Wrigley Case Finance

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Interest rates are at their lowest point in 50 old ages. Yet the usage of debt funding by corporations is declining—this happens anyhow in a recession. And some deleveraging is due to strategic alterations in an industry. such as technological invention or other developments that increase concern hazard. But corporate deleveraging seems to hold gone excessively far. CEOs are losing valuable chances to make value for their stockholders. In the utmost instance. you have mature houses who use no debt at all! Take William Wrigley Jr. Company. for case.

It has a taking market portion in a stable low-technology business—it makes masticating gum—and yet has no debt. I bet that if we could carry Wrigley’s board to make a leveraged recapitalization through a dividend or major portion redemption. we could make important new value. Susan. delight run some Numberss on the possible alteration in value. And acquire me the names and phone Numberss of all of Wrigley’s managers.

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With those words. Blanka Dobrynin. pull offing spouse of Aurora Borealis LLC. asked Susan Chandler. an associate. to originate the research for a possible investing in Wrigley. Aurora Borealis was a hedge fund with approximately $ 3 billion under direction and an investing scheme that focused on hard-pressed companies. amalgamation arbitrage. change-of-control minutess. and recapitalizations. Dobrynin had immigrated to the United States from Russia in 1991. and had risen rapidly to go spouse at a major Wall Street house. In 2000. she founded Aurora Borealis to prosecute an “active-investor” scheme. Her typical manner of operation was to place chances for a corporation to restructure. invest significantly in the stock of the mark house. and so set about a procedure of carrying direction and managers to reconstitute. Now. in June 2002. Dobrynin could look back on the big returns from the usage of that scheme. Chandler noted that Wrigley’s market value of common equity was about $ 13. 1 billion.

Dobrynin and Chandler discussed the current capital-market conditions and decided to concentrate on the premise that Wrigley could borrow $ 3 billion at a recognition evaluation between BB and B. to give 13 % . Chandler agreed to return shortly to discourse the consequences of her research. This instance was prepared by Robert F. Bruner and Sean D. Carr. research helper. from public informations about the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company. Other individuals and events are fictional. Copyright © 2005 by the University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville. VA. All rights reserved. To order transcripts. direct an electronic mail to [ electronic mail protected ]No portion of this publication may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system. used in a spreadsheet. or transmitted in any signifier or by any means—electronic. mechanical. run offing. entering. or otherwise—without the permission of the Darden School Foundation.

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The William Wrigley Jr. Company

Wrigley was the world’s largest maker and distributer of masticating gum. The firm’s industry. branded consumer nutrients and confect. was intensely competitory and was dominated by a few big participants. Exhibit 1 gives merchandise profiles of Wrigley and its equals. Over the predating two old ages. grosss had grown at an one-year compound rate of 10 % ( net incomes at 9 % ) . reflecting the debut of new merchandises and foreign enlargement ( Exhibit 2 ) . Historically. the house had been cautiously financed. At the terminal of 2001. it had entire assets of $ 1. 76 billion and no debt ( Exhibit 3 ) . As Exhibit 4 shows. Wrigley’s stock monetary value had significantly outperformed the S & A ; P 500 Composite Index. and was running somewhat in front of its industry index.

Estimating the Effect of a Leveraged Recapitalization

Under the proposed leveraged recapitalization. Wrigley would borrow $ 3 billion and utilize it either to pay an tantamount dividend or to buy back an tantamount value of portions. Chandler knew that this combination of actions could impact the firm’s portion value. cost of capital. debt coverage. net incomes per portion. and voting control. Consequently. she sought to measure the consequence of the recapitalization on those countries. She gathered fiscal informations on Wrigley and its equal companies ( Exhibit 5 ) .

Impact on portion value

Chandler recalled that the consequence of purchase on a house could be modeled by utilizing the adjusted present-value expression. which hypothesized that debt increased the value of a house by agencies of screening hard currency flows from revenue enhancements. Therefore. the present value of debt revenue enhancement shields could be added to the value of the unlevered house to give the value of the levered endeavor. The fringy revenue enhancement rate Chandler proposed to utilize was 40 % . reflecting the amount of federal. province. and local revenue enhancements.

Impact on debt evaluation

A cardinal premise in the analysis would be the debt evaluation for Wrigley. after presuming $ 3 billion in debt. and whether the house could cover the resulting involvement payments. Dobrynin had suggested that Chandler should presume Wrigley would borrow $ 3 billion at a evaluation between BB and B. Was a evaluation of BB/B probably? In that respect. Chandler gathered information on the mean fiscal ratios associated with different debt-rating classs ( Exhibit 6 ) . Dobrynin thought that Wrigley’s pretax cost of debt would be about 13 % . Chandler sought to look into that premise against the capital-market information given in Exhibit 7.

Impact on cost of capital

Chandler knew that the maximal value of the house was achieved when the leaden mean cost of capital ( WACC ) was minimized. Therefore. she intended to gauge what the cost of equity and the WACC might be. if Wrigley pursued this capital-structure alteration. The jutting Page 2 of 11

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cost of debt would depend on her appraisal of Wrigley’s debt evaluation after recapitalization and on current capital-market rates ( summarized in Exhibit 7 ) .The cost of equity ( KE ) could be estimated by utilizing the capital plus pricing theoretical account. Exhibit 7 gives outputs on U. S. Treasury instruments. which afforded possible estimations of the riskless rate of return. The pattern at Aurora Borealis was to utilize an equity-market hazard premium of 7. 0 % . Wrigley’s beta would besides necessitate to be relevered to reflect the jutting recapitalization.

Chandler wondered whether her analysis covered everything. Where. for case. should she take into history possible costs of bankruptcy and hurt or the effects of purchase as a signal about future operations? More purchase would besides make certain restraints and inducements for direction. Where should those be reflected in her analysis? Impact on reported net incomes per portion

Chandler intended to gauge the expected consequence on net incomes per portion ( EPS ) that would happen at different degrees of operating income ( EBIT ) with a alteration in purchase. The beginnings of an EBIT/EPS analysis are presented in Exhibit 8.

Impact on voting control

The William Wrigley Jr. Company had 232. 441 million portions outstanding. A redemption of portions would change that sum. The Wrigley household controlled 21 % of the common portions outstanding and 58 % of Class B common stock. which had superior vote rights to the common stock. 1 Assuming the Wrigley household did non sell any portions. how would the share-repurchase alternate affect the family’s voting-control place in the company?


Although Susan Chandler’s analysis followed a familiar way. each company that she had analyzed differed in of import respects from old houses. Blanka Dobrynin paid her to run Numberss and. more significantly. to happen the differences wherein concealed menaces and chances lay. Runing the Numberss was easy for Chandler ; pulling profitable penetrations from them was non.

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Wrigley Case Finance. (2017, Jul 21). Retrieved from


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