Virtual Reality And Product Design Research Essay

Virtual Reality And Product Design Essay, Research Paper


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In the non so distant yesteryear, all mechanical drawings and

designs were created by manus. Models of the parts were

so made, besides by manus. Mistakes could be a great trade of

clip and money. Then the design universe was revolutionized by

computing machine aided drafting. This new tool, along with the

add-on of rapid prototyping, has saved industry a countless

sum of hours and money.

Equally efficient as the portion patterning systems of today are,

a new tool is developing that may one time once more change the portion

patterning procedure for good. Virtual world systems can let

a individual to & # 8220 ; walk & # 8221 ; through a new edifice or analyze a new

portion before a mock up or theoretical account is of all time made, leting alterations

to be implemented before anything is of all time built. Although

merely considered to be in its babyhood phases, practical world

will shortly go an built-in portion of the design procedure.

Virtual Reality Background

The term practical world describes a computing machine plan

that stimulates some or all of the five senses in order to

make an & # 8220 ; semblance of being someplace or making something & # 8221 ;

( Bates 53 ) . It can dwell of plans that allow the user

to & # 8220 ; fly through & # 8221 ; a design, or it can be a room complete with

three dimensional artworks, sound, and the sense of touch.

In the universe of practical world, there are six degrees-of-

freedom, or in other words, six different types of motion.

In add-on to the normal up/down and left/right motions,

the user can besides flip up or down, angle left or right, travel

frontward or rearward and revolve left or right. A normal

pulling from CAD can go a practical environment that can

about be percepted as existent ( Teschler 60 ) .

Virtual Reality Applications

Numerous practical world applications are available on

the market, runing from a monetary value of several hundred dollars

to 1000000s of dollars. As mentioned above, the simplest of

the practical world plans is the fly through plan.

This type of application can be run from a personal computing machine

without the demand of expensive hardware. Some of these

plans, such as ADAMS form Mechanical Dynamics and Working

Model from Knowledge Revolution let designs to be subjected

to a kinematic analysis in order to see how parts will

perform. These types of applications are used extensively in

the automotive industry ( Puttre 21 ) .

Three Dimensional Graphics

The following measure up is to do the practical environment

three dimensional. This is done utilizing a 3-D artworks

generator such as stereographic goggles, besides known as caput

mounted shows ( HMD & # 8217 ; s ) ( Derra 46 ) . A simple motion of

the caput will alter the position seen through the

goggles, merely as in existent life.

Although the usage of a HMD can supply a wholly alone

position it increased cost must be considered. For

complicated, 3-D practical systems, a artworks gas pedal and

a six degree-of-freedom mouse are needed ( Teschler 62 ) .

These points coupled with the cost of the HMD can drive the

monetary value up to around 130,000 dollars ( Derra 46 ) .

Virtual Touch

In add-on to sight, practical world can besides include

the sense of touch. Cybernet Systems Corporation has

developed a manus held system that will give the user a sense

of force per unit area when obstructors in the practical room are

reached ( Schut 23 ) . Prosolvia Clarus of Sweden has developed

a brace of cybergloves that will bring forth a feeling of

restraint when seeking to perforate a barrier and a feeling

of weight when keeping an object ( Bates 54 ) .

Advanced Virtual Reality Applications

The bulk of practical world plans in industry

today are the fly through plans used with either normal

computing machine screens or goggles. However there are some advanced

practical world systems in usage on a little graduated table. The two

systems in usage today are the Cave Automatic Virtual

Environment ( Cave ) and Simulation Based Design ( SBD ) system.

These two cutting border systems are really expensive

and in usage

chiefly at universities and in the automotive and aerospace


The Cave system at the Argonne National Laboratory in

Argonne, Illinois is typical of most Cave systems. & # 8220 ; Images

are projected onto the floor and on stretched Mylar screens

organizing the forepart and two side walls for 180 ( grade ) of

immersed visual image & # 8221 ; ( Bates 55 ) . Users wear particular

goggles that cause depth perceptual experience, and the system is

controlled by mouse and control stick controls ( Bates 55 ) .

The Cave system is besides employed at Caterpillar in

Peoria, Illinois. The practical world environment is created

by importing drawings from the Pro/Engineer CAD system. The

Cave system is equipped with a maneuvering wheel, shifter, place

and other controls so the imported design can really be

& # 8220 ; driven & # 8221 ; ( Teschler 62 ) . Different environments, such as a

corn field or a landfill, can be utilized during the

simulation. Directors of the new Caterpillar engineering

believe that the device has significantly reduced merchandise

development clip ( Bates 56 ) .

Simulation Based Design ( SBD ) was started by the Defense

Advanced Research Projects Agency, in concurrence with

several private defence contractors. SBD combines CAD with

practical world and kinematic analysis to bring forth realistic

simulations. Using a SBD plan, Lockheed Martin had

successfully produced simulations of Navy ship deck gun

firing discharge. As SBD engineering continues to come on, design

times will diminish, physical paradigms will be eliminated,

and initial design quality will be improved ( Puttre 22 ) .

Although Cave and SBD systems are available, they are

non in usage by many companies yet. Most companies refrain

from such a big system because of its high cost. The

initial cave system can be around $ 400,000, and the

computing machines to run the in writing shows can be an extra

$ 30,000 to $ 300,000 ( Derra 46 ) . It is non widely believed

that the benefits of these systems outweigh the initial costs

at this point in clip.


Every new engineering requires clip before general

credence is achieved. Virtual world engineering has non

been around for long, so broad credence has by and large non

been seen. However, as the engineering continues to better

and the cost lessenings, practical world will happen a place in

industry. In the non so distant hereafter, practical world

simulations will be the norm and paradigms will be a thing

of the yesteryear.


Virtual Reality engineering is in the beginning phases,

but will shortly hold a big impact on merchandise development.

Several different types of practical engineerings are available

today. The basic systems operate on normal computing machines. Three

dimensional systems are available, and some even offer the

sense of touch. Cave systems and SBD systems offer the most

options and best effects, but are dearly-won and non in broad usage.

More applications for practical world engineering will seen as

the engineering evolves.

Plants Cited

Bates, Charles A. & # 8220 ; Come on in, the VR is fine. & # 8221 ; American

Machinist. v. 141, 1997. pp. 53-6.

Derra, Skip. & # 8220 ; Virtual world: development tool or research

plaything? . & # 8221 ; R & A ; D Magazine. v. 40, 1998. pp. 45-50.

Dvorak, Paul. & # 8220 ; Engineering puts practical world to work. & # 8221 ;

Machine Design 29 Feb 1997. pp. 69-73.

Puttre, Michael. & # 8220 ; Simulation-based design puts the practical

universe to work. & # 8221 ; Design News v. 53, 1998. pp. 21-25.

Schut, Jan H. & # 8220 ; Autofact showcases low-cost, high-function

package and the first touchy-feely CAD. & # 8221 ; Plastics World

Jan 1997. pp. 22-26.

Teschler, Leland. & # 8220 ; Walk-through pragmatism cuts development

time. & # 8221 ; Machine Design 25 May 1995. pp. 60-64.

Table of Contentss

Abstract 1

Introduction 2

Virtual Reality Background 3

Virtual Reality Applications 3

Three Dimensional Graphics 3

Virtual Touch 4

Advanced Virtual Reality Applications 4

Decision 6

Plants Cited 7

Appendix 8

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