The Commercial Uses of Lignin and Suberin

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Name Kelley Space Biology 102 5 October 2011 The Commercial Uses of Lagging and Subscribe Plants have a way of teaching humans how to better the world around them. They create and use “green” products and chemicals everyday that we as a society are Just starting to learn how to use to make our lives greener. We can also use these chemicals to help keep our crops healthy and reduce our dependence on other countries. Lagging and Subscribe are becoming more popular in the manufacturing world as greener materials than what we currently have. They are being used for things such as cork flooring, befouls, and as a replacement of plastics.

Lagging is an unusual polymer because it lacks a defined primary structure and because it is heterogeneity. This meaner that lagging is made up of dissimilar substances. It is a racemes macromolecule that is cross linked. Its molecular masses can be in excess of 10,000 u. It is also relatively hydrophobic and aromatic in nature. This meaner that it is repelled by large amounts of water. It also meaner that its structure is unexpectedly stable. There are also different varieties of lagging. It varies from gymnosperms, dicotyledonous angiosperms, and monocotyledonous plants.

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There are three moonlight monomers that make up the three different kinds of lagging: p-hydroplane (H), glacially (G), and syringes (S) respectively. Gymnosperms are mostly G with small amounts of h, angiosperms are a mixture of G and S with very little H. Monocotyledons are an even mixture of all three monomers. (Boer]an W, et. Al, 2003) The term lagging was first used by De Canoodle in 1819. It comes from the world lignum, which meaner wood. ( SO¶star¶m, 1993) It is one of the most common organic polymer on Earth. Cellulose is the most abundant. Lagging employs about 30% of the oral’s non-fossil organic carbon. Boer]an W, et. Al, 2003) It also represents at least a quarter to a third of dry mass of wood. It is most commonly known for supporting the trees through the xylem cells. It is derived from the secondary part of the cell wall. (Lobo, et. Al) Lagging is also highly durable. In 1998, Detonator, a German company, figured out a process in which to use lagging to make a product called, Reform. This product behaves exactly like the plastic that is used in the injection molding process. This meaner Tanat Elgin may De uses In ten place AT plastic In many Deterrent resistances. This also produces a recyclable product.

When the person is finished with Reform they can Just burn it like they would with regular wood. By ecological standards, Reform is clean. This ensures that the product is environmentally sound in its manufacturing and disposal that wood materials that use toxic glue binders. (“Technocrat Gumbo”) Also by using Reform, furniture and home decorating companies can reduce the cost of their products. Since Reform is made by mixing lagging, hemp, wood particles and other recyclable products it will still look like wood. This will help cut down on he usage of wood for pure aesthetic reasons.

Also using Reform opens up many new design elements. They can use injection molding to make things from pieces with real wood veneers or even three-dimensional inlay work that is a little bit pricier. This helps cut down on the dependence on Tropical wood that many companies use to make their products light or cheaper in order to still be able to say that the item is solid wood. (“Technocrat Gumbo”) Reform is used in automobile interiors as a substrate to hand crafted wood veneer. Many consumers like the look of wood in their cars due to the fact that they hind that the look of wood gives the car a classier and pricier look.

There is also a requirement that at any given temperature rise that the substrate should exhibit the same expansion as the natural veneer. By using Reform as the substrate a company can reduce the risk of having the veneer coming off. Injection molding eliminates the need for a company to pay a person to machine the laminated wood shapes. Even with temperature variations between -OFF and OFF there would be no risk of delimitation.. Reform would be a sold piece that would go into the car paneling and still retain the look of the natural wood. Technocrat Gumbo”) The durability of lagging, while useful in many aspects, does present some challenges in regards to the creation of products such as befouls. Many people see befouls as the answer to current and future energy problems. Many people think that these answers will come with the improvement of technologies surrounding the creation of ethanol. This product is created by tearing down the structures of many plants such as corn and turning it into an alcohol that can be burned as fuel. This process is hampered however by the lagging that binds these plants together.

This as led to the commercial application of many scientist and researchers being hired to create new and improved ways of getting around and through lagging to create the products that we need. Interestingly, as common as lagging is in many land based plant species, it seems that aquatic based plants have less use for this substance and do not produce it in the same quantities as their land based counterparts. It may prove that this lack of lagging in plants like algae could hold the answers to questions about how to get around the problems of breaking down lagging for the production of different befouls with ready commercial application. Iowa State University: Plant Sciences Institute”) Researchers In tons Title are looking Tort ways to alter ten very genes AT ten plants t are to be converted into ethanol so that they can change the way that they generate lagging and make it easier to be broken down. The difficulty here is that you can not simply remove the lagging outright or alter it too much or the plant will not be able to survive long enough to reach a stage of maturity where it can be used for its intended purposes.

Therefore the desire of these researchers is to modify the lagging in a way that will make it easier to deal with. Currently there are a number of steps and process that must go into the creation of products like ethanol. Many of these steps are harmful to the environment, or are simply not as cost effective as commercial applications would like to see. Therefore the goal of this research into ways of altering lagging is to find a way to reduce the number of steps needed to break down the substances that hold these plants together.

If this can be accomplished then we could see everything from more environmentally friendly fuels, to an end of foreign oil dependence. (“Iowa State University: Plant Sciences Institute”) The properties of lagging that cause issues in the creation of ethanol are the same properties that are valued in other commercial applications. Many companies, such as Northward Lagging Chemical, specialize in the creation of products through the use of listing. These products are binding agents that take substances that are normally found in small sizes that can cause dust and other harmful contaminates.

The purpose of these binding agents is to increase the size of these items in a way that does not damage their uses and functionality. These items can include everything from pellets of limestone, all the way to animal feed. Major) Scientists use the word subscribe to define a specific cell wall component. Subscribe occurs in endoderm and external cells off plant. (Bernard 2002). Subscribe is a substance found in higher plants that can be viewed as a “rubbery’ or “waxy’ material. It is used in plants largely to act as a layer of protection to keep water from penetrating tissue.

It is used in root systems to make sure that the nutrients are correctly distributed throughout the plant and not sent to the wrong areas where they would to little or no good. It is also found in the outermost layer of bark on lands, here most of the cells are dead and serve the purpose of keeping the tissues below them from losing water to the outside environment. Many species of plants that are native to areas where salt water is prominent have adapted to use subscribe to minimize their salt intake from their environment. The water resistant nature of this material is why corks are commonly used for applications as wine bottle stoppers.

The material will not absorb the wine due to its hydrophobic nature and therefore does nothing to damage the flavor of the wine, something that is extremely important to the wine connoisseur. In addition to its hydrophobic attributes this material has also been found to be very fire retardant as well. This has allowed for its use in cork flooring to help protect buildings and their inhabitants from the dangers of a fire. Another positive of the fire retardant cork flooring is that even if it is exposed to an open flame long enough to catch fire, the material will not give off any harmful or toxic fumes as it burns. Summons et. Al 115-120) some potential uses AT suddenly outside AT want we nave already Montreal Include its possible use in prevention of plant disease. Research has been done looking at he possibility of using subscribe to help prevent a root rot disease in soy bean plants known as Pythagoras souse. The importance of keeping diseases such as this at bay should be apparent when stopping to realize what affects the loss of soy beards would have on markets due to its high versatility.

The subscribe in this research has been used because of its ability to act as a barrier that protects the root from the disease. Research into this field has been promising so far and looks like it may help to improve the ability to grow this plant in a controlled and disease free environment. (Thomas et. L 299-311. ) It appears that one factor that could be causing the roots of bean plants such as the soy bean to become susceptible to diseases like the root rot we mentioned could be an iron deficiency when the root system is first beginning to form.

If this is correct then it would stand to reason that fertilizing with extra iron or infusing subscribe into young plants may stop the spread and continued problems associated with the diseases like this and allow for greater commercial success. Many areas of the world rely on soybean as a cash crop because of its many uses in item such as vegetable IL, flour, and even substitutes for many different meat and dairy products. This makes it a very valuable commodity and therefore extends value to anything that could make the production of it easier and more profitable such as subscribe.

This knowledge will probably lead to a greater use of subscribe in commercial applications and will allow for the research in this matter to continue. (Summons et. Al 115-120) Due to its composition, cork is very popular to use in a variety of things ranging from corks for bottles to flooring and everything in between. By being made up of subscribe, cork is a very good insulator. Cork helps protect the tree from heat and loss of moisture. It also helps deter animals from eating it due to the fact that subscribe is an unpleasant tasting unsaturated fatty acid. Gibson et al. 1981). We as a society need to start using these products more because they are less expensive than their counter parts and they are also greener. Society can reduce it’s dependence on other countries for oil if we can figure out how to use both lagging and subscribe more in the befoul process. Companies can also lower their carbon foot print by using lagging as a replacement for certain plastics. Society can also encourage he uses of subscribe and lagging by increase the amount that they use products based on lagging and Subscribe.

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