The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from many people and we are extremely fortunate to have got this all along the completion of our project work. Whatever we have done is only due to such guidance and assistance and we would not ever forget to thank them. We respect and thank Mr. Manzoor Iqbal Awan, for giving us the opportunity to do the project work as to Marriot International providing us all support and guidance which made us complete the project on time.
We are extremely grateful to him for providing such a nice support and guidance though he had busy schedule managing many other tasks. We owe my profound gratitude to our project interviewee Mr. Sher Alam, who took keen interest in our project work and guided us all along, till the completion of our project work by providing all the necessary information for developing a good Total Quality Management.
We would not forget to remember Mr. Ali Akbar and Mr. Ahmed from Marriot International for their unlisted encouragement and more over for their timely support and guidance till the completion of our project work.
We heartily thank all the participants who participated in our survey for their guidance and suggestions during our project work. We are thankful to and fortunate enough to get constant encouragement, support and guidance from all senior students of management sciences from Bahria University who helped us in successfully completing our project work. Also, we would like to extend our sincere regards to all the non-teaching staff of department of Management Sciences for their timely support.
We have been assigned our final project in the very second week of this semester. The topic was to delve into the Marriot International’s total quality management by conducting an interview of an executive and also to float questionnaires in order to come up with something unique at the end of the day.
To rise to the challenge, we visited Marriot Islamabad in order to fill the requirements of our project. We paid a visit to Mr. Sher Alam, who is one of the key executives of Marriot international. He has been so much hospitable and willing to participate in our research. Also, he filled up the questionnaire for us and answered our wishy washy questions as to total Quality Management. However, we put the questionnaires in some meaningful form to make an inference upon them. As we know that Marriot International is so much diverse, so fortifying their quality management is not an easy task.
It’s a delight to say that we have used many tools in order to augment our research. One of the basic tools that we use to interpret the results of our questionnaires was SPSS, which had been so much rewarding while making inferences as to Marriot’s Total Quality Management. Once we collected the information from our visit organization of Marriot international. We put our experience into our project by referring the framework of total Quality Management. So, we put our knowledge, experience, and instincts in our project to ensure our learning as to Total Quality Management.
Furthermore, we have been intimated to add some additional concepts of Total Quality Management in order to make our research comprehensive. So, we added the concepts by making a Skype call with Mr. Adnan, who has the inside track of Marriot International; he has been around the ridges. We also collected information as to Marriot International from secondary research, by constantly viewing the official website of Marriot International in order to view their Quality Statements and core values for the enrichment of our research.
Keywords: Continuous random indicators,EBITDA Margin, Performance measures, Continuous Improvement, Customer Focus, Quality Tools and Techniques, Quality Function Deployment, Statistical Process Control, Inspection.
We have been administered instructions as to our final project by the very first day of our Total Quality Management’s Class. As soon as we were communicated that Marriot Hotels would be our assigned organization for our final project and we were expected to explore its Total Quality Management; we started discovering Marriot Hotels through Internet and via many other sources.
However, our major concern was to find a person who has the insights as to Marriot’s Quality Management. To alleviate this concern, we had a group meeting in order to come up with an appropriate solution. Anyhow, we arrange our meeting with one of the executives of Marriot Hotel Islamabad. It’s a delight to say that we didn’t take this privilege off hand; we made our self-made questionnaires with respect to quality management. We floated the questionnaires prior to our meeting with the executive. We were amazed by the level of their hospitality. Each and every individual, whom we met during our visit, participates in our survey by filling our questionnaires. Finally, we were called by the executive at his office.
Since, we turned up at his office; he was constantly giving us a pleasant smile, which really helps us to feel comfortable. Not surprisingly, we showed him our questionnaire; he was so delightful while filling up our questionnaire. Also, he gave us many useful information as to quality management in practical life; in other words, that how one can implement quality control in an organization. We were bestowed by some presents and souvenirs to make our visit memorable down the road. Nevertheless, it had been a salutary experience of visiting a seven star hotel of Pakistan. Although, we have been enlighten total quality management in theory, but in practical life, it doesn’t seem so much easy.
Our interviewee said that every body within and outside the organization has to participate in total quality management, otherwise all goes in vain. Marriot International: As Marriott International has grown to be a leading lodging company with more than 3,700 properties in 74 countries and territories worldwide, they remain grounded in a set of core values: put people first, pursue excellence, embrace change, act with integrity and serve our world. Their relentless focus on innovation and action fuel the way they do business. With the most powerful brand portfolio in the world, they set the bar for the hospitality industry. Yet their strength lies in more than just a business model.
It’s their unique and storied heritage–a way of doing business–that enriches relationships and instills a passion for who they are. Together, they are opening doors of opportunity… for their guests, owners and franchisees, and associates.
- Mission Statement: “Create an attractive environment both for associates and guests, where employees would be motivated to do their best to provide maximal satisfaction of the visitors”
- Vision Statement: Its vision statement seems a cliche, but their each and every employee pull out all stops to pursue its vision statement: “To be the Number 1 hospitality company in the world. “.
Interpretation of its Mission and Vision statement in terms of Quality: As far as we are concerned with its mission and vision statement, we interpret their statements as they are highly quality oriented. Its mission statement unravels the importance of feasible environment for the employees, so that they provide maximal satisfaction to its internal and external customers.
We delved into our project by taking into account two dimensions of Total Quality Management: one of them is the principles & practices of TQM and the other are the various tools with respect to TQM.
Principles and Practices TQM Tools and Techniques
How we conducted the research? We conducted the research by having following principles in mind with respect to primary and secondary sources of research.
Our primary sources comprise of following methods of conducting a research:
- Face to face interview
- Telephone interview
- Computer assisting personal interviewing (CAPI)
Face to face interview: We met the key executive of Marriot International by the name of Mr. Sher Alam. Since, we turned up at his office; he was constantly giving us a pleasant smile, which really helps us to feel comfortable. Not surprisingly, we showed him our questionnaire; he was so delightful while filling up our questionnaire. Also, he gave us many useful information as to quality management in practical life; in other words, that how one can implement quality control in an organization. We floated the questionnaires prior to our meeting with the executive. We were amazed by the level of their hospitality. Each and every individual, whom we met during our visit, participates in our survey by filling our questionnaires. Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) is a form of personal interviewing, but instead of completing a questionnaire, we bring along a laptop to enter the information directly into the database.
Telephone interviews are less time consuming and less expensive and the researcher has ready access to anyone. So we called in many executives of Marriott international to make our research more comprehensive.
We have used following secondary sources to augment our research on Marriot Intl.
- Official Website of Marriot International.
- Published Articles
- Various related Websites
Total Quality Management of Marriot Hotels (by viewing it via Principles and Practices of TQM) Let’s begin to analyze the Total Quality Management of Marriot International By considering the principles and practices of TQM; we have been enlightened thus far:
- A committed and involved Management
- Unwavering Focus on the customer
- Utilization of the entire work force
- Continuous Improvement
- Treating suppliers as partners.
- Establish performance measures for the processes.
A Committed and Involved Management:
Citing our visit to Marriot International and our painstaking research on Marriot International, we infer that each and every individual in Marriot international participates for the improvement of overall quality management. It is said by our interviewee Mr. Sher Alam that if one pats on his subordinate’s shoulder, it will give a lot of motivation to perform well down the road.
However, Marriot International has been providing Direct Compensation to their employees in order to scale up their dedication towards work and ultimately bring in quality for customers. Direct compensation refers to monetary benefits offered and provided to employees in return of the services they provide to the organization. However, Marriot International has been providing following type of direct compensation to its employees: Aforementioned Direct Compensations for employees are the best stimulus to improve quality for an organization. How Marriot International brings in better quality through their employees? Following are the ways Marriot rests on since the beginning:
- We were told by the executive of Marriot International that they usually rest on organization citizenship behavior to drive better quality in their organization.
- After the devastating event of tragic bomb blast in Marriot Islamabad, they urged to bring Marriot Islamabad back on track, which called for a lot of revolutionized system that should satisfy their customers that Marriott has been safe for lodging and dinner.
- However, they hired seasoned and dedicated management to reinvent the system of security, and that ultimately prompt customers to patronize Marriot International among the rest. Marriot’s HR has been hiring competent staff for the betterment of its quality control. They have a quality council, who has been making quality decisions in order to remain competitive in the market.
- Retention of employees is quite important today, because good employees are getting poached almost every day today. Hence, Marriot Intl. values its employees by giving them direct compensation and other intrinsic benefits.
- Career Advancement is used as a tool by Marriot to motivate its workforce, and it ultimately brings quality in its services. Unwavering Focus on the customer:
We have perceived various tools and techniques used by Marriott international to take customers on board. During our visit, their hospitality really amazed us because they were treating us as if we have been their loyal customers for decades. However, Marriot Intl. has been using following ways to satisfy their customers:
- They go the extra mile to show their customers that they are important to Marriot’s business so that they will return.
- They offer a special incentive to retain customers in order to make them feel like they are a value to Marriot International.
- A rewards program or discount for regular customers can be the best personification to retain customers for Marriot International.
- Settle disputes in a timely manner.
Customer issues do arise from time to time. How they handle such disputes will determine if Marriot Intl. loses a customer or retain them.
- To rise to the challenge, they always listen to what their customer has to say about the issue at hand. They make sure to hear them out before making a conclusion.
- They see if there is some way to appease your customer in order to have them happy to return to your business.
- They Settle disputes amicably and with a positive attitude. They let the customer know they are more than happy to make them satisfied.
More Importantly, They know their customers by name and greet them as often as they can. Not surprisingly, customers like to feel like they are important and something as simple as knowing their name or what specific product they like can make all the difference in how often they choose to return to Marriot Intl.
They let their customers be able to tell them exactly what they think about Marriot Intl, the service and any other constructive criticism or praise.
- Marriot offers feedback cards or e-mail to learn about the likes and dislikes of their customer base.
- They keep in touch with their customers and always listen to any complaints or problems with an open mind.
- They always get aware of customers and their wants and needs. Issues may come up that they will not be privy to unless they stay close to what their customer’s needs are.
- Marriot Intl. aintains customer complaint records to provide an accurate measure of the types of issues that arise, frequency of complaints and feedback received. In some instances complaints may decrease as the product or service improves.
- However if the complaints about the same issues continue to skyrocket then Marriot’s Staff begins to brainstorm and experiment with methods to further improve the business.
Utilization of the entire work force: Quality improvement can also be achieved by the utilization of the entire workforce. Not surprisingly, Marriot International is one of the best personifications in this regard. They have utilized their entire work force to reinforce quality management of their services.
During our visit to Marriot Islamabad, we approached many different employees and asked as to their roles within the organization. They replied us that their role is to fortify this organization in order to have job security, which is not a cup of tea in today’s world. Although, in Pakistan, unemployment has been rising with an astounding rate, but organizations like Marriot, always give job security to its employees what make their employees more enthusiastic to strengthen the quality of the organization. Utilization of entire work force to drive quality: They use following dimensions to foster quality in their well reputed organization:
- Payroll and benefits: They always motivate their employees by giving them high salary in order to utilize their resources for a longer run.
- HR administration: HR of Marriot Intl. has really stepped up to plate by assigning tasks, which are compatible to one’s capability.
- Teams: Marriot usually formulate different strategies to form a product. To do so they have to build up cross functional teams in order to conduct a survey.
- MBWA: We have been told that Management by Wandering Around is an important implemented tool of Marriot Hotel, which really drive employee satisfaction.
- Theories of Motivation: All motivational theories are being considered by Marriot intl. uch theories are very much helpful for higher ups to boost up workforce morale at the end of the day.
- Develop Interesting Work: Managers of Marriot consider altering the employee’s assignments by means of job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.
- Celebrate Success: Recognizing employee achievements is the most powerful tool in the Marriot’s toolbox.
Utilization of entire work force can also encompass field service management. This provides software to optimally plan and dispatch field service technicians and their properly stocked vehicles to a customer’s location in a timely manner in order to deliver against their service commitments. Field service management will itself include elements of:
- Demand management – to help forecast work orders to plan the number and expertise of staff that will be needed
- Workforce scheduler – using predefined rules to automatically optimize the schedule and use of resources (people, parts, vehicles)
- Workforce dispatcher – automatically assigning work orders within predefined zones to particular technicians
- Mobile solutions – allowing dispatchers and technicians to communicate in real time
Marriot strives to achieve perfection by continuously improving the business and production processes. Of course, perfection is impossible because the race is never over; however, one must continually strive for its attainment. Marriot has been improving the quality of their services in order to retain its market share.
Continuous improvement in its interior decoration is very much commendable. They have recently employed various interior designing experts from abroad so as to captivate its customers through its beauty. Interestingly, we have seen a quote in the Marriott Islamabad: “Strive for continuous improvement, instead of perfection. ” This quote determines the importance of continuous improvement in an organization and Marriot International has been improving day by day in order to maintain its status in the market.
Treating suppliers as partners: Suppliers play a fundamental role in the total quality management.In our questionnaire, we asked the attendants that what is the stance of Marriot International with respect to treating the suppliers as partners? Not surprisingly, we concluded our aforementioned query by have a very rewarding answer from the attendants. Some of them have said that they are aware of this important concept of TQM that one has to treat their suppliers as partners in order to bring in better quality. As we know, suppliers have an integral role in terms of quality of food. However, Marriot’s management refers vertical integration as a positive source to give adequate consideration to its suppliers. They have integrated their suppliers for the stability of their business processes.
Establish performance measures for the processes
Managing an organization without performance measures is like a captain of a ship navigating without instrumentation. The ship would most likely end up traveling in circles, as would an organization. Measures play a vital part in the success or failure of an organization. However, Marriott international has been using following indicators to bring in better quality for its customers. Let’s discuss each indicator one by one with respect to Marriott international: Discrete random indicators: These are those indicators who have a clear independent shape or form. These indicators give the inference as to the processes of the organizations.As far as Marriot International is concerned, it has various random indicators to keep track the performance of the organization.
Continuous Random Indicators
These indicators refer the tracking of ongoing processes, such as continuous improvement. Nevertheless, such tasks may not be measured but such indicators are destined to follow the degree of continuous development in the business house. Marriott international has been fulfilling the demands of their customers by providing continuously launching innovative products to retain the customer for the long run. Concierge Desk Bellhop ServiceIn the aforementioned pictures, it is shown that Marriott international two very important services are always in flux in order to live up the expectations of their customers. These two services were introduced after the relaunch of the Marriott Islamabad building.
Universal maintenance performance indicator is the basis for ranking including technical facilities according to efficiency of their maintenance. Ranking of technical objects allows for justified focus of operation activities into specific areas of operation system.
Special indicators of marriot international are designed to measure productivity by involving a third person to diagnose the health of the business.Marriot international welcomes different audit teams to diagnose the health of their business operations. Such special type of indicator is very much useful to track success of the business.
Such indicators refers to the output in terms of profits, cash flows, market share etc. such type of indicator gives a better picture of the organization that where’s the company is going. However, Marriott intl. has been showing positive output to ascertain that the company has been lucrative so far. Performance drivers: It tells us that what kind of drivers a company has to execute better performance down the road. These are the alternatives which espouse the company to perform well under different circumstances. Marriot intl. as various performance drivers, which gives them a lot confidence to perform better down the track.
Tools and techniques in TQM
Following are the tools and techniques used by Marriot international to bring in quality improvement for the long run. In order to complete the framework of total quality management, we were obliged to enrich our research with major tools and techniques to drive out quality in processes. Following are the main tools and techniques for the improvement of quality: Let’s discuss each with respect to Marriot International:
- Right First Time: It implies for the employees of Marriot International to ensure quality while they work.Hence, they have to do the right things first time. However, management of Marriot Intl. has been aiming for zero defects in order to ensure quality. They strong believe in that retaining customers is the most important thing rather than to raise market share.
- Benchmarking: Benchmarking is the most essential tool to bring quality in the organization. As far as Marriot International is concerned, our group perceived really It is the process of learning from best practices of other projects that produce superior performance. They do exceptionally high quality things.
- Outsourcing: It is subcontracting services and operations to outside firms who can do them cheaper and better.As far as marriot is concerned, they have outsourced many of their operations like advertising, medication etc. ISO 9000: They are set of quality standards created by International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Organizations obtain certification form ISO for product testing, employee training, record keeping, supplier relations and repair policies and procedures.
- Statistical Quality Control: It includes a set of specific statistical tools that can be used to monitor quality. It is based on sampling. Marriot International has been monitoring progress through this tool for acquiring higher benefits.
- Just-in-Time Inventory Management (JIT): Inventories are received just-in-time to be used up by production.They are not stored. Marriot International has been monitoring progress through this tool for acquiring higher benefits.
- Speed: Speed is the time needed to get the activities accomplished. TQM increases speed. Speed becomes a part of project culture. Marriot International has been improving quality through this tool for acquiring higher benefits.
- Training: Employees are provided continuous trainings in quality matters. Quality circles also serve as training grounds for TQM.
- Quality management structure of Marriot International: At Marriot International, they enforce a strict Quality Management System with the principle objective of ensuring client satisfaction.They strongly believe in the key to achieve client satisfaction is a good understanding of their client’s requirements and the capability to consistently fulfill this. Marriot Quality Management System is ISO 9001:2008 certified and the system.
The QMS document structure is visualized as a pyramid: Quality Policies of Marriot International: Health and Safety Policy Marriot Intl. ’s health and safety goals are to avoid accidents and harm to people. These goals apply equally to their own work places and to the plant and facilities that they design, engineer, manage or service. They achieve their goals by considering health and safety in every activity and in every decision.
They identify hazards, assess risks and take actions to eliminate or control them. They seek the involvement of every employee and, where appropriate, customers and suppliers, in this process. They provide all their employees with safe and healthy working conditions. Marriot Intl. ensure all their employees are competent to do their tasks and give them adequate training, information, instruction and supervision. They consult with them on matters affecting their health and safety. They conduct regular audits and management reviews to ensure compliance with their health and safety management system and to identify improvements.
Their goals are to constantly drive down the environmental impact of their activities by reducing waste, emissions and discharges and by using energy more efficiently. These goals apply equally to their work places and to the plant and facilities that they design, engineer, manage or service. They achieve their goals by considering the environment in every activity and in every decision.
They identify hazards, assess risks and take actions to eliminate or control them. We consult with and respond to our customers, employees, public interest groups and all who may be affected by our activities. They conduct regular audits and management reviews to ensure compliance with their environmental management system and to identify improvements.
Their Quality goal is to surpass their customers’ expectations by adding value at every opportunity. “We achieve our goal through a company culture of skill and competence within the framework of a Quality Management System that accords with the principles of ISO 9001. ” We conduct regular audits and management reviews to ensure compliance with their quality management system and to identify improvements.
Integrated Quality Management System Marriot International’s Quality Management System (QMS) defines their approach to the management of all aspects of their work, including the Quality, Health, Safety and Environmental aspects. At the top is a single document that presents an overview of the entire system. This is followed by statements of company policy.
These policy statements are supported by descriptions of the principles to be employed in different areas of management, such as HSE, Finance and Administration, Human Resources, Project Management etc.
These management principles are put into effect by applying specific work processes, typically defined with the help of flowcharts.
The flowcharts are hyperlinked to work instructions, standards, forms, templates, sample documents, guidelines etc. Corporate objectives/Annual Plan Marriot Intl. has following corporate objectives for 2012/13 which remain onsistent with their objectives for the previous 12 months:
- Improve customer’s safety and clinical effectiveness
- Improve the customer’s experience with respect to lodging and hospitality
- Deliver excellence in hospitality and lodging.
- Ensure financial and environmental sustainability.
- Deliver effective and efficient pathways of care.
- Be the provider and employer of choice.
- Create robust infrastructure for the future.
Our Analysis with respect to Marriot’s Annual plans: There objectives imply that they are highly concerned with the safety of their customers. That’s why they are having strong craving to improve medical facilities for their customers.
Quality Statement:Marriot International has not been pursuing any specific quality statement; however, our interviewee suggested us the following statement that has been followed by Marriot Intl. “We achieve our goal through a company culture of skill and competence within the framework of a Quality Management System that accords with the principles of ISO 9001. ”
Qualitative values of Marriot International: They believe their strength is rooted in their core values: putting people first, pursuing excellence, embracing change, acting with integrity and serving their world. These values are their legacy and their future. As they pursue their vision of making Marriott the #1 hospitality companies in the world, they never lose sight of their founding principles and their proud heritage.Their business is always evolving…but they are always staying true to who they are.
Put people first
Around the globe, they offer their associates fair treatment, respect, and opportunities for personal and professional growth. Marriott International, Inc. , was named one of the “World’s Best Multinational Workplaces” by Great Place to Work® Institute.
Marriott’s reputation for superior customer service dates back to founder J. Willard Marriott’s original goal for his business: good food and good service at a fair price. “You don’t have to do anything earth-shattering to be excellent, just work hard at the small things. ” – Patricia Rainey, Human Resources, Scotland
To fulfill their vision to be the #1 hospitality company in the world, Marriott continually seeks innovative and creative ways to meet the needs of customers. “With deeply embedded core values that have enabled us to succeed for 85 years, I am looking forward to an exciting road ahead for Marriott International. ” – Arne Sorenson, President and CEO of Marriott International
Act with integrity
Marriott International adheres to high ethical and uncompromising legal standards in every aspect of our business, from human rights to environmental and social sustainability. “We need to stand together to ensure that the travel and tourism industry is always a positive force for good in the world. ” – J. W. Marriott, Jr. Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board of Marriott International
Serve our world
As a multinational Fortune 500 company, Marriott focuses on five global social issues: poverty alleviation, the environment, community workforce development, the well-being of children, and global diversity and inclusion.
Quality Improvement Program
A time-tested quality improvement tool still useful today is the “Plan-Do-Check-Act” or the “Plan-Do-Study-Act” model for guiding quality enhancement projects of all types. The PDSA model conceptualizes the continuing cycle of improvement.
- Partner — Decide who are strategic partners of quality improvement and recruit them to the project
- Plan — the goals of a quality improvement project will be broad in the context of statewide activities because many partners and processes will need to be involved. What does the group predict are the current obstacles to quality care? How will the goals be put into action? What data need to be collected to prove that the changes are indeed improvements?
- Do — Test the plan and document problems and unexpected observations as data are collected. Initial plans seldom produce desired results the first time. Pilot test the ideas of the group with front-line health care programs, providers, and consumers. Reconvene the partners and discuss successes and problems.
- Study — complete the data analysis, compare the results to predictions, and summarize lessons learned. Do the test results convince the partners that full-scale implementation will be successful? Because the scope of activities may be broad and costs may be involved, the planned action should be based on reasonable data and results.
- Act — determine the changes to be made. Implement the changes State- or district-wide. Continually assess those changes through data collection and analysis. Are the changes working? What will happen in the next cycle? What are the possible obstacles in implementing total Quality Management in a large organization like Marriot International?
With reference to our research upon Marriot International with respect to its total quality management, it is observed that Marriott international has been facing many obstacles in implementing the essentials of total quality management. Some of aforementioned obstacles are as follows:
A competitive market is a driving force behind many of the other obstacles to quality in the context of Marriot International. One of the effects of a competitive market is to lower quality standards to a minimally acceptable level.
Bad attitudes/abdication of responsibility/management infallibility
The competitive environment, poor management practice, and a general lack of higher expectations have contributed to unproductive and unhealthy attitudes. As far as Marriot International is concerned, some of the employee’s attitudes often are expressed in popular sayings, such as “It’s not my job” and “If I am not broke, don’t fix it. Such attitude sayings stem from the popular notion that management is always right and therefore employees are” only supposed to implement management decisions without questioning.
Lack of leadership for quality
Excess layers of management quite often lead to duplication of duty and responsibility. This has made the lower employees of an organization to leave the quality implementation to be a management’s job. In addition, quality has not been taken as a joint responsibility by the management and the employees. As we know that Marriott international is so much diverse, hence, more often various situations arise where the hierarchy isn’t clear, which considerably hinders the implementation of total quality management.
Deficiency of cultural dynamism
Every organization has its own unique way of doing things. This is defined in terms of culture of the organization. The processes, the philosophy, the procedures and the traditions define how the employees and management contribute to the achievement of goals and meeting of organizational objectives. However, Marriott international has been functioning in diverse cultures, so it implies that they need to adapt new cultures with alacrity.Therefore, cultural dynamism may also hamper the implementation to total quality control.
Inadequate resources for total quality management
Some Marriot Hotels do not involve quality in their strategic plan; little attention is paid to TQM in terms of human and financial resources. Much of the attention is drawn to increasing profit margins of the organization with little regard as to whether their offers supply to customers is of expected quality. So that also obstructs the implementation of total quality management.
Lack of customer focus
Most Marriot Hotels strategic plans are not customer driven – not to put too fine a point on it. They tend to concentrate much on profit-oriented objectives within a given time frame.Little (if any) market research is done to ascertain the product or service performance in the market relative to its quality.
Lack of effective measurement of quality improvement
TQM is centered on monitoring employees and processes, and establishing objectives that anticipate the customer’s needs so that he is surprised and delighted. This has posed a considerable challenge to many companies like Marriot international. Measurement problems are caused by goals based on past substandard performance, poor planning, and lack of resources and competitor-based standard.
Most of the times in Marriot International, absence of a sound strategy has often contributed to ineffective quality improvement.
Lack of management commitment
A quality implementation program will succeed only if top management is fully committed beyond public announcements. Although Marriot International is strongly committed to bring considerable quality management in their organization but they need to immerse themselves in order to bring quality practices.
Resistance of the workforce
A workforce is often unwilling to embrace TQM for a variety of reasons. One of the Marriot’s Executives explained that a lack of long-term objectives and targets will cause a quality implementation program to lose credibility.
Role played by senior managers in the context of Marriot International:Marriot’s international senior Management is highly committed to ensure quality in its services. Following are the roles played by the senior manages of marriot international Their responsibilities can be summed up as: ( Disseminating the idea of total quality: Marriot International’s senior management strongly hammers home the idea of total quality management among their subordinates. This is one of the best ways to ensure quality in services. ( Setting standards like zero failure: They set standards for their subordinates in order to produce a quality product. Standards are fundamental for the production of zero defect products and to ensure quality. Monitoring quality performance (quality costs) They monitor progress by setting various sensors to track the progress of the company. Not surprisingly, quality implementation is an ongoing process which calls for a lot of check and balance to keep the system in place. ( Introducing a quality system based on ‘prevention’ rather than detection Senior managers ought to convince their subordinates to come up with a product that has zero defects. Moreover, they constantly instruct to prevent mistakes while making products rather than detecting the problems at the end of the day. ( Introducing process control methods like Statistical Process Control (SPC)Process control methods are constantly being emphasized by the senior managers of Marriot International. SPC is very important way to control the processes and to improve it.
Code of Ethics followed in Marriot Intl: The following principles recognize each Marriot International’s personnel’s duty to act in the public’s interest, to be honest and truthful, to demonstrate personal integrity, and to respect privileged information. All Marriot’s employees will uphold the standards of the legitimate Code of Ethics and the principles of this policy for professional conduct and accountability. All Marriot’s personnel, including volunteers, are committed to a belief in the dignity and worth of the individual human being.They maintain integrity with respect to their duties as they come in contact with the public, other service providers, and clients and customers.
Confidentiality It is a primary obligation for all Marriot’s employees to safeguard information as to customers. Records kept for lodging or other business purposes should contain no unnecessary reference to behavior or social condition. Personal values and judgments are not appropriate in records. Release of information on employees, customers or clients will be in compliance with Marriot International policies and other federal, State, and local regulations.
- High standards of professional behavior and responsibility will be maintained.
- Each Marriot’s employee will take responsibility for assuring the continuity of public services provided by continuing contact and following up referrals made to other agencies or individuals.
Respect for the rights and privacy of colleagues will be maintained. The request of a customer to receive services from a particular Marriot’s staff member or provider will be honored whenever possible. Continuity of care is valued and ensured by maintaining a continuing health services relationship between customer and the Marriot’s provider of services.
- Marriot employees will direct any criticism of another staff member’s work or actions to that person, to that person’s supervisor, and/or to Human Resources staff only.
- Marriot’s staff will not misrepresent his/her professional credentials, qualifications, affiliation, and functions or those of the colleagues, institutions, and organizations with which associated.
- Marriot’s medical staff will uphold patient’s rights regarding medical and health care services according to Marriot’s policy.
Quality of Service The maintenance of high standards of professional competence and quality of service is the responsibility of all Marriot’s employees.
- A health professional will offer service or use techniques that are generally acceptable to professional judgment and the community in terms of effectiveness and procedure. Controversial issues shall be discussed with supervisory staff and staff actions will meet with supervisory approval.
- Each individual will be responsible for recognizing the limitations of his/her competence and will not provide services or use procedures with which he/she is not familiar.
- Each professional should seek supervisory or peer advice for problematic issues of Hotel Management.
Moral and Legal Standards Marriot’s employees will show regard for the social codes and moral expectations of the community in which they work.Marriot’s employees will recognize that violations of accepted moral and legal standards may result in personal harm towards Marriot’s customers, colleagues, themselves, and Marriot International as well as cause unnecessary risk to Marriot’s Goodwill.
Outcome of Employee Training in Marriot Intl: Marriot designs various teams to train his employees; they strongly believe that training is one of the best resources to manage the quality of service they provide. Hence, they pull out all stops to invest substantial money into training his employees so as to put the system in place. However they condition their employees to perform following tasks:
- Inspect supplies, equipment, and work areas to ensure efficient service and conformance to standards.
- Control inventories of food, equipment, small ware, and liquor, and report shortages to designated personnel Recommend measures for improving work procedures and worker performance to Increase service quality and enhance job safety.
- Perform personnel actions, such as hiring and firing staff, providing employee orientation and training, and conducting supervisory activities, such as creating work schedules or organizing employee time sheets.
- Analyze operational problems, such as theft and wastage, and establish procedures to alleviate these problems.
- Record production, operational, and personnel data on specified forms.
- Develop equipment maintenance schedules and arrange for repairs.
- Perform various financial activities such as cash handling, deposit preparation, and payroll. Purchase or requisition supplies and equipment needed to ensure quality and timely delivery of services.
- Specify food portions and courses, production and time sequences, and workstation and equipment arrangements.
- Estimate ingredients and supplies required to prepare a recipe.
- Forecast staff, equipment, and supply requirements based on a master menu.
- Evaluate new products for usefulness and suitability.
- Compile and balance cash receipts at the end of the day or shift.
- Perform food preparation and serving duties, such as carving meat, preparing flambe Dishes, or serving wine and liquor.
- Conduct meetings and collaborate with other personnel to plan menus, serving arrangements, and related details. Present bills and accept payments.
- Greet and seat guests, and present menus and wine lists.
- Develop departmental objectives, budgets, policies, procedures, and strategies. Schedule parties and take reservations.
Assess nutritional needs of patients, plan special menus, supervise the assembly of regular and special diet trays, and oversee the delivery of food trolleys to hospital patients. Employee involvement seeks to increase members input into decisions that affect organization performance and employee well-being. It can be described in terms of four What are the key elements that promote the worker’s involvement within Marriot International.
Following are the key elements to promote the worker’s involvement, which can be executed in any organization, but we’ve been told such elements within the context of Marriot International. Hence, we elaborate them in accordance with Marriot International.
This element of EI includes providing people with enough authority to make work-related decisions covering various issues such as work methods, task assignments, performance outcomes, customer service, and employee selection. As far as Marriot International is concerned, the amount of power afforded employees can vary enormously, from simply asking them for input into decision that managers subsequently make, to managers and workers jointly making decisions, to employees making decisions themselves.
Timely access to relevant information is vital to making effective decisions. Marriot International is promoting El by ensuring that the necessary information flows freely to those with decision authority. This can include data about operating results, business plans, competitive conditions, new technologies and work methods, and ideas for organizational improvement.
Knowledge and skills
Employee involvement contributes to organizational effectiveness only to the extent that employees have the requisite skills and knowledge to make good decisions. Marriot international facilitates El by providing training and development programs for improving members’ knowledge and skills.Such learning can cover an array of expertise having to do with performing tasks, making decisions, solving problems, and understanding how the business operates.
People generally do those things for which they are recognized, rewards can have a powerful effect on getting people. Involved in the organization meaningful opportunities for involvement can provide employees with internal rewards, such as feelings of self-worth and accomplishment. External rewards, such as pay and promotions, can reinforce El when they are linked directly to perform outcomes that result from participation in decision making.
Juran’s Trilogy is possibly the most simple, complete, and pure representation of managing for Quality ever devised.The trilogy exemplifies the essence of Quality. It completely meets its objective in the most efficient and effective manner possible. As far as Marriot international is concerned, Juran Trilogy can easily be perceived by viewing their improved infrastructure. However, we must elaborate the three major components of Juran Trilogy with respect to Marriot International as follows:
The process for designing products, services, and processes to meet new breakthrough goals. To do so management of Marriot International has to determine their external customers. In the planning step, once they determine their market, then, they identify the needs of their customers.After the recognition of needs, next step is to develop a product or service to respond to such customer needs. Then, next step, taken by Marriot International is to develop the processes to produce the product or service more efficient and effective. Transferring plans to operations is the final step of the planning process
The process for meeting goals during operations; it is the most important of Juran trilogy to drive out quality in products. As far as Marriott is concerned, they have ascertained the subjects to be controlled and their units of measure. They are measuring their actual performance in order to keep the system in place.
The process for creating breakthroughs to unprecedented levels of performance; it implies two major duties for the quality council of Marriott International: one of them is to identify the improvement projects and second is to establish the project teams with a project owner. Moreover, Juran provides a distinction between sporadic waste and chronic waste. The sporadic waste can be identified and corrected through quality control. The chronic waste requires an improvement process. Supplier Selection Strategies and Criteria Supplier selection criteria for a particular product or service category should be defined by a “cross-functional” team of representatives from different sectors of your organization.In a manufacturing company, for example, members of the team typically would include representatives from purchasing, quality, engineering and production. Team members should include personnel with technical/applications knowledge of the product or service to be purchased, as well as members of the department that uses the purchased item.
Marriot’s supplier selection criteria: Supplier selection criteria for a particular product or service category is usually defined by a “cross-functional” team of representatives from different sectors of Marriot International. In Marriot International, for example, members of the team typically would include representatives from purchasing, quality, engineering and production.Team members within Marriot include personnel with technical/applications knowledge of the product or service to be purchased, as well as members of the department that uses the purchased item. Marriot’s supplier selection criteria are as follows:
- Previous experience and past performance with the product/service to be purchased.
- Relative level of sophistication of the quality system, including meeting regulatory requirements or mandated quality system registration (for example, ISO 9001, QS-9000).
- Ability to meet current and potential capacity requirements of Marriot International, and do so on the desired delivery schedule.
- Financial stability must be rendered to Marriot Intl. Technical support availability and willingness to participate as a partner in developing and optimizing design and a long-term relationship.
- Total cost of dealing with the supplier (including material cost, communications methods, inventory requirements and incoming verification required) should be properly assessed.
- The supplier’s track record for business-performance improvement.
Total cost assessment. Methods used Marriot Intl. for determining how well a potential supplier fits the criteria:
- Obtaining a Dun & Bradstreet or other publicly available financial report.
- Requesting a formal quote, which includes providing the supplier with specifications and other requirements (for example, testing).
- Visits to the supplier by management and/or the selection team. Confirmation of quality system status either by on-site assessment, a written survey or request for a certificate of quality system registration.
- Discussions with other customers served by the supplier.
- Review of databases or industry sources for the product line and supplier.
Evaluation (SUCH AS prototyping, lab tests, OR validation testing) of samples obtained from the supplier of Marriot International. Performance measurement system Performance Measures are quantitative or qualitative ways to characterize and define performance. They provide a tool for organizations to manage progress towards achieving predetermined goals, defining key indicators of organizational performance and Customer satisfaction.
Performance indicators of Marriot International:Marriot International has following indicators to track the progress of the company. However, It is a multinational organization, so it is rational that they have many indicators to monitor the progress of the company. However, through our exhaustive research, we found following indicators of Marriot Intl. 1. Staff and Employment KPI’s (Key Performance Indicators)
Wage Cost % -wage costs as a percentage of sales. Wage cost determines the performance of the staff in order to get onto various aspects through which it can be improved.
Total Labour Cost % – not just wages but also the other work cover insurance, retirement and superannuation charges and other taxes that apply on Marriot’s employees payroll. Total Labour Hours – how many hours worked in each section of Marriot International. This is useful to compare against annual sales to measure productivity.
Sick days taken – sometimes a measure of morale and the management skills of Marriot’s Management team is important. So it has to be reduced for better performance.
Labour turnover (number of new staff in any one week or month) Everyone says high staff turnover is ‘part of the territory’ in hospitality. It doesn’t need to be like that, but one way to measure how good (or bad) you are at controlling this is to measure labour turnover.
Average length of employment – another way to look at Marriot’s success in keeping staff. Average hourly pay – hourly pay of the labor also infers the performance indicator of the marriot international. Occupancy Number of rooms sold in relation to the number of rooms available for sale. This indicator tells us the return which Marriot International has been acquiring from their major operation of lodging. (Aforementioned picture shows that Marriot international has been in downward trajectory because their occupancy rate doesn’t show any significant improvement. )
Revenue Per Available Room: Rooms revenue in relation to rooms available. (RevPAR has been improved in contrast with year 2009 and 2010, which is a good sign for the company in terms of performance. ) RevenueAll related business revenue of Marriot international (including rooms revenue, food & beverage revenue, other hotel revenue, fee revenue and other non-hotel revenue from administration units). EBITDAR and EBITDAR Margin Operating profit before rental expense and share of income in associates and before depreciation and amortization and gain on sale of shares and of fixed assets and net financial items and tax. The EBITDAR margin is EBITDAR as a percentage of Revenue. (this performance indicator also shows that Marriot International is in downward trajectory. ) EBITDA and EBITDA margin Operating profit before depreciation and amortisation and gain on sale of shares and fixed assets and net financial items and tax. The EBITDA margin is EBITDA as a percentage of Revenue. this indicator doesn’t show any significant improvement since 2010)
Conclusion and our Group’s Suggestions
It is a delight to say that we had a salutary experience of visiting Marriot International. The overall response of their employees towards our research is so much positive. As far as our project is concerned, we did our best to dig up all the necessary information as to Total Quality Management in order to finish our research comprehensively. We used almost all methods to collect the information as to Total Quality Management to discover the major crux of our inquisitive attitudes that how this theory of quality can be implemented.However, from our comprehensive research we give following suggestions to Marriot International in order to stay ahead in terms of quality:
- Focus on the customer rather than focusing to raise profits. Profits can never be sustained if the customer is not satisfied. In today’s competitive environment, Marriot has to be customer driven in order to reap higher profits.
- They have to be very much thoughtful towards their suppliers. As it has many hotels across the borders, so for the retention of its original taste they should not change suppliers more often. Vertical integration could be the possible remedy to retain suppliers for the long run. Continuous improvement should have to be acquired in order to maintain good quality products and services.
- Performance measures ought to be reflective with the level of actual performance of various processes.
- They must utilize the entire workforce to bring in better quality management. However, they’ve been trying harder in theory as to the utilization of entire
- Workforce, but they have to formulate proactive strategies for the utilization of entire workforce from top to bottom.
- They should recognize their employees by giving them rewards in order to make their efforts countable towards organization’s success.
- Juran trilogy, SPC, Benchmarking etc should be used to drive out quality. Make up their quality statements so that others get motivated to create some change.
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Cite this Total Quality Management of Marriot International
Total Quality Management of Marriot International. (2016, Oct 02). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/total-quality-management-of-marriot-international/