Then provide information regarding one theory from each level and its effectiveness in health education. Then describe the seven program planning models highlighting the unique tributes of each model while discussing similarities found across the model. Lastly describe three models with real world examples. The difference between theories and models is “models are the basis of theories, while theories are the main basis for the explanation of different phenomena.
Models come in the form of a verbal, visual, or mathematical representation of a prospect or scientific process of structure that should be followed by scientists in order to come up with theories and test inferences. These then can be formulated after conducting extensive observations of physical phenomena. ( Cline 2011) it is important to use theories in health education because “Theory also provides the basis for judging whether all the necessary elements of a programmer are in place.
For example, a programmer designed to encourage a particular behavior, such as condom use, could not be expected to succeed unless it addressed the known determinants of that behavior. Providing young people with information about condoms will have little effect unless they also have the skills to obtain and use condoms, they are able to be assertive in negotiating condom use with their partner, condoms are available, and so on. ( Green 2014) Socio-ecological approach is “an approach to health education/promotion that goes beyond individual behavior change to examine and modify the social, political, and economic factors impacting health behavior decisions”. (Cottrell 367) Behavior change theories “is often a goal for staff working directly with constituents, organizations, governments, or communities. Individuals charged with this task can be thought of as “interventionists” whose goal it is to design and implement programs or interventions that produce the desired behavioral changes. ” (Gland,Lewis, rimes, 1990, p. 7). The seven program planning models are “Comprehensive Health Education Model (Sullivan, 1973) Model for Health Education Planning (Ross & Mica, 1980) Model for Health Education Planning and Resource Development (Bates & Winder, 1984) Planned Approach To Community Health (PATCH) (CDC, n. D. ) Generic Health/Fitness Delivery System (Patton Sorry, Getting, & Graff, 1986)Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX/PH) (National Association of County Health Officials [NACHO], 1991)Healthy Plan-alt (CDC, 2000)Healthy People in Healthy Communities (U. S. Department of Health and
Human Services [KIDDUSH], 2001)The Health Communication Model (National Cancer Institute (NC’), 2002) The Planning, Program Development, and Evaluation Model (Timelier, 2003) MAP-IT (KIDDUSH, 2011) SOOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) Analysis” (Cottrell 121) similarities to all of these is that they all have education in mind and what is best for the student to learn. Real world examples of three of these models are “Mike graduated a year ago with a bachelor’s degree in health education. He felt extremely lucky to “beat out” 15 interviewees for the health education specialist position at the Lancaster County
Health Department. Though the health department has a good reputation throughout the state, Mike is the only person on the staff hired to do health education. Mike’s supervisor, Dan Cantors, is Coordinator of Chronic and Infectious Disease for the health department. Cantors has worked for the department for about 30 years. He also holds a bachelor’s degree from the same university Mike graduated from. However, Cantors received his degree in health and physical education before the implementation of the current community/ public health education major.
Throughout Mike’s tenure with the health apartment, he and Cantors have had a good working relationship. However, while planning a weight-loss program for a group of teenagers in the county, Mike ran into a situation that caused him some concern. After conducting a needs assessment and writing the program goals and objectives, he could not decide which behavior change theory to use to plan his intervention. He decided to seek Cantor’s advice. When he asked Cantors what theory or model he would recommend, Cantors responded, “Theory-smeary, you don’t need to use that stuff, just skip the theory part and plan the intervention.