Virtual Reality And Product Design Research Essay
Virtual Reality And Product Design Essay, Research Paper
In the non so distant yesteryear, all mechanical drawings and
designs were created by manus. Models of the parts were
so made, besides by manus. Mistakes could be a great trade of
clip and money. Then the design universe was revolutionized by
computing machine aided drafting. This new tool, along with the
add-on of rapid prototyping, has saved industry a countless
sum of hours and money.
Equally efficient as the portion patterning systems of today are,
a new tool is developing that may one time once more change the portion
patterning procedure for good. Virtual world systems can let
a individual to & # 8220 ; walk & # 8221 ; through a new edifice or analyze a new
portion before a mock up or theoretical account is of all time made, leting alterations
to be implemented before anything is of all time built. Although
merely considered to be in its babyhood phases, practical world
will shortly go an built-in portion of the design procedure.
Virtual Reality Background
The term practical world describes a computing machine plan
that stimulates some or all of the five senses in order to
make an & # 8220 ; semblance of being someplace or making something & # 8221 ;
( Bates 53 ) . It can dwell of plans that allow the user
to & # 8220 ; fly through & # 8221 ; a design, or it can be a room complete with
three dimensional artworks, sound, and the sense of touch.
In the universe of practical world, there are six degrees-of-
freedom, or in other words, six different types of motion.
In add-on to the normal up/down and left/right motions,
the user can besides flip up or down, angle left or right, travel
frontward or rearward and revolve left or right. A normal
pulling from CAD can go a practical environment that can
about be percepted as existent ( Teschler 60 ) .
Virtual Reality Applications
Numerous practical world applications are available on
the market, runing from a monetary value of several hundred dollars
to 1000000s of dollars. As mentioned above, the simplest of
the practical world plans is the fly through plan.
This type of application can be run from a personal computing machine
without the demand of expensive hardware. Some of these
plans, such as ADAMS form Mechanical Dynamics and Working
Model from Knowledge Revolution let designs to be subjected
to a kinematic analysis in order to see how parts will
perform. These types of applications are used extensively in
the automotive industry ( Puttre 21 ) .
Three Dimensional Graphics
The following measure up is to do the practical environment
three dimensional. This is done utilizing a 3-D artworks
generator such as stereographic goggles, besides known as caput
mounted shows ( HMD & # 8217 ; s ) ( Derra 46 ) . A simple motion of
the caput will alter the position seen through the
goggles, merely as in existent life.
Although the usage of a HMD can supply a wholly alone
position it increased cost must be considered. For
complicated, 3-D practical systems, a artworks gas pedal and
a six degree-of-freedom mouse are needed ( Teschler 62 ) .
These points coupled with the cost of the HMD can drive the
monetary value up to around 130,000 dollars ( Derra 46 ) .
In add-on to sight, practical world can besides include
the sense of touch. Cybernet Systems Corporation has
developed a manus held system that will give the user a sense
of force per unit area when obstructors in the practical room are
reached ( Schut 23 ) . Prosolvia Clarus of Sweden has developed
a brace of cybergloves that will bring forth a feeling of
restraint when seeking to perforate a barrier and a feeling
of weight when keeping an object ( Bates 54 ) .
Advanced Virtual Reality Applications
The bulk of practical world plans in industry
today are the fly through plans used with either normal
computing machine screens or goggles. However there are some advanced
practical world systems in usage on a little graduated table. The two
systems in usage today are the Cave Automatic Virtual
Environment ( Cave ) and Simulation Based Design ( SBD ) system.
These two cutting border systems are really expensive
and in usage
chiefly at universities and in the automotive and aerospace
The Cave system at the Argonne National Laboratory in
Argonne, Illinois is typical of most Cave systems. & # 8220 ; Images
are projected onto the floor and on stretched Mylar screens
organizing the forepart and two side walls for 180 ( grade ) of
immersed visual image & # 8221 ; ( Bates 55 ) . Users wear particular
goggles that cause depth perceptual experience, and the system is
controlled by mouse and control stick controls ( Bates 55 ) .
The Cave system is besides employed at Caterpillar in
Peoria, Illinois. The practical world environment is created
by importing drawings from the Pro/Engineer CAD system. The
Cave system is equipped with a maneuvering wheel, shifter, place
and other controls so the imported design can really be
& # 8220 ; driven & # 8221 ; ( Teschler 62 ) . Different environments, such as a
corn field or a landfill, can be utilized during the
simulation. Directors of the new Caterpillar engineering
believe that the device has significantly reduced merchandise
development clip ( Bates 56 ) .
Simulation Based Design ( SBD ) was started by the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency, in concurrence with
several private defence contractors. SBD combines CAD with
practical world and kinematic analysis to bring forth realistic
simulations. Using a SBD plan, Lockheed Martin had
successfully produced simulations of Navy ship deck gun
firing discharge. As SBD engineering continues to come on, design
times will diminish, physical paradigms will be eliminated,
and initial design quality will be improved ( Puttre 22 ) .
Although Cave and SBD systems are available, they are
non in usage by many companies yet. Most companies refrain
from such a big system because of its high cost. The
initial cave system can be around $ 400,000, and the
computing machines to run the in writing shows can be an extra
$ 30,000 to $ 300,000 ( Derra 46 ) . It is non widely believed
that the benefits of these systems outweigh the initial costs
at this point in clip.
Every new engineering requires clip before general
credence is achieved. Virtual world engineering has non
been around for long, so broad credence has by and large non
been seen. However, as the engineering continues to better
and the cost lessenings, practical world will happen a place in
industry. In the non so distant hereafter, practical world
simulations will be the norm and paradigms will be a thing
of the yesteryear.
Virtual Reality engineering is in the beginning phases,
but will shortly hold a big impact on merchandise development.
Several different types of practical engineerings are available
today. The basic systems operate on normal computing machines. Three
dimensional systems are available, and some even offer the
sense of touch. Cave systems and SBD systems offer the most
options and best effects, but are dearly-won and non in broad usage.
More applications for practical world engineering will seen as
the engineering evolves.
Bates, Charles A. & # 8220 ; Come on in, the VR is fine. & # 8221 ; American
Machinist. v. 141, 1997. pp. 53-6.
Derra, Skip. & # 8220 ; Virtual world: development tool or research
plaything? . & # 8221 ; R & A ; D Magazine. v. 40, 1998. pp. 45-50.
Dvorak, Paul. & # 8220 ; Engineering puts practical world to work. & # 8221 ;
Machine Design 29 Feb 1997. pp. 69-73.
Puttre, Michael. & # 8220 ; Simulation-based design puts the practical
universe to work. & # 8221 ; Design News v. 53, 1998. pp. 21-25.
Schut, Jan H. & # 8220 ; Autofact showcases low-cost, high-function
package and the first touchy-feely CAD. & # 8221 ; Plastics World
Jan 1997. pp. 22-26.
Teschler, Leland. & # 8220 ; Walk-through pragmatism cuts development
time. & # 8221 ; Machine Design 25 May 1995. pp. 60-64.
Table of Contentss
Virtual Reality Background 3
Virtual Reality Applications 3
Three Dimensional Graphics 3
Virtual Touch 4
Advanced Virtual Reality Applications 4
Plants Cited 7