Annotated Bibliography Alexie, Sherman. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven Essay

Annotated Bibliography

Alexie, Sherman - Annotated Bibliography Alexie, Sherman. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven Essay introduction. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1993.

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The book establishes Alexie Sherman as the most important and provocative writers. The author vividly portrays the life of Spokane Indian reservation stating that the book is a mixture of stark reality, fantasy and weaving memory. Actually, the book introduces most beloved characters that inhabit his distinctive landscape. The book consists of twenty-four interlinked tales which are narrated by main characters. The book is about humiliation and government-issue cheese and is filled with passion and affection, charm and mystery. The author shows the distance between whites and Indians, man and women, poetical traditions of Indian past and present.

Crawford, J. Endangered Native American Languages: What is to Be Done, and Why? Language and Politics in the U.S. and Canada: Myths and Realities. (ed. Ricento, T. and Burnaby, B.) Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.

The author speaks about the danger of Native American languages meaning they are in danger of extinction. He asserts that the threat to linguistic resource is a matter of concern in the country and it is a worldwide crisis. The number of native languages is declining on s global scale, especially in Australia, Americas, Southeast Asia and Africa. Thus, the paper aims at identifying main causes of language extinction and decline. The author is interested whether this process can be reversed and why people should be concerned with this problem. Special attention in the article is paid to providing answers and looking in details at the situation in the USA.

Ivanova, K. Tribal College Professors Act to Save Endangered Languages. Community College Week, 14, 1 (May 2000): 22.

The paper deals with endangered languages and the author stresses that teachers, instructors and students should pay more attention to their own languages. The paper tells about Belknap Community College instructor Selena Ditmar who arrived at school to pass out war rations stamps. She needed someone to translation the inscription on the stamp, though she reveled that nobody wanted to admit they spoke the language. therefore, the paper aims at persuading people to preserve their heritage, especially native languages.

 Kent, J. American Indigenous Languages Face Crisis in the 21st Century. News From Indian Country, 16, 9 (May 2002): 14A.

The paper addresses the problem of American indigenous languages. The author claims that native languages face crisis in the beginning of the 21st century because of swiftly developing technologies, cooperation between countries and tendency to promote the only language within the country.

Nichols, Roger L. Indians in the United States & Canada: A Comparative History. USA: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

The book provides new exciting perspective of Comparative History. Actually, the author provides detailed overview of Indians’ lie in Canada and in the USA. The book is a well-organized and clearly written comparative study which offers new insight into the life, traditions and history of Indian-white relations in America. The author underscores the complexity of cultures and processes having occurred in the last two centuries. The book demonstrates similarities and differences of development in two countries.

 Reyhner, J. Cultural Survival vs. Forced Assimilation: the Renewed War on Diversity. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 25, 2 (July 2001): 22.

The paper critically discusses facts which will be never read in official historical text in the USA. It provides full story about misperception, miseducation and mistreatment of Nation’s Indigenous Tribes. The paper addresses the problem of Language Preservation and Survival. Actually, the author tells that American Indian languages have been isolated for a long period of time and, maybe, it is the only opportunity for Indian population to preserve their native language. The government treated Indian lands as “unwanted”. The paper discusses the impact of the English First movement, cites the passage of Proposition 203 in Arizona and defends bilingual education in public schools.

 Soldier, L. W. Lakota Language: Survival and Restoration; Lessons From the Boarding School. Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education, 4, 4, (April 1993): 24.

The paper provides thoroughly selected recollections about school experiences. Actually, the paper concentrates on students who are encouraged to think negatively and contemptuously about their own languages. The author sheds light on efforts taken at Sinte Gleska University to integrated culture and language in training Lakota linguists and teachers. The next moment to mention is that the author provides relevant recommendations and warnings. He stresses that Lakota language is in danger of extinction.

Tohtsoni, N. J.  Navajo Language ‘Essential’: Arizona Attorney General Says ‘English-only’ Does Not Apply to Tribes or Federal Schools. Navajo Times, 40, 7 (February 2001): A1.

The paper provides information about decision of Arizona Attorney General Janet Napolitano. He states that “the English-only proposition approved by Arizona voters does not apply to tribal or federal schools”. The author addresses the problem of bilingual education in Arizona stating that students are forced to undergo only English immersion program. Therefore, the paper touches not only ethics, but also legislative aspects of issues. The main idea is that children of immigrants are able to gain full fluency in speaking English at a young age.  Thus, Navajo language is endangered, though it is claimed that law doesn’t tend to ban use of Navajo in Arizona.

Works Cited

Alexie, Sherman. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1993.

Crawford, J. Endangered Native American Languages: What is to Be Done, and Why? Language and Politics in the U.S. and Canada: Myths and Realities. (ed. Ricento, T. and Burnaby, B.) Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.

Ivanova, K. Tribal College Professors Act to Save Endangered Languages. Community College Week, 14, 1 (May 2000): 22.

Kent, J. American Indigenous Languages Face Crisis in the 21st Century. News From Indian Country, 16, 9 (May 2002): 14A.

Nichols, Roger L. Indians in the United States & Canada: A Comparative History. USA: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Reyhner, J. Cultural Survival vs. Forced Assimilation: the Renewed War on Diversity. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 25, 2 (July 2001): 22.

Soldier, L. W. Lakota Language: Survival and Restoration; Lessons From the Boarding School. Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education, 4, 4, (April 1993): 24.

Tohtsoni, N. J.  Navajo Language ‘Essential’: Arizona Attorney General Says ‘English-only’ Does Not Apply to Tribes or Federal Schools. Navajo Times, 40, 7 (February 2001): A1.

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