Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral ( arboviral ) unwellness. It is transmitted by the mosquitoes of the genus Aedes which are widely distributed in tropical or sub-tropical states peculiarly in the Philippines. The AedesAegypti Mosquitoes are the vectors of Dengue febrility and the eggs have the ability to last dehydration for long periods of clip. leting eggs to be easy spread to new locations therefore lending to the rampant spread of the disease when left unchecked. Death tolls in the Philippines over Dengue affairs reached at least 42. 207 dengue instance. 193 of them fatal. had been recorded from January to the first hebdomad of June 2013 ( Department of Health. 2013 ). This survey uses the benefit we can acquire from the Makahiya ( mimosa pudica ) roots extract to forestall the extension of mosquito eggs.
This survey will function as the footing for future programs of action by the school decision makers. community functionaries and the society with respects to the necessary actions for kill offing the mosquito eggs and larvae. Throughout the history. many workss have been used as an alternate insect powder. ovicide. larvicide. and repellents. The increasing figure of dandy fever instances non merely in our state but besides to other states all over the universe. Experiencing the unnatural alteration in conditions is non of recent beginning to us. In that instance. they are harder to stop in flight that is why it is more advisable to concentrate on the topographic points where they lay their eggs and kill off them every bit early as possible.
Statement of the job
This survey aims with the probe of Makahiya as an alternate larvicide for mosquito larvae. Specifically it seeks to reply the undermentioned inquiries:
- What are the effects of Makahiya infusion to the mosquito larvae after holding been exposed to: a. 80 % makahiya infusion and 20 % H2O within 5 mins. 15 mins. 30 mins. and 45 mins. b. 60 % makahiya infusion and 40 % H2O within 5 mins. 15 mins. 30 mins. and 45 mins. c. 100 % makahiya infusion within 5 mins. 15 mins. 30 mins. and 45 mins.
- In which of the undermentioned clip continuance will the solution still be affectional? 5 years, hebdomadc, 10 yearssd, hebdomads
- H0: The Makahiya ( Mimosa Pudica ) infusion is effectual as a larvicide for mosquito larvae.
- H1: The Makahiya ( Mimosa Pudica ) infusion is non effectual as a larvicide for mosquito larvae.
Significance of the Study
Among the people who will profit are the undermentioned:
- To the Students: This survey will make a surroundings of consciousness about the harmful disease brought by mosquitoes and the cognition they can acquire on how to forestall such dengue instances in their several communities. They can utilize this survey to farther set this into action in order to assist lessen the instances.
- To the Parents: The parents of the kids will be cognizant that an alternate solution that can non harm both their wellness and their children’s is available and possible. Therefore. this survey can help them in assisting their ain community free from possibilities of mosquito home ground.
- To the School Faculty: In supplying a safe environment for the pupils. this survey can supply consciousness for the school module that an alternate larvicide will enable them to utilize this full cognition and safety confidence in the student’s wellness.
- To the Future Research workers: This survey will function as a theoretical theoretical account for future surveies of the same nature if of all time the bing job has penetrated in this instance will be in the hereafter. This will supply them the facts needed to compare their survey during several clip and serviceability.
Scope and Restrictions
This survey aims to research the capableness of Makahiya root infusion as an larvicide for mosquito larvae. It is focused on the effectivity of the solutions in holding the ability to kill a larva. The survey will be conducted in Ormoc City, Leyte. It involves an experimentation utilizing the said solutions. affecting the usage of the roots of the Makahiya works. This survey is focused in supplying people with a less expensive and more resourceful manner of killing mosquito larvae.
The variables involved in this survey doing the Makahiya root infusion are stop watch. mosquito larvae. H2O. and fictile container. The said solution is straight applied to the mosquito larvae samples.
- Definition of FootingsMakahiya – besides called sensitive works. is a crawling one-year or perennial herb ; to a great extent armed with recurvate irritants and holding sensitive soft gray-green cusps that fold and droop at dark or when touched or cooled ( Filipino Herbs. 2007 ) ( Encarta Dictionaries. 2010 )
- Ovicide – an agent that kills eggs ; an insecticide effectual against the egg phase ( Merriam Webster Dictionary. 2010 )
- Commercial – a paid advertizement on telecasting or wireless ( Merriam Webster Dictionary. 2010 )
- Extract – a concentrated readying of the indispensable components of substances ( Merriam Webster Dictionary. 2010 )
- Longevity – long continuance of an animal’s life ( Encarta Dictionaries. 2010 )
- Dengue – a tropical disease caused by a virus that is transmitted by mosquitoes and marked by high febrility and terrible musculus and joint strivings ( Microsoft Encarta. 2009 )
- Alternative – able to function as a replacement for something else ( Microsoft Encarta. 2009 )
- Larvicide – a chemical used to kill larvae ( Microsoft Encarta. 2009 )
- Capability – the power or practical ability necessary for making something ( Encarta Dictionaries. 2010 )
Review of Related Studies and Literature
The followers is drumhead of the old researches made in Makahiya ( M. Pudica ) and mosquito ovicide and larvicide. This reappraisal allows the reader to be brought up to day of the month sing the province of research or familiarizes the reader with contrasting positions and point of views on the subject. Makahiya found throughout the Philippines is found rampantly everyplace on Mt. Banahaw and other tropical countries. It is considered a weed with good utilizations to both animate beings and worlds. Having the name Mimosa Pudica is derived from the significance “ sensitive” given the fact that its foliages contract when exposed to human touch. Makahiya is known as diuretic and is considered alterant and antiasthmatic. It is used for urinary ailments and is utile in diseases originating from corrupt blood and gall. It has besides been used as a functional nutrient. All of its parts from its irritants to its foliages and its roots and roots. all play an indispensable function in Herbal Medication.
Not merely Makahiya have the cistrons to bring around but besides together with its relations as sensitive workss. Sensitive works contains a batch of biological compounds which are utile for human wellness ( Filipino Herbs Healing Wonders. 2004-2014 ) . One of them is mimosine. Mimosine can suppress the proliferation of a figure of lung and liver malignant neoplastic disease cells. Besides. mimosine can suppress the development of bacteriums and be used as skin bacteriacide. Mimosine. ?- [ N- ( 3-hydroxypyridone-4 ) ] -?-aminopropionic acid occurs in the shoots and root of Mimosa pudica. L. Mimosine has a figure of interesting pharmacological belongingss. including the capacity to barricade the cell rhythm before the G1/S passage. inhibit cardiac fibrosis. and prevent neural decease and Acts of the Apostless as antimicrobic agent. The mechanism through which mimosine blocks the patterned advance of the cell rhythm are non to the full understood. but there was grounds that the suppression of DNA reproduction may be caused by chelation of Fe from ribonucleotidereductased by mimosine ( Thu et al. . n. d. ) .
It has an apoptopic consequence. the same property that is provoked during cell decomposition. Mimosine possesses antimitotic activity that blocks the cell rhythm in the big G1 stage and inhibits DNA synthesis. which prevents the formation of the reproduction fork by changing deoxyribonucleotide metamorphosis ( Tran Dang Xuan. ShinkichiTawata & A ; Tran Dang Khanh. n. d. ) . At high concentrations. mimosine reversibly arrests the patterned advance of the cell rhythm at G1 before the oncoming of DNA reproduction. and this apprehension differs from the cell rhythm apprehension caused by other chemical agents. such as aphidicolinor hydroxyurea. that inhibit DNA polymerases or ribonucleotidereductase. severally. While this belongings of mimosine makes a valuable tool for cell cycle-related surveies. the exact point of cell rhythm apprehension and the mechanisms lending to this consequence are soon unknown ( Soon-Young Park. n. d. ) .
Cell rhythm apprehension in mimosine response to environmental effects can take to DNA interruptions. Inhibition of DNA reproduction during the initiation measure can take to DNA harm and characterized a cell-cycle-arrest point at the reproduction induction measure before the constitution of active reproduction forks. This apprehension can be elicited by mimosine. Fe chelators. ciclopiroxolamine or 2. 2?-bipyridyl. and can be reversed by the remotion of the drugs or the add-on of extra Fe. While the mimosine penetrates deeper and deeper. its chemicals block the cells into come ining the following development phase. While it blocks off the cells. the latter is disintegrated ensuing to the decease of the cells. Not an exclusion is the roots of the Makahiya works. They are found to hold a great medicative value.
The findings of Pancle and Pathack ( 2010 ) were based on the consequences of the pharmacognistic and phytochemical surveies including qualitative chemical scrutinies on the roots of the works. Consequences of the chemical trials indicated presence of flavonoids. phytostenol. aminic acids. tannic acids. glycosine and fatty acids. Another survey that can turn out the effectivity ofmakahiya works is the survey of the consequence of silver wattle pudica root infusion on vaginal estrous and serum endocrines for showing of antifertility activity in albino mice. Mimosa pudica is one of the folk medicative workss normally used as antifertility agent in some topographic points in India. The present work was carried out to measure the claimed antifertility consequence of the works by transporting out pharmacological surveies with the root infusion of the works. The root infusion of M. pudica has antifertility consequence as it prolongs the estrous rhythm and upset the secernment of gonadotrophin endocrines in albino mice ( Nong Maikaen. 2007 ) .
One of the features of the Makahiya works is its antifertility that is effectual to detain ongoing reproduction phases. The works besides is used by the local people to handle snakebites. It was effectual to neutralize the deadliness and toxic enzymes of NajaKarouthia venom. The unusual C-gylcosidic flavonoid. 4-hydroxymaysine stray from the touch sensitive leguminous plant M. Pudica could lend to the opposition of this works to generalist insect herbivores ( Lobstein et Al. . 2012 ) . It contains an alkaloid mimosine which has been found to hold powerful antiproliferative and apoptopic effects. In the present survey. the synthesized AgNPs from M. Pudica were tested for larvicidal activity against the larvae of Anopheles Subpictus and R. Microplus which showed increased activity from the synthesized AgNPs and it was besides tested against bacteriums and Fungis ( Springer-Verlag. 2010 ) . Ovicide means a chemical agent that kills eggs. particularly the eggs of insects and larvicide means an insect powder designed to kill larval plagues. It is found to be sensitive and efficient to observe the population of Aedes. even when the population densenesss were low. In add-on proved that it is safe. economical and environmental friendly.
It can supervise and observe Aedes mosquito population moving as an early warning signal to pre-empt any at hand dandy fever out eruptions. It can be deadly to eggs one time a larvicide is incorporated on the oviposition substrate ( Pelayo. 2013 ) . Vasuki ( 1990 ) . Ali et Al. ( 1995 ) . Su and Mulla ( 1998 ) and Suman et Al. ( 2010 ) have suggested that larvicidal and ovicidal efficaciousnesss are governed by the type and concentration of different categories of insect growing regulators. Vasuki ( 1990 ) and Su and Mulla ( 1998 ) reported diflubenzuron. pyriproxyfen and azadirachtin to be less toxic to Cx. Quinquefasciatus eggs at a WHO recommended concentrations for larviciding ( WHO. 2006 ) . In order to pull off mosquito populations at egg phases. the eggs need to be exposed at higher concentrations of insect growing regulators for shorter instead than long continuances.
Eggs exposed for longer continuances at low concentrations will get the better of the thought of mosquito control as eggs would hatch unaffected since there is ever a short continuance between when the eggs are laid ( susceptible phase ) and embryologic development ( immune phase ) begins. Freshly laid eggs are more vulnerable to the toxicity of insect growing regulators than embryonated eggs. Similar observations were made by Miura et Al. ( 1976 ) and Vasuki ( 1990 ) . Miura et Al. ( 1976 ) suggested that freshly laid and 2–14 H old eggs were more vulnerable to diflubenzuron exposure. While. Vasuki ( 1990 ) demonstrated species specific fluctuation for ovicidal action of chitin synthesis inhibitor and juvenile endocrine analogagainst eggs of Anopheles stephensi ( Liston ) . Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.
These differences may be attributed to the inability of insect growing regulators to interrupt endocrine actions during egg development and the loss of shell permeableness due to endochorion tanning and wax bed formation ( Clements. 1992 ). Such fluctuations associated with the egg construction. egg morphology and physiological version of eggs to a peculiar home ground bear more significance in the visible radiation of the observations made by Linley and Craig ( 1994 ) . Suman et Al. ( 2008. 2011 ) and Jagadeeshan and Singh ( 2007 ) . They concluded that fluctuations in a home ground bring alterations to egg constructions that may ensue into reduced ovicidal efficaciousness.
Harmonizing to M. Govindarajan ( 2013 ) all foliage and seed infusions of Pithecellobium dulce ( Roxb. ) Benth. ( Fabaceae ) showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects. The per centum hatchability was reciprocally relative to the concentration of infusion and straight relative to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for foliage methyl alcohol infusion and 625 mg/l for seed methyl alcohols infusion of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti. severally. Compared to flick infusions. seed infusions have low authority against the two mosquitoes. The works universe comprises a rich untapped pool of phytochemicals that may be widely used in topographic point of man-made insect powders in mosquito control programme ( Anupam Ghosh. 2011 ) . Aqueous and organic dissolver infusions of plants/plant parts were effectual in killing the mosquito larvae ( K. Raghavendra. 2008 ) .
Phytochemicals are botanicals which are of course happening insect powders obtained from flowered resources. Applications of phytochemicals in mosquito control were in usage since the 1920s. but the find of man-made insect powders such as DDT in 1939 side tracked the application of phytochemicals in mosquito control programme. After confronting several jobs due to injudicious and over application of man-made insect powders in nature. re-focus on phytochemicals that are easy biodegradable and have no ill-effects on non-target beings was appreciated. Since so. the hunt for new bioactive compounds from the works land and an attempt to find its construction and commercial production has been initiated. At present phytochemicals make up to 1 per cent of world’s pesticide market. Plants produce legion chemicals. many of which have medicative and pesticidal belongingss. More than 2000 works species have been known to bring forth chemical factors and metabolites of value in pest control programmes.
Members of the works families- Solanaceae. Asteraceae. Cladophoraceae. Labiatae. Miliaceae. Oocystaceae and Rutaceae have assorted types of larval. adulticidal or repellant activities against different species of mosquitoes ( Anupam Ghosh N. C. . 2012 ) . Phytochemicals may function as suited options to man-made insect powders in future as these are comparatively safe. cheap. and are readily available in many countries of the universe. Different parts of workss contain a composite of chemicals with alone biological activity which is thought to be due to toxins and secondary metabolites. which act as mosquitocidal agents. Furthermore. the rough infusions may be more effectual compared to the single active compounds. due to natural synergy that discourages the development of opposition in the vectors. There has been an increasing involvement in anti-mosquito merchandises derived from natural beginning because the continued applications of man-made compounds have some drawbacks. including the widespread development of insecticide opposition.
Another drawback with the usage of chemical insect powders is that these are non-selective and could be harmful to other beings in the environment. The toxicity job. together with the turning incidence of insect opposition. has called attending to the demand for fresh insect powders. and for more elaborate surveies of naturally-occurring insect powders. It is. hence. necessary to develop new stuffs for commanding mosquitoes in an environmentally safe manner. utilizing biodegradable and target-specific insect powders against them ( M. Govindarajan. M. Rajeswary. & A ; R. Sivakumar. 2013 ) . Human existences have used works parts. merchandises and secondary metabolites of works beginning in plague control since early historical times. Vector control has been practiced since the early twentieth century. During the pre-DDT epoch. decrease of vector mosquitoes chiefly depended on environmental direction of engendering home grounds. i. e. . beginning decrease.
The efficaciousness of phytochemicals against mosquito larvae can change significantly depending on works species. works parts used. age of works parts ( immature. mature or senescent ) . dissolver used during extraction every bit good as upon the available vector species. Sukumar et Al. ( n. d. ) have described the being of fluctuations in the degree of effectivity of phytochemical compounds on mark mosquito species vis-a-vis works parts from which thesewere extracted. responses in species and their developmental phases against the specified infusion. dissolver of extraction. geographical beginning of the works. radiosensitivity of some of the compounds in the infusion. consequence on growing and reproduction. Today. environmental safety is considered to be of overriding importance. An insect powder does non necessitate to do high mortality on mark beings in order to be acceptable but should be eco-friendly in nature.
Phytochemicals may function as these are comparatively safe. cheap and readily available in many parts of the universe. Several workss are used in traditional medical specialties for the mosquito larvicidal activities in many parts of the universe. Harmonizing to Bowers et Al. ( n. d. ) . the showing of locally available medicative workss for mosquito control would bring forth local employment. cut down dependance on expensive and imported merchandises. and stimulate local attempts to heighten the public wellness system. The ethno-pharmacological attacks used in the hunt of new bioactive toxins from workss appear to be prognostic compared to the random testing attack. The late developed new isolation techniques and chemical word picture through different types of spectrometry and chromatography together with new pharmacological testing have led to an involvement in workss as the beginning of new larvicidal compounds. Synergistic attacks such as application of mosquito marauders with botanical blends and microbic pesticides will supply a better consequence in cut downing the vector population and the magnitude of epidemiology ( Anupam Ghosh N. C. . 2012 ).
This chapter introduces the research scheme and the empirical techniques applied in the research. This besides presents what samples are being used in the survey and how the research workers choose the particular samples. This includes the processs that the research workers did in order for them to come up with the coveted merchandise or mixture.
The experimental method of research was used in this survey. Experimental method involves pull stringsing one variable. This is a method or process affecting the control or use of conditions for the intent of analyzing comparative effects of assorted interventions applied to members of a sample or of the same intervention applied to members of different samples. The experimental method involves pull stringsing one variable to find if alterations in one variable cause alterations in another variable. This method relies on controlled methods. random assignment and the use of variables to prove a hypothesis ( Cherry. 2014 ) .
Research Locale of the Study
The research venue of this survey is St. Paul’s School of Ormoc Foundation. Inc. The research workers conducted the survey in the said establishment and gathered the mosquito larvae at the house of one of our research workers. The research workers conducted the survey in school because the school provided us with setups that we can utilize in our experiment.
Samples of the Study
The research workers chose the appropriate samples in order to make the merchandise that could be effectual plenty as an alternate larvicide for mosquito larvae. The research workers used the Makahiya works as the chief ingredient. A specific sum was supplied as the research workers conducted the experiment for the coveted consequence with the aid of other stuffs such as liquidizer. beaker. timer. dropper. amplifying glass. graduated cylinder. and a stirring rod.
The appropriate sampling design for our experimental research sing the feasibleness of Mimosa Pudica works infusion as an alternate larvicide is purposive trying wherein the samples obtained are chosen based on the researchers’ judgement. The samples obtained are chosen because these are the exclusive ingredients in turn outing our research.
Validation of Instrument
Research ProcedureSpecifically. the research workers used the followers:BlenderWaterBreakerTimerMedicine DropperMagnifying GlassGraduated CylinderMosquito LarvaeMakahiya
The set-ups had different Numberss of the undermentioned ratios: 8ml makahiya infusion: 2ml H2O ; 6ml makahiya infusion: 4ml H2O ; 10ml of makahiya infusion. Before you start:
- Blend the makahiya works.
- Squash the makahiya works after intermixing.
- Separate three set-ups harmonizing to the coveted measuring of the solution.
Application of the Merchandise:
- In set-up Angstrom with the usage of a medicine dropper. use 8ml makahiya extract and 2ml H2O in the mosquito larvae samples and see the reaction of the mosquito larvae from the makahiya extract solution for 5 to 45 proceedingss.
- In set-up B with the usage of a medicine dropper. use 6ml of makahiya infusion and 4ml H2O in the mosquito larvae samples and see the reaction of.
- In set-up C with the usage of a medicine dropper. use 10 milliliter of makahiya infusion in the mosquito larvae.
- Anupam Ghosh. N. C. ( 2012. May ) . Plant infusions as possible mosquito larvicides. Retrieved from NCBI: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ncbi. nlm. National Institutes of Health. gov/pmc/articles/PMC3401688/
- Cherry. K. ( 2014 ) . Retrieved from About. com: hypertext transfer protocol: //psychology. about. com/od/eindex/g/experimental. htm Encarta Dictionaries. ( 2010 ) .
- K. Raghavendra. S. S. ( 2008. February 4 ) . Retrieved July 2009. from hypertext transfer protocol: //icmr. nic. in/ijmr/2009/july/0711. pdf
- Merriam Webster Dictionary. ( 2010 ) .
- Microsoft Encarta. ( 2009 ) .
- Nong Maikaen. A. P. ( 2007 ) . The consequence of Mimosa Pudica root infusion on vaginal estrous and serum endocrines for showing of antifertiliy activity inalbino mice. In Contraception ( pp. 482-485 ) . Bangkok. Siam: Springer Netherlands.
- Pelayo. R. ( 2013. August 31 ) . Retrieved from Filipino Discoveries. Inventions. Innovations And Products: hypertext transfer protocol: //devcomconvergence. wordpress. com/2013/08/31/dost-region-6s-mosquito-ovicidallarvicidal-ol-trap-as-an-alternative-mosquito-trap-in-reducing-dengue-mosquito/ Soon-Young Park. J. -S. I. -R. -E. -J. -K. ( n. d. ) .