The quality of atmospheric air is the most of import factor act uponing the wellness, the healthful and epidemiological state of affairs. Two tierces of population of our Federation live in the districts where the pollution degree of atmospheric air does non match to the hygienic norms.
The denseness of trials of atmospheric air in Russia with the contents of harmful substances is about 6% of entire, so it is in the Altai – 29% and in the Buryatia Republic – 24,6% , in the Krasnoyarsk Territory – about 22% , in the Ivanovo – 20, the Kemerovo – more than 18% , the Ulyanovsk – 16,5% and in the Kaluga Regions – more than 15% .
By the manner, the high degree of air pollution in these districts was observed in the last old ages excessively.
Where is the most contaminated air? Merely at that place, where we live and spend the most portion of our clip – in the zone of life edifice if main roads there are. Even in industrial territories ( in the zone of influence of industrial emanations ) it is in some instances much lower.
The waste intervention installations using could be help to diminish the pollutions. In the Murmansk Region, for illustration, merely 50% of industrial beginnings of emanations are equipped with the waste intervention installations.
And there is one job more ( here it is, the societal facet in the portion of “ the natural diminution ” ! ) – an mean Russian still is non free to take the house in which he would wish to populate in and the topographic point on which this house should stand. It is expensive, he can’t afford it. So he has to populate at that place where he was lodged though the windowpanes blacken from carbon black during a hebdomad. But a window can be cleaned, and what about his ain lungs.
Up to now hundred 1000s people are compelled to populate in the alleged health-protection zones ( HPZ ) , i.e. in the sanitary-protection countries of the industrial endeavors where the pollution degree of atmospheric air is highly high. For illustration, in the Chelyabinsk Region more than 200 1000 people live now in these HPZ, in the Kirov Region – more than 20 1000, and in the Samara Region – approximately 13 1000 individuals.
One has a natural inquiry: it is hard to resettle people but what is being done for the betterment of the province of environment? In a figure of parts agreements for the decrease of the air pollution are being carried out. The federal plans of social-ecological safety for case were realized in the Samara Region. During the last three old ages at that place were more than one hundred of such agreements, including start operating of service the composites for fume gases cleaning in the Bezymyanskaya, Syzranskaya and the Samara thermic power Stations; the natural gas as motor fuel began to be used on conveyance more widely; the systems of the extra fume gases uncluttering are implemented in the works “ Metallurg ”; the equipment in the Kuybyshevsky oil-refinery works was modernized hence the emanations of hydrocarbons decreased etc.
Similar environment protection actions were carried out besides in the Lipetsk Region, in the metropolis of Krasnouralsk, St.-Petersburg and Moscow. The coke batteries were reconstructed in the Joint Stock Company ( JSC ) “ Novolipezkiy metallurgical works ” in the Lipetsk Region; some actions are being taken with the intent of decreasing of the lead lading on the population in the City of Krasnouralsk. Besides the regional mark plan under the name “ Protection of the natural environment from the lead pollution and lessening of its impact on the wellness of the population of the Sverdlovsk Region ” operates.
Two capitals – Moscow and “ The Northern Palmyra ” – ever drew particular attending. The analysis shows that the City of St.-Petersburg is more cleaner than the City of Moscow. May be because it is smaller and may be, non in the last topographic point, because the ingestion of black oil as fuel was reduced in the thermic power Stations ( gas fuel makes 82% ) . Besides the Main State Sanitary Inspector prohibited importing into the metropolis and merchandising of the ethylated gasolene. Therefore still it is necessary to take into history, that in 2000 in the Northern Capital 67 installations for the cleansing of atmosphere emanations were built and reconstructed and at the gasolene stations the systems of the gas-return are being installed – and this besides decreases emanations. And for the Moscow this job emanation of fouling substances from the motor conveyance into the atmospheric air – remains one of the chief jobs.
Considerable attempt is required if South Australia is to play its portion in accomplishing national marks.
If take into the history that the portion of these emanations is more than 90% – it becomes clear why the particular plans of the “ Decrease of emanations of fouling substances from the motor conveyance into the environment ” are developed in the metropolis. As for specific consequences, so they prefer to keep them back. It is all we need to look on any main road in the capital in a first-come-first-serve hr to understand how crisp this job remains. The visitants of the capital expression with surprise at the walls and Windows of the houses in the Tverskaya-Street, the Leninskiy and the Kutuzovskiy avenues, on the Garden pealing – they are literally gray from exhaust gases.
The most frequent mention to the Moscow as to “ the chief heroine ” of the book should non confound, because the writers give both the full Russia, and the USA ( and some American provinces ) as an illustration ( if we are covering with the comparative analysis of decreasing of cars emanations or about the control over these emanations ) . Moscow keeps the first topographic point on the emanation of harmful substances of motor conveyance in the ambiance ( 1,7 million dozens or approximately 87% of the entire emanations ) .
The reader can learn this job by himself, holding studied the reappraisal of the environmental plans of the USA, Japan, China, the South Korea, India and other states, which passed to the application of propane-butane as the motor fuel. Hundreds of circuits, computations of economic efficiency, diagrams; research of kineticss of the motor-vehicle pool construction, the analysis of bing systems of environmental monitoring etc. attest to the world of the expression “ ecology + economic system + wellness ” . Decidedly, but non “ at the disbursal ” .
Such subjects as “ the metropolis and the car ” , “ motor fuel ” , “ sorts of gas fuel ” , “ environmental monitoring ” , “ the multifuel gasolene station ” , “ the pollution-free car ” , will be still existent for a long clip because if even non all of us drive cars still we all breathe; it means it concerns or will concern everyone.
In 2000 the trials of air was carried out in 253 metropolis of Russia and it was found out, in 202 from them harmful substances in the air are over the bounds. And 64,5 million individuals live at that place, that is about half of the population of Russia. And still there are parts in Russia where it is going merely unsafe for wellness to take a breath, because the air is polluted in 10, and even more times than the bounds are.
As a regulation, the air are polluted by benz-a-pyrene, N dioxide, C bisulfide and methanal. Normally carbon bisulfide is emitted into the ambiance by endeavors, and N oxide – by motor conveyance.
The chief portion of the population of Russia lives in metropolis and industrial Centres. The sensible inquiry is: and what is the quality of the atmospheric air at that place?
If we look on federal territories ( and there are seven of them in Russia ) so we get such a image:
In the Central territory ( 18 topics of the Federation ) the air was checked in 37 cit. Internet Explorers and it was found out, that merely in 2 of them it corresponds to the bounds. And the most unfavourable state of affairs is in the City of Moscow and in the Moscow Region ( 9,1 Million individuals, what makes 66% of the metropolis population, breathe with the contaminated air here ) ;
In the North-West territory ( 11 topics of the Federation ) the air was checked in 39 metropolis. As the consequence sum of harmful drosss above the allowable bounds in 21 metropolis was observed, and a high pollution degree – in 5 metropoliss, where about 6 Million individuals live, that is about the half of the population of this territory.
The most unfavorable state of affairs is in the City of St.-Petersburg and in the Leningrad Region ( about 5 Million individuals breathe with the contaminated air here ) . Bad quality of the atmospheric air is besides in the Nenets Autonomous Area; in the Southern territory ( 13 topics of the Federation ) the monitoring of the air pollution was carried out in 31 metropolis and it was found out, that in 19 of them the harmful dross are more than the permitted bound, and the high degree of air pollution – in 10 metropolis where 4,4 million individuals live, that is 36% of the townsfolk of the territory.
In two other metropolis the maximum concentrations exceed the permitted bounds about in 10 times.
The state of affairs in the Volgograd Region is really inauspicious ( 1,5 Million individuals, that is 75% of the townsfolk breathe with the contaminated air ) .
The same state of affairs is in the Rostov Region and the Krasnodar Territory, and the worst air quality in this part is in the towns of the Karachaevo-Circassian Republic.
In the Privolzhskiy territory ( 15 topics of the Federation ) the air quality was checked in 47 metropolis and in 41 of them harmful dross exceed the bounds. Therefore in 27 metropolis where about 12 Million individuals ( that is 52% of the population of the territory ) there is a high degree of the air pollution. For illustration, in the Samara Region 76% of the urban population have to take a breath with such an air ( 2 Million individuals ) , the same figure in the Nizhni Novgorod Region, in the Republic of Bashkortostan, in the Perm Region; the air quality in the Kirov Region is comparatively high in comparing with them ;
In the Uralsky territory ( 6 topics of the Federation ) the air was checked in 17 metropolis and it was found out, that in 15 of them harmful dross exceed the permitted bound, and in 7 of them the maximum concentrations were exceed more than 10 times. Almost 3 Million individuals breathe here with high polluted air – particularly in the Sverdlovsk and the Kurgan Regions ;
In the Siberian territory ( 16 topics of the Federation ) harmful dross over permitted bounds were found in the air of 48 from 55 checked up metropolis.
In 14 of them the pollution of the air basin exceeds the bounds in 10 and more times. Almost 9 Million individuals in this territory ( 61% of the urban population ) breathe with the poor-quality air.
The state of affairs is comparatively favorable merely in the Republic of Tuva, and in the Irkutsk, the Novosibirsk, the Kemerovo and the Omsk Regions – the most inauspicious.
And, eventually, in the Far East territory ( 10 topics of the Federation ) 23 from 27 checked up metropolis indicated the air pollution above the bound, and 5 of them – more than in 10 times.
The state of affairs is bad in the metropolis of Primorie and the Khabarovsk Territories, but it is the most inauspicious in the Kamchatka Region, where 81% of the urban population live in the zone with a high air pollution degree.
At the first sight the state of affairs is non rather logical: the industry in Russia plants now non so intensively, as earlier, and the air remains soiled.
But the affair is that the ambiance can non be divided by boundary lines, as the tellurian district. Polluting substances are transferred on long distances from one state into another. It is called transboundary air pollution.
For illustration, in 2000 2,4 million dozens of the oxidised S and N fell out on the European portion of Russia. More than half of this sum ( 57% ) is the consequence of the transboundary transportation. And chiefly – from the Ukraine, Poland, Byelorussia, Romania and Germany.
Of class, “ the Russian air ” wanders towards other states excessively. But its portion in the crossboundary alterations is merely 11,3% . In other words, the Russian endeavors located in the European portion, emitted 1,4 Million dozens of harmful substances into the ambiance, but merely 160,3 thousand dozens of them dropped out on the district of other states.
One of the most painful jobs is the fall-out of heavy metals, particularly of lead. 2739 dozens of it fell out on the European district of Russia ( 68,5 dozens of Cd as good ) , more than half of it has the transboundary beginning.
As for the lead, it is necessary to state some words about it because the job remains really acute. In 1997 the thorough analytical “ Report on lead environmental taint of the Russian Federation and its influence on the wellness of the population ” , besides known as “ The White book ” , was devoted to this issue ( it was written and edited by REFIA. It is possible to familiarise with the full text of the Report on the REFIA web www.refia.ru ) .
And by 2000 the joint Russian-American work “ Lead in the environment and wellness of the population of Russia ” was issued.
Alas, lead danger is a world for now. And non merely for those who live in the metropolis near to the collector works of St.-Petersburg or near the copper-smelting industrial composite in the Krasnouralsk; in the Gus’-Khrustalniy ( industry of a glass and crystal ) or in the Pervouralsk ( copper-smelting works ) . In the metropolis of Ekaterinburg, Saratov and Volgograd, for illustration, motor conveyance is the basic beginning of lead presenting into the environment.
But there is besides both the air power and the space-rocket technology; even the hunting, which is accustomed for many people. Why – hunting? Because after it about one and a half thousand dozens of lead substances ( ! ) remain in the dirt ( land ) yearly.
So, if we put it all together – it will be more than plenty to kill everything alive about. Particularly because of the fact that lead is non merely toxic, but has the characteristic of roll uping in an being ( for mammals – in the encephalon and in the liver ) .
Surely, the scheme for lead pollution control exists. But the advantage will be merely when it will be implemented at least by halves. It is possible to trust the release of ethylated gasolene reduces; that physicians have learned to cut down negative influence of lead on the kids wellness ( they suffer in the first bend ); that the copper-smelting industry will put in new cleaning installations etc.
The job of lead is close to the bing in Russia job of quicksilver. Though from about 70 dozens, which fell out from the ambiance onto Russian district, merely 3,5 dozens belong to the Russian beginnings, what makes merely 5% . Other 95% , as they say, are brought be the air current – that means we speak about transboundary pollution once more.
For the interest of justness it is necessary to state, that the neighbours are non guilty in all of our problems with the air quality. For illustration, about 80 dozens of benzo-a-pyrene fell out on the European portion of Russia in a twelvemonth, and more than 66 of them ( that is 83% ) – is a portion of our ain Russian beginnings.