor Timeline • 1914- assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand • 1914- Austria-Hungary invades Serbia, chain reaction sets off WWI • 1915- sinking of Lusitania • 1915- Germany agrees to not attack unarmed ships • 1915- Sussex Pledge to not sink merchant shipping • 1916- Wilson beats Hughes in reelection • 1917- Germany launches unrestricted Submarine Warfare • 1917- Zimmerman telegram sent to Mexico offering American Southwest in return for invasion of US • 1917- Russian Revolution • 1917- US declares war • 1918- armistice signed outside of Redonthes, France • 1919- Treaty of Versailles signed but not ratified by US

Acts • Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918- made protests of war illegal • Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921- federally financed instruction in maternal and infant health care • Treaty of Versailles- not ratified by US, tried to pass with Lodge reservations but still failed • 18th amendment- sale, possession, distribution of alcohol becomes illegal • 20th amendment- Women’s suffrage • Fourteen Points- a) No secret treaties b) Freedom of the seas to be maintained c) Removal of economic barriers from nations d) Reduce arms e) Adjust colonial claims for natives and colonizers alike f) Self-determination ) League of Nations h) Others as well Government-run institutions • Committee on Public Information- US propaganda • Council of National Defense- study problems with mobilization and launched ship building program • War Industries Board- in charge of production • Food Administration- encouraged companies and the public to save food for war effort • Fuel Administration- encouraged people to save energy material for war effort • Liberty Loans and War bonds- to raise money for war Chapter 32 Study Guide • “Red Scare” – 1919-1921 crusade against left-wingers o Mitchell Palmer : “the Fighting Quaker” Alien radicals deported on Buford to Russia • Sacco and Vanzetti Trial – atheists and anarchists convicted of murder and executed (prejudiced jury) • Klu Klux Klan forms – anti African, anti foreigner;Pro-“native” or protestant • Emergency Quota Act of 1921 – newcomers from Europe set to a quota per year o Favorable to south/eastern Europe o 3% of national origins base • Immigration Act of 1924 – cuts quota to 2% • Prohibition: Eighteenth Amendment put in through Volstead Act o Didn’t help much – many still drank and spoke out against law o “homebrew”– lead to some deaths overall, bank savings and absenteeism improved but people still don’t like the law • Gangsterism rises with bootlegging o Al Capone – St. Valentine’s Day Massacre o Huge business – netted millions each year • Kidnapping/ murder of Charles Lindberg’s son o Lindberg Law 1932 – interstate kidnapping=death penalty offense • Professor John Dewey and progressive education “education for life” • Rockefeller Foundation helps destroy hookworm through public health campaign • Many states try to outlaw teaching Darwin’s evolution • “Monkey Trial”: Scopes Trial in Tennessee clash between theology and biology ? William Jennings Bryant for prosecution ? hollow victory for fundamentalists • Cars! o Henry Ford – assembly line production of the Model T o Fredrick Taylor – stopwatch efficiency techniques o Petroleum became new huge business o Become a nation of commuters – more spreading out o Many people die in car accidents; more pollution o Parents worry about what kids do in cars (moral issue) • Bruce Barton=father of advertising – new industry in America • Sports became big business – Babe Ruth • Buying on credit Orville and Wilbur Wright – Kitty Hawk, NC; first flight • Charles Lindbergh is the first man to fly solo over the Atlantic Ocean o National hero • Air industry begins to grow • Railroads lose passengers/business to airlines • Marconi develops telegraph in 1890 • 1920 Pittsburg radio station transmits news over air • Soon, long distance broadcasting available • Radio unites country with nationalized broadcasting • The Great Train Robbery is the first film • Public forces code of censorship on movie industry in Hollywood • First talkie= The Jazz Singer Americans now mostly live in urban areas • Margaret Sanger – birth control • Alice Paul’s National Women’s Party • Fundamentalists fall to Modernists in religion • “Flappers” – new ways of expressing freedom for women. Short hair/dresses o one piece bathing suits • jazz music becomes popular with youth • black pride in north – Harlem renaissance o Langston Hughes o Marcus Garvey – United Negro Improvement Association • New morals/ways of writing after the war • HL Mencken – American Mercury • F.

Scott Fitzgerald – This Side of Paradise, The Great Gatsby • Theodore Dreiser – An American Tragedy • Ernest Hemmingway – The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms • Sherwood Anderson – Winesburg, Ohio • Sinclair Lewis – Main Street, Babbitt (materialism) • William Faulkner – Soldier’s Pay, As I Lay Dying, The Sound and the Fury • Ezra Pound, TS Elliot, EE Cummings, Robert Frost= poets • Frank Lloyd Wright – architecture • Hundreds of banks failing • Speculation was running wild • Everyone buying stocks “on margin” • Bureau of the Budget created – help prepare budget with the president Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon’s tax policies favor expansion of capital investment • Mellon’s tax cuts and reforms exempt the rich – burden falls on middle class • Reduces national debt, but accused of helping to fuel bull market Callie Clifton Period 6 Chapter 35 – FDR and WWII Important People Franklin D. Roosevelt – 32nd President of the United States, in office during WWII Winston Churchill – Prime Minister of Great Britain Joseph Stalin – Communist leader of Russia Adolph Hitler – Nazi leader of Germany Benito Mussolini – Fascists leader of Italy

Cordell Hull – Secretary of State under FDR, proposed Reciprocal Trade Francisco Franco – Fascist Revolutionary leader in Spain Charles Lindbergh – leader of “America First” isolationist group Wendell Willkie – 1940 Republican presidential candidate Timeline 1933 – London Economic Conference ended unsuccessfully when FDR refused to send U. S. delegates 1933 – Good Neighbor Policy, FDR’s new policy toward Latin America, included removal of U. S. presence, trying to establish better relations with Latin America 1934 – Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, proposed by Hull, lowered international tariffs and increased U.

S. exports 1935 – Ethiopia invaded by Mussolini & Italy 1935 – Neutrality Acts, stated when president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, no American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent. FDR’s attempt to avoid involvement in Europe 1936 – Spanish Civil Wars, ended in 1939 – Fascist rebels led by Franco (aided by Hitler & Mussolini ) against loyalist gov’t (aided by Stalin), arms embargo in Neutrality Acts made it impossible for Loyalists to buy munitions from U.

S 1936 – Rhineland invaded by Hitler, violating Treaty of Versailles 1397 – Quarantine Speech delivered by FDR, urging to keep WWII conflict in Europe 1938 – Austria invaded by Hitler 1938 – Munich Conference – Western Europe’s attempt to appease Hitler by conceding Sudetenland 1938 – Sudetenland, the German-inhabited land of Czechoslovakia, given to Germany after Munich appeasements 1939 – Nazi-Soviet pact made by Hitler and Stalin 1939 – Poland Invaded by Germany 1939 – Great Britain & France declare war on Germany following the invasion of Poland 1940 – France surrenders to Germany 940 – Peacetime draft established in U. S. for the first time 1940 – FDR beats Willkie in presidential election and begins his third term 1941 – Lend-Lease Act supplied victims of aggression with limitless arms in hopes that the war would remain in Europe 1941 – Soviet Union attacked by Germany 1941 – Atlantic Conference held following the German attack on the Soviet Union, attended by Stalin, Roosevelt, & Churchill, spawned eight-point Atlantic Charter 1941 – Atlantic Charter – laid out 8 goals for end of the war 1941 – Pearl Harbor – naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japan on December 7 1941 – U.

S. declaration of war – December 11 Culture • Huge push for Isolationism following WWI and the Great Depression • Isolationism apparent in Quarantine Speech, Isolationist groups such as “America First” Ch. 34: The Great Depression Candice Stefanic Causes of the Depression: Hoover o Laissez-faire o Opposed $ directly to the people o “trickle-down” economics o $ to aid insurance co. , banks, agricultural org. , railroads, & local gov’ts o Bonus Army: Veterans who want bonus payments for their service o Gen.

MacArthur – forcefully evacuated the “Bonus Army” from D. C. with bayonets and tear gas Effects of the Great Depression o Hoovervilles, Boxcar transients, Bonus Army o Marriages are delayed until later, slower population growth, families brought closer and extended family is more important <> Increased crime o More theft, riots, and social unrest FDR o Hundred Days (March 6 – June 16, 1933) ? Relief goals: short-range & immediate recovery ? Recovery goals: long-range & permanent recovery ?

Reform: fix current abuses including those that produce boom or bust o Emergency Banking Relief Act (1933): gave president power to regulate banking transactions & foreign exchange and the power to reopen solvent banks o Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): provided employment in fresh-air camps (reforestation, fire fighting, flood control) for 3 million men o Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA): led by Harry Hopkins – granted $3 billion to states for direct payments of wages on work projects o Agricultural Adjustment Admin. AAA): paid growers to reduce crop acreage o Civil Works Admin. (CWA): provided jobs during winter emergency o National Recovery Admin. (NRA): designed to assist industry, labor, and unemployed ? Individual industries worked out codes of “fair competition” and max # of hours & min for wages o Public Works Admin. (PWA): led by Harrry L. Ickes – created 34,000 public projects and was intended for recovery and unemployment o Federal Housing Admin. FHA): to speed recovery and better homes o US Housing Authority (USFA): to lend $ to states or communities for lowering the cost of construction o Social Security Act (1935): federal-state unemployment insurance and regular payments to retired workers from Washington o This brought full employment and cheap electric power Protest of the New Deal o Upton Sinclair: New Deal not radical enough o Communists & Socialists o Huey Long: “share the wealth program”, “soap the rich” o Dr. Charles Townsend CIO: demanded higher wages, “sit-down” strikes ? FDR responded with Social Security Act and Wagner Act o Charles Coughlin (Radio Priest): anti-Semite, accused New Deal to be a “Jew Deal” and socialist o Liberty League o Republicans o Charles Lindberg & American Firsters ? All complained about the New Deal giving too much power to the president, running up a huge nat’l debt, hurting private companies, and being too bureaucratic/ dehumanizing people • FDR responded by adding more court justices and a deficit to cure debt

Chapter 36: WWII Nate Zipkin Key Terms: • War Production Board (WPB) – assigned priorities for American industry for war • Office of Price Administration (OPA) – decreased prices to help inflation • War Labor Board (WLB) – Imposed wage increase maximum; sparked union strikes • Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943) – Allowed gov’t to seize and operate businesses to prevent strikes during war • Braceros – Mexicans brought in to harvest the west while soldiers were at war • WAAC – Women’s army • WAVE – Women’s navy • SPAR – Women’s coast guard Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) – Forbid discrimination in defense industries • Mechanical cotton picker – Solved need for cheap labor in the South Key People and Events: • Korematsu vs. U. S. (1944) – Supreme upholds constitutionality of Jap camps • A. Philip Randolph – Head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; wanted equality • General MacArthur – surrenderred in the Philipines; he and his troops were brutalized during Bataan Death March • Battle of Coral Sea (1942) – Battle of carrier-based aircrafts in Pacific • Battle of Midway (1942) – Another carrier battle; Major turning point in favor of U.

S. • Admiral Chester Nimitz – Directed carrier forces • Leyte Gulf (1944) – MacArthur takes out Japanese navy • Iwo Jima (1945) – Bloody battle, but eventually capture and used for refuge of damaged bombers • El Alamein (1942) – Turning point in favor of allies in North Africa • Stalingrad (1942) – Russians repel German onslaught • Casablanca (1943) – FDR and Churchill agreed to attack Sicily • Sicily (1943) – Falls to Allies in August, Italy surrenders, Mussolini killed • Rome (1944) – Held by Germans until June 4th battle D-Day (1944) – Allies break through German forces at Normandy • General Patton – Led armored divisions more quickly than Germans could handle • Paris – Liberated August 1994 • Aachen (1944) – First German city to fall • Ardennes Forest – Battle of the Bulge takes place; Hitler fails to cut off Ally Supplies • Berlin (1945) – Falls to Soviets • Hitler’s Suicide – April 30, 1945 • German Surrender – May 7, 1945 • Manhattan Project – Use of the atomic bomb • Hiroshima/Nagasaki (1945) – Japanese cities nuked • Japanese Surrender – August 10, 1945; war ends September 2, 1945

Conferences Tehran (1943): • Invasion of France set for May/June 1944 (2nd Front) • Germany to be divided into zones of occupation after the war • Stalin promises to enter war against Japan after Hitler defeated Yalta (Feb, 1945): • Stalin pledges free elections in Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania • UN to be established in San Fransico, April 1945 • Stalin to declare war on Japan 3 months after Hitler’s deaft, receive Asian conessions • Stalin promises to support Chiang Kai-Shek over communist Mao Zedong Potsdam (Jul, 1945) Germany to be divided in 4 zones of occupation; each of the four world powers, U. S. , England, France, and the USSR, to oversee economy of their assigned zone • Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal set to be established • Truman issues Potsdam Declaration to Japan: Surrender or be destroyed Key Themes: Women in the War – contribute in the field and industry; gain confidence Propaganda – used to trick Americans into dogmatically supporting WWII and the Allies *Soft Underbelly* – Allies decide to go through North Africa to get to the weak link or, “soft underbelly” of the Axis, Italy *Island

Hopping* – U. S. navy would take over Islands in the Pacific as they would clsoe in on Tokyo Holocaust – 6 million Jews killed in concentration camps; not discovered until Apr. 1945 Minorities: • Navajo code talkers used to avoid German eavesdropping • Zoot Suit Riots – Latino youths rebel against Marines in LA • Tuskegee Airmen – Herioc black flight group • Endo Case (Ex Parte Endo) – ruled that Japanese born Americans could not be forced to leave The Cold War Key Events 941: Roosevelt and Churchill draft Atlantic Charter – outlined a world in which nations governed their relations with one another through democratic processes, with an international organization serving as the arbiter of disputes and the protection of every nation’s rights of self-determination 1943: Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet at Teheran Conference 1944: GI Bill of Rights enacted – provided economic and educational assistance to veterans 1945: Yalta Conference – In return for Stalin’s renewed promise to enter the Pacific War, Roosevelt agreed that the Soviet Union should receive some of the territory in the Pacific that Russia had lost in the Russo-Japanese War; agree to a plan for the United Nations Roosevelt dies; Harry S.

Truman becomes president – Truman had almost no familiarity with international issues and mistrusted the Soviet Union Potsdam Conference – Potsdam Agreement transferred authority in Germany to the American, Russian, British, and French military commanders in their respective zones of occupation and to a four-power Allied Control Council for matters regarding Germany as a whole. The Allies set up a new system of rule for Germany. United Nations founded 1946: Atomic Energy Commission Established – became the supervisory body charged with overseeing all nuclear research 1947: Truman Doctrine announced – rather than attempting to create a unified “open” world, the United States and its allies would work to “contain” the threat of further Soviet expansion Marshall Plan proposed – announced by Secretary of State George C. Marshall as a plan to provide economic assistance to all European nations that would join in drafting a program for recovery National Security Act passed – reshaped the U. S. s major military and diplomatic institutions by instituting a new Department of Defense which would oversee all branches of the armed forces; by establishing a National Security Council that would govern foreign and military policy; by creating a Central Intelligence Agency that would be responsible for collecting information through both open and covert methods Taft-Hartley Act passed – made workplaces in which no one can be hired without first being a member of a union illegal Federal employee loyalty program launched – the Truman administration authorized sensitive agencies to fire people deemed no more than “bad security risks” 1948: Economic Cooperation Administration established – a United States government agency set up in 1948 to administer the Marshall Plan Selective Service System (Independent agency responsible for implementing a military draft ) restored Berlin blockade prompts U. S. airlift Truman elected president – ran against Strom Thurmond of the States’ Rights (“Dixiecrat”) Party, Henry A. Wallace of the Progressive Party, and Thomas E. Dewey of the Democratic Party Alger Hiss case begins – Hiss was accused of being a spy for the Soviet Union in 1948 and convicted of perjury in association with this allegation in 1950 1949: NATO established – North Atlantic Treaty Organization Communists seize power in China 1950: NSC-68 outlines new U. S. policy toward communism Korean War begins American troops enter North Korea • Chinese troops enter Korean War McCarran Act passed – this act made the registration of communist organizations and individuals compulsory, banned the service of communists in defense jobs, and denied US entry to any person belonging to a communist or fascist organization. Fuchs-Rosenberg case begins – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were American communists who were executed for conspiracy to commit espionage; the allegations had to do with passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

Joseph McCarthy begins campaign against communists in government –“McCarthyism” 1951: Truman removes MacArthur from command in Korea 1952: American occupation of Japan ends Dwight D. Eisenhower elected president Truman and the Cold War: 1945 – 1952 Society: • G. I. Bill—supported the transition of 15 million veterans into a peacetime economy o Helped with the economic growth and higher education • Baby boom—explosion of younger marriages and births and larger families • Women—tended to their families but the trend of more women in the workplace continued • Suburban growth—Levittowns—Levitt designed 17,000 mass-produced, low-priced family homes on Long Island, NY Very affordable, caused suburbs to grow and cities to fall apart Politics: • Truman’s goal was to continue FDR’s New Deal with his own Fair Deal. He was constantly impeded by the conservative Congress, though he did get some legislation to pass. • 22nd Amendment (1951) o Reaction: FDR elected president four times o Purpose: limit a president to maximum of two full terms in office Civil Rights: • Truman made the Committee of Civil Rights in 1946 • Strengthened the civil rights division of the Justice Department, which helped black leaders end segregation in schools • In 1948, he ended all racial discrimination in the departments of the federal government and in the military Truman urged Congress to create a Fair Employment Practices Commission that would prevent employers from discriminating against the hiring of African Americans, which was blocked Economy: • Employment Act of 1946– created a Council of Economic Advisers to counsel both the president and Congress on means of promoting national economic welfare • Inflation skyrocketed because Congress relaxed the controls of the office of Price Administration • Taft-Hartley Act (1947) o Pro-business o “slave-labor bill”—vetoed by Truman, overrode by Congress o Purpose: check the growing power of unions ? Outlawed the closed shop ? outlawing the union shop ? Outlawed secondary boycotts Effect 1: Unions’ goal was to repeal the Taft-Hartley Act • Effect 2: The Taft-Hartley Act divided the Republicans and Democrats Cold War Origins • Ideological differences: Communism vs. Democracy (spheres of influence) • American established the second front too late • Poland and Germany were in dispute • Iron Curtain Cold War terms • United Nations—has a General Assembly and Security Council, made to keep world peace • The Truman Doctrine—asked for $400 million in economic and military aid to assist the “free people “of Greece and Turkey against “totalitarian” regimes • The Marshall Plan – US economic aid to help the economy of Europe and at the same time strengthen democratic governments $12B in aid was approved for distribution to the countries of Western Europe over a 4-year period ? Effect 1: Marshall Plan was a success—massive infusion of US dollars helped Western Europe achieve self-sustaining growth by the 1950s and ended any real threat of Communism in this area ? Effect 2: bolstered US prosperity by increasing US exports to Europe ? Effect 3: deepened the rift between the non-Communist West and the Communist East • NATO—a military alliance for defending all member from outside attack o Soviet Union makes Warsaw Pact • National Security Act of 1947— made a centralized Department of Defense to coordinate the operations of the Army, Navy, and Air Force Created the National Security Council (NSC) to coordinate the making of foreign policy in the Cold War o Created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to employ spies to gather info on foreign governments o A peacetime draft and the Selective Service System • NSC-68, that the following measures were necessary for fighting the Cold War: o Quadruple the US gov’t defense spending to 20% of GNP o Form alliances with non-Communist countries o Convince American public that a costly arms buildup was crucial for the nation’s defense • Korean War—the worst military defeat America ever had o MacArthur was recalled for insubordination • Second Red Scare—set up a Loyalty Review Board to investigate federal employees McCarthyism—accused 205 federal employees of Communism o Hiss Case—Alger Hiss was accused as a spy, convicted o Rosenberg Case—Rosenbergs were accused of giving atomic bomb secrets to Soviet Union, executed • Massive Retaliation—Dulles wanted to rely on nuclear weapons • Eisenhower exercises restraint—does not go into Vietnam or intervene in Hungarian Revolution of 1956 • U-2 Crisis—A U-2 spy plane flew into Soviet air space, was shot down, and the pilot Gary Powers was put in captivity Civil Rights Packet People • Jackie Robinson • Truman • Martin Luther King Jr. • Rosa Parks • Lyndon B. Johnson • Eisenhower • Anne Moody • Mimi Feingold • James Meredith • Governor Ross Barnett • Kennedy James Baldwin • Malcolm X • Richard Nixon • Stokely Carmichael • John C. Stennis • Allan Bakke • Jimmy Carter • Andrew Young • Cesar Chavez • Betty Freidan Places • Little Rock, Arkansas • Montgomery, Alabama • Birmingham, Alabama • Alcatraz • Wounded knee Evens • Brown v. Board of Education • March on Washington • I have a dream speech (MLK Jr. ) • Assassination of MLK Jr. • Assassination of Kennedy • Assassination of Malcolm X • Stonewall riot Key terms • Civil Rights Act of 1957- civil rights commission • Civil Rights Act of 1960- penalties for people who interfere with black voting rights • Civil Rights act of 1964- passed by Johnson • NAACP CORE- congress of racial equality • SCLC- southern Christian leadership conference • SNCC- student nonviolence coordinating committee • Sit-ins • Freedom rides • Voting Rights Act of 1965- appoints federal examiners to register voters where local officials were barring blacks • Black Power • De facto segregation • De jure segregation • Reverse discrimination • Mexican Americans o MAPA- Mexican American Political Association o Brown Berets o Chicano o La Raza Unida o Bilingual education o UFW- united farm workers • Native Americans o AIM- American Indian movement o Red ghettos o Indians of all tribes • Birth control • The feminism mystique NOW- national organization for women • Women’s liberationists Key themes • Feminism • Nonviolence Timeline 1948: Truman integrates the army 1954: Brown v. Board of Education 1955: Montgomery Bus Boycott 1957: Civil rights act of 1957 1957: Little Rock 1960: sit-ins 1961: freedom rides 1962: James Meredith 1963: Birmingham, AL 1963: March on Washington 1963: JFK assassinated 1964: civil rights act of 1964 1964-65: Freedom Summer 1965: Voting Rights Act 1965: Malcolm X assassinated 1965: RFK killed 1968-71: riots 1971: busing decision 1978: Bakke Case Cassidy 1960’s Terms: Alliance for Progress – Program to develop Latin America via social reform and economic aid.

Camelot – Nickname for the mythical and glamorous Kennedy administration. Cuban Missile Crisis – Tense period of Cold War negotiations over Cuban launching sites. Great Society – Johnson’s comprehensive system of new social reforms. [see table] Green Berets – Nickname for Special Forces; sent into Vietnam prior to full-on war. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – Essentially a declaration of war upon the North Vietnamese. Limited Test Ban Treaty – Outlawed some, though not all, nuclear testing. [US, UK, USSR] New Frontier – Kennedy’s goal of scientific (space and technology races) and social growth. War on Poverty – Goal of LBJ to reduce then-ludicrous poverty rates through federal action. Great Society Programs |Program Effect | |Civil Rights Act 1964 |Outlaws poll taxes, employment and hospitality discrimination. | |Economic Opportunity Act |Funded and backed the War on Poverty, Job Corps. | |Voting Rights Act 1965 |Federal election monitoring, no poll taxes. | |Medicare/Medicaid |Federal medical care for elderly/low-income patients. | |Higher Education Act |Federal funding for colleges and student loans. | |National Endowment for the Arts |Federal funding for arts and humanities programs | |Civil Rights Act 1968 |Racial discrimination in housing outlawed. | People:

John Fitzgerald Kennedy: 35th President, 1961-63, brother of Robert and Ted. Jacqueline Kennedy: First Lady of JFK, iconic figure in fashion and pop culture. Robert McNamara: Secretary of Defense, suggested blockade of Cuba. Lyndon Baines Johnson: 36th President, 1963-1969, VP to JFK. Nikita Khrushchev: Leader of the Soviet Union, 1953-1964. Robert Francis Kennedy: Candidate for Democratic presidential nomination in 1968. Events: 1960: Kennedy elected with a miniscule margin over Nixon, largely due to televised debates. 1961: April 12: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human to orbit the Earth. April 17: Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba fails disastrously.

June: Vienna summit with Khrushchev has him criticizing and ignoring Kennedy. August 13: The Berlin Wall constructed by Soviets and East Germans. 1962: February: John Glenn orbits Earth. October 15: Photos of launching sites in Cuba ignite the Cuban Missile Crisis. October 22: Blockade of Cuba instigated by Kennedy October 28: Agreement: Missiles removed from Cuba for missiles removed from Turkey. 1963: July: Limited Test Ban Treaty signed, a major foreign policy achievement for Kennedy. November 22: John Kennedy assassinated in Dallas by Lee Harvey Oswald… maybe. 1964: August: Gulf of Tonkin resolution due to Vietnamese firing at our ships… maybe.

November: Johnson elected over Republican Barry Goldwater by a landslide. 1968: April 4: Martin Luther King assassinated in Memphis by James Earl Ray. June 5: Robert Kennedy assassinated in Los Angeles by Sirhan Sirhan. November: Hubert Humphrey of the Democrats and George Wallace of the segregationist American Independent Party beat by Republican Nixon’s “law and order” policies. 1969:July 20: Moon landing by Apollo 11, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. Sebastien’s VIETNAM Vietnam was a French colony. Japan captured it in WW2, and after the war it was given back to France. The Viet Minh fought for independence from French rule, and received a lot of guns and money from China and the USSR.

After the battle of Dien Bien Phu, the French left, and the country was split into the Communist North Vietnam and the capitalist South Vietnam, as dictated by the Geneva Conference. The 17th Parallel divided the country. The US sent in advisors and aid to S. Vietnam. JFK sends in Green Berets to help. After N. Vietnamese ships fire at US ships, Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, allowing unlimited force to be used against N. Vietnam. LBJ orders Operation Rolling Thunder, a bombing campaign against N. Vietnam. US Marines land at Da Nang in 1965. Battle of La Drang shows N. Vietnamese that they can’t win in a straight fight, so they use guerilla warfare. LBJ sends in more and more troops, and the US fights a war of attrition against the Viet Cong. The war escalates. The N.

Vietnamese army attacks the marine base of Khe Sahn, and Vietcong forces infiltrate many S. Vietnamese cities, and in the Tet Offensive, they broke a truce and attacked. Though the US won militarily, TV footage of the battle made it seem like we lost. Antiwar sentiment rose. Nixon wins election on Vietnamization platform, which gave more responsibility back to the S. Vietnamese. The N. Vietnamese had been using the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia to move supplies. Nixon ordered the Secret Bombing of Cambodia to disrupt the trail, but it failed. The My Lai Massacre reduces public support. Nixon also ordered the Christmas Bombings to strengthen the US position in the peace talks. Presidents:

Truman: Sends $ and advisors to help the French keep control. Eisenhower: Sends more $ and more advisors, but now to South Vietnam. Puts Diem, a catholic anti-communist, in power. JFK: Continues $ and advisors, and sends in the Green Berets (special forces). Supports a coup which kills Diem. LBJ: Escalates war. Orders Operation Rolling Thunder, and sends in more and more troops. Nixon: Vietnamization, and withdraws troops. Orders bombing of Cambodia, and the Christmas bombings. Makes peace deal which ends US involvment. People/ Groups: Ho Chi Minh: Leader of North Vietnam. Diem: Catholic anti-communist, put in power by US until he was killed in a coup. Persecuted Buddhists.

Robert McNamara: Secretary of Defense for LBJ Thieu: Elected President of S. Vietnam after Diem and military junta. Daniel Ellsberg: Published Pentagon Papers. Seymour Hersch: New York Times reporter, broke My Lai Massacre story. Key Terms Viet Cong: South Vietnamese insurgents Battle of Dien Bien Phu: French Defeated, leave Vietnam 17th Parallel: dividing line between North and South Saigon: Capital of South Vietnam Hanoi: Capital of North Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Passed by congress after US navy ships were attacked, let the president use force against North Vietnam. Operation Rolling Thunder: massive bombing campaign against N. Vietnam, first US involvement.

Da Nang and La Drang: US Marines land at Da Nang, the first US combat troops. At La Drang, the 101st Airborne defeats N. Vietnamese army, leading to guerilla war. Ho Chi Minh Trail: Trail through Laos and Cambodia that supplied Viet Cong. Khe Sahn: US marine base, attacked by NVA. Tet Offensive: Massive Vietcong offensive during Tet holiday, many cities were attacked. US won, but TV coverage led to bad publicity. Agent Orange: Chemical defoliant, caused birth defects and cancer, very bad. Vietnamization: Nixon’s campaign, the replacement of US troops with Vietnamese. Secret Bombing of Cambodia: Nixon ordered this, it really pissed people off. Khmer Rouge: took control of Cambodia after war, started a genocide.

Pentagon Papers: secret documents that were leaked, detailed secret stuff the US did in Vietnam, angered people My Lai Massacre: US troops massacre innocent civilians, angers people Christmas Bombings: Nixon orders these to strengthen US negotiating position. Antiwar Movement: SDS: Students for a democratic society, campaigned for free speech. New Left: Antiwar protesters Teach Ins: Students didn’t learn in class, instead talked about the war Draft: People were particularly opposed to this, many left country. Hippies: Symbolized the counterculture, lots of drug use, anti-establishment The Beatles: very popular and influential, widened generation gap Woodstock: 3 day music festival, lots of drugs, hippies, and sex Kent State: Students protesting the war were fired upon by panicked National Guard troops, 4 students killed.

RFK: Robert Kennedy, popular, leading democrat, assassinated in 1968 Democratic National Convention: McGovern, McCarthy, and Humphrey all competed for democratic nomination, the convention in Chicago turned into a riot because of Yuppies, Humphrey eventually won. Election of 1968: Nixon won in a very close race, because of “Southern Strategy”. Wallace of Alabama took democratic votes with a segregationist party Timeline: 1954: Dien Bien Phu 1960: Viet Cong and Ho Chi Minh trail created 1961: Kennedy elected 1963: Kennedy assassinated, Diem killed in coup 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1965: Rolling Thunder, Da Nang, La Drang 1968: Democratic National Convention, Tet Offensive, Khe Sahn, Woodstock 1969: Nixon elected, Vietnamization begins 1970: Secret Bombing of Cambodia, Kent State 1971: My Lai massacre exposed 1973: Christmas bombings, the US withdraws from Vietnam 975: South Vietnam falls, all of Vietnam is Communist 1970s MJ CHAPTER 40—1970s Important People • Richard M. Nixon—President, approved Food Stamp, Medicaid, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and Supplemental Security Income (SSI—gave benefits to the indigent aged, blind, and disabled); very cynical, forced to resign because of the Watergate Scandal • Dr. Henry A. Kissinger—Nixon’s national security advisor • Earl Warren—Chief Justice appointed in 1953, known for activist views and ruled several Supreme Court cases: o Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) struck down state law prohibiting use of contraceptives based on the “right to privacy;” o Gideon v.

Wainwright (1963) all defendants in serious criminal court cases have a right to legal counsel o Escobedo (1964 and Miranda (1966) accused have the right to remain silent o New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) public figures may not sue for libel without proof of malice motivating the defamers o Engel v. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township v. Schempp (1963) no requirements for prayers or bible readings in public schools o Reynolds v. Sims (1964) state legislatures must be apportioned according to humans and not cows • Warren E. Burger—Nixon’s ‘conservative’ replacement for Earl Warren as Chief Justice, made the Roe v. Wade (1973) ruling legalizing abortion • Rachel Carson—wrote Silent Spring 1962 George McGovern—South Dakota senator and presidential candidate from the Democrats, appealed to anti-war movement, racial minorities, feminist, leftists, etc; running mate Missouri senator Thomas Eagleton is forced from the campaign by psychiatric care • Phyllis Schlafly—leader of the anti-ERA movement, woman • Gerald “Jerry” Ford—unelected president to succeed Nixon, thought of as incompetent • James “Jimmy” Earl Carter—president following Ford, created the Department of Energy, highly intellectual, thought America was afflicted by a malaise Annotated Timeline 1969 o January 20—Nixon inaugurated President o Nixon appoints Warren E. Burger to replace Early Warren as Chief Justice o Nixon enacts the Philadelphia Plan—required the construction-trade unions working on federal contracts to establish goals and timetable for the hiring of black apprentices 1970 Nixon creates the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) o Nixon passes the Clean Air Act, the endangered Species Act o Indian activists seize Alcatraz 1971 o Nixon imposes a 90 day wage and price freeze and removes the dollar from the gold standard and devalues it breaking with the “Bretton Woods” system of international currency stabilization o Nixon announces he accepted invitation to visit China o Griggs v. Duke Power Co. —prohibited intelligence tests or other devices with the effects of excluding minorities or women from certain jobs o Reed v Reed—challenged sex discrimination 1972 o February—Nixon visits Beijing May—Nixon visits Moscow and uses his prior visit with China to deal with Soviets crafting a grain trade of US selling USSR for $750 million of wheat, corn, and other cereals and signs SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) which froze the number of long range missiles for 5 years o North Vietnamese break through the DMZ along the 17th parallel and Nixon launches a bombing campaign and mines Northern harbors stop it o June 17—Watergate burglary attempt of the plumbers for the Republican Committee for Re-election (CREEP) o Nixon employs the southern strategy for presidential election(soft-pedals civil rights and openly opposes school busing to find racial balance; Nixon wins against McGovern in every state except Massachusetts o Congress passes Title X! of the Education Amendments prohibiting sexual discrimination o Indian activists sieze Wounded Knee in South Dakota 1973 o Frontiero v Richardson—challenged sex discrimination o January 23—North Vietnamese agree to a cease-fire John Dean III testifies against Nixon in a series of hearing under Senator Sam Ervin o July—Watergate tapes leaked; US bombing of Cambodia becomes public information o October10 —Vice President Agnew forced to resign for kickbacks; replaced by Gerald “Jerry” Ford o October 20—Saturday Night Massacre—Archibald Cox issued for a subpoena to investigate Nixon who tried to fire him; Attorney General and Deputy Attorney General resign in refusal to fire Cox o October—Syrians and Egyptians attack Israel to regain land lost in the 6 Day War of 1967 but end in a ceasefire because of US military supplies airlifted to Israel—in retaliation the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) places an oil embargo on the US 1974 o OPEC embargo ends but prices remain high o Nixon agrees to release of relevant tapes o July 24—Supreme Court rules against executive privilege in the case of criminal activity and tapes are released o June 23—Nixon makes all the tapes incriminating him public o August 8—Nixon resigns and Gerald “Jerry” Ford is inaugurated o Milliken v Bradley—desegregation plans couldn’t force students across district borders 1975 July—Ford meets with 34 other nations in Helsinki, Finland to create the Helsinki Accords officially ending WWII and legitimizing Soviet boundaries o and guaranteeing more liberal exchanges of people and information between East and West Europe o April 29—All American troops are evacuated from Vietnam 1976 o Democratic James “Jimmy” Earl Carter Jr. is elected using “I’ll never lie to you” slogan 1978 o Carterr proposes a tax cut and reduction o United States v. Wheeler—Indian tribes posses a “unique and limited” sovereignty, subject to the will of Congress but not to individual states Key Themes and Main Ideas Political Developments “Vietnamization”—Nixon’s idea to replace American troops in Vietnam with South Vietnamese troops (aka the Nixon Doctrine) ? Detente—Nixon’s foreign policy of relaxed tensions with China and USSR Economic Developments ? “Stagflation”(slump in productivity of the WWII boom theorized to have been caused by influx of teens and women into the workforce, the decline of investments into new machinery, the switch from manufacturing to service markets, or the drain of taxes into the Vietnam war ? Massive inflation at the end of the decade( US breaks with the international gold standard to devalue the dollar ? Drop of the US from top placements in industry (esp. utomobile) swapped with West Germany and Japan Cultural and Social Developments ? Anti-war and Counter-Culture movements spring up ? Yippies and Hippies—yippies were radical hippies who broke a democratic convention ? Yuppies—young urban professionals ? Disillusionment with big government Caroline Kirkby Chapter 41: 1980’s to 2000 Ronald Reagan: 40th president (1981-9189) – Ronald Reagan (Republican) runs for president against then-president Jimmy Carter (Democrat) and wins by a landslide. – Reagan was likeable. He aimed towards the ‘common man’ like FDR and had a good, ‘can-do’ positive attitude. Was shot by a deranged gunman in 1981 and recovered shockingly fast. Known as the “Teflon president”

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