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The Philippine Revolution: Questions and Answers

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    1. The Revolution Begin: After the discovery of the Katipunan, Bonifacio gathered his men in the hills of Balintawak. Balintawak was the first north of Manila which was then a secret meeting place of the Katipuneros. On August 26, 1896 the fiery Bonifacio stopped all the talking. He angrily tore his resident certificate ( cedula ). It was the symble of Spanish oppression of Filipinos.
    2. Causes of the Revolution. What was the Philippine Revolution of 1896? What were the causes behind it? The abuses of the Spanish official and priest. Persecution of Filipino leaders who defended the rights of their fellow countrymen. Filipinos desire to regain their independence. Discovery of the Katipunan and Bonifacio call for the Revolution.
    3. First Battle of the Revolution: The first battle of the revolution took place at the town of San Juan del Monte at dawn of Sunday. August 30, 1896. Bonifacio and some 1,000 Katipuneros attacked the Spanish arsenal at San Juan. Some 100 spanish and Filipino soldiers bravely resisted. It was the bloody and awful battle. The Filipinos were armed only with bolos, a few handmade guns (paltiks) old rifles, bamboo spears, and amulets (anting-anting)
    4. Spread of the Revolution: The Revolution quickly spread like wild fire in Southern Luzon. A few hours after the battle of Pinaglabanan, the Spanish Governor General. Ramon Blanco, declared a state of war in eight provinces: Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna, Cavite, and Batangas.
    5. The Execution of Rizal and other martyrs: The Spanish officials terrorized the Filipinos and executed many of their famous leaders. Many Filipinos patriots were arrested and put in prison at Fort Santiago. Many were tortured and shot by firing squad. About 1,000 Filipinos were exiled to Guam, Africa and other Spanish prison abroad. The famous martyr of the Philippines Revolution of 1896 was Dr. Jose Rizal. Rizal was allowed to leave Dapitan and Cuba as a volunteer doctor in the Spanish army.
    6. Aguinaldo and Filipinos victories in Battle: The Filipino freedom fighter fought with crude weapons: bolos, clubs, stones, bamboo spears, old muskets, and homemade guns (paltiks).The greatest victory in the battle of the Filipinos was won by Emilio Aguinaldo in the battle of Binakayan, Cavite, on November 9 to 11 1896. In this battle Aguinaldo beat the regular soldiers of Spanish Governor General Blanco.
    7. Rivalry Between Bonifacio and Aguinaldo: The groups competed for leadership. These two groups were the Magdiwangs and Magdalos. The Magdiwang supported Bonifacio as leader because he started the Revolution. The other group, the Magdalos, supported Aguinaldo as leader because he won his battles while Bonifacio lost all his battles. This rivalry hurt the cause of the Revolution and made then lose many battles.
    8. Tejeros Assembly: On March 22, 1897 both rival groups decided to meet at Tejeros, Cavite. They decided ti elect the officers of a revolutionary government. During the elections, Aguinaldo won the majority vote for new President of the First revolutionary government. Bonifacio had lost the role of leader to Aguinaldo.
    9. Death of Bonifacio: General Aguinaldo’s men hunted Bonifacio and his followers. At the battle of Limbo, Bonifacio and his men lost fight and were taken prisoner. Andres was wounded and his brother Ciriaco was killed. His wife, Gregoria de Jesus, was one of the prisoners. On May 10, 1897 Andres and Procopio Bonifacio were shot by a squad of Aguinaldo’s soldiers under the command of Major Lazaro Makapagal. They were executed at Mount Buntis, near Maragondon.
    10. The Biaknabato Republic: Aguinaldo lost one battle after another. The new Spanish governor, Fernando Primo de Rivera brought fresh reinforcement from Spain. Aguinaldo moved his war campmany times away from Cavite. Finally he hid in the mountain barrio of Biaknabato, San Miguel, Bulacan. On November 1,1897 the Filipino revolutionary leaders approved a constitution for a new government. This became the Biaknabato Republic. November 1 to December 30, 1897. Aguinaldo was again elected as Presidentof the Biaknabato

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