If you do not receive notification concerning the examination or if you have any problems, contact the Examination Section (tell 0861 670 411) immediately, and not your lecturers. Consult Tutorial Letter ESTEEM/101 for information on admission credits. 2. 2 Learning content for the examination
Both textbooks will be examined. Do not forget the additional information in your study guide and tutorial letters. We are not going to ask you questions that are of no relevance to the course. Questions will focus on theoretical and (more importantly) practical work.
Questions may also be asked pertaining to your period of practice teaching. Assignments All the assignments are of equal importance for the examination. Questions based on assignments may appear in entirely different wording, or may have exactly the same wording as the assignments. Alternatively, only a part of an assignment might be incorporated into an examination question. 4 2. 3 The examination paper – layout, duration and total marks The examination paper consists of FOUR COMPULSORY questions. The paper is TWO hours long. Use 25 minutes for the answering of each question.
This leaves you with more than enough time to apply the principles of clear and focused reasoning. The only way to present a meaningful answer is when you CAREFULLY CONSIDER your answer rather than just merely jotting down whatever enters the mind. 25 Marks will be allocated to each question – a total of 100 marks is therefore allocated to this exam paper. Questions will be sub-divided and the maximum for a single subsection will be 15 marks. The form and content of the examination paper for both the October/November examination and the supplementary examination in January are exactly the same.
It is amazing how many students concentrate on the reading of the tutorial matter, whilst they are expected to write down facts and arguments in the examination. A dedicated student who wants to write an examination, should practice writing an examination, not chatting or reading about it. (You have a sufficient amount of possible questions at your disposal for this exercise. )
There were no problems with assignments 01 and 02. A few words about each assignment is given below: Assignment 01 – self-evaluation. It was more an introductory assignment to introduce you to the work.
Few problems arose and robbers that need attention were dealt with. Assignment 02 – lesson planning. Although one can give guidelines on this, never forget what looks good in writing may not develop into a successful lesson; the reverse is also true. This aspect of teaching will also be dealt with in depth in other courses of BEd as well as in our discussion theme later in this tutorial letter.
Theme for Discussion
During the discussion classes we concentrated on the following:
The last few years have seen profound changes taking place in South Africa.
As part of the social structure, education and training did not escape this process f change. Education and training in South Africa needed to be transformed and normalized. Some reasons for the transforming of the South African education system include: Under-utilization of existing human resources. Separation of formal education and vocational training (i. E. Education and training). Qualification structures linked to types of institutions. No qualification structure for education and training outside formal education.
Formal education inaccessible to large numbers of learners. Serious disparities within the system. No recognition of prior experiential learning. Education and training outside the formal system is demand-driven, that is, focuses on low level skills training and cannot adapt to changes in labor market. World trends as well as events in South Africa initiated this rethink. These trends included: The age of instant communication – accessing and applying information. The new service society requires problem-solving skills.
Moving from big to small – thinking skills, experimenting and openness to change and opportunity. The changing shape of work – people now work as their own managers, marketers and communicators. People are not only life-long learners, but also life-long earners. The face of business is changing owing to the presence of women in leadership positions. The decade of the brain – utilizing the full potential of the brain, using your head, not mere memorizing. Making use of the active ageing population – utilizing over-ass as an employment resource.
The do- it-yourself boom – people take responsibility for their own lives (e. G. Health). These changes and trends resulted in the educational initiative known as Curriculum 2005. As a general tutorial letter will reach you shortly informing you riffle what Curriculum 2005 entails, we will not go into any detail surrounding the topic. We will concentrate on one aspect thereof and that is lesson planning and presentation. Three questions arise from this aspect and will be dealt with in the following paragraphs What outcomes should learners achieve?
What learning activities can be planned so that learners achieve the set outcomes? How can we assess whether learners achieved these outcomes? A lot of material is taken directly from the publication Curriculum 2005 and in many instances will be given word by word. In such cases, text will be in italics.
Outcomes-Based Education (OBEY)
In Unit 3 of our study guide we referred to the move towards outcomes-based education (OBEY). In short, OBEY emphasizes not what the teacher wants to achieve, but rather on what the learner should be able to know, to understand, to do and to become.
This implies that learners acquire not only knowledge, but that they understand what they learn and develop appropriate skills, values and attitudes during the learning process. Teachers and learners now focus on certain outcomes (or predetermined results) that are to be achieved y the end of each learning process. Outcomes-based learning processes encourage pupils to investigate, to work in groups, to solve problems, and to use less passive learning strategies (learners do not passively sit and listen to the teacher).
It goes without saying that each lesson must have certain learning outcomes. In the general tutorial letter, we give an example how certain essential outcomes are realized in the classroom. Although the planning and writing of learning outcomes are still in progress, we can say that each learning experience will have certain learning outcomes that should be achieved. Certain learner outcomes should therefore be stated at the beginning of your lesson preparation. The following sentence should precede your lesson: At the end of the learning process, learners should be able to: 1. . 3.. (knowledge) attitudes) ……… (skills) . …… (values/ Ideally, these aspects should be achieved by learners at the end of the learning experience. By using short, concise sentences, you can stipulate those aspects of knowledge, skills, values/attitudes which learners should be able to acquire. Each sentence must therefore contain a verb (doing word) which denotes the specific action. The critical student WI now ask: What, then, is the difference between learning outcomes and learning objectives?
Without going into too much debate surrounding this topic we can state that, whereas learning objectives focused more on what the teacher wanted to achieve at the end of the lesson/learning experience, learning outcomes focus on what the learner wants to achieve. The attainment of these outcomes will obviously entail learners doing certain activities.
The Planning of Learning Activities
As was mentioned, OBEY intends making learners active participants and not passive learners. In achieving this aim, teachers must utilities all the resources they can lay their hands on to make learning enjoyable and participatory.
The publication Curriculum 2005 (1 997: session 5, resource 1 ) gives a few guidelines for recognizing good educational materials. Please note the following in this regard: 7 Good educational materials should: Encourage a love of lifelong learning. Promote critical thinking and problem-solving as essential life skills. Encourage a “hands-on” approach. Be sensitive to gender bias. Follow an integrated approach to learning. Recognize that all individuals learn at their own pace. Acknowledge that there are diverse cultures in our society.
Ensure that emotional and social development is promoted. Take into account that there are differing views about most issues. Allow for the learners’ knowledge to develop over time. This same publication (1997: session 5, resource 3) gives tips on certain resources, how they can be used and tells you where you can get more information: Resource Newspapers and magazines How can I use them T o d e v elope I an GU a g EAI n d communication skills; equally useful for all other learning areas. Where can I get more information?
Courses in using print media in education run by: Mime (Zulu Natal) Tell: (031) 303 4206 Mime (Sautéing) Tell: (011) 836 6040 Mime (E cape) Tell: (0431 ) 20349 Bulletin board/ display area Can be used to display materials around a theme or concept. Learners can also put up their own work. To explain, illustrate, clarify and reinforce different aspects of learning. As assignments for learners. Find activities that encourage thinking and problem-solving. As a reference; for content; hand out any activities to learners. To reinforce learning through running programmed relating to the eight learning areas.
To develop a culture and love of reading. For assignments and projects being done by learners/groups. Use newspapers, magazines, your own posters and learners’ work Charts Use cardboard and kooks to make your own charts. Workbooks From your provincial education department or local non-government education organizations. Education publishers and nongovernmental organizations. Local teacher resource centers and some local libraries. Published textbooks Audio tapes, multi-media packs Fiction and non-fiction books Reference books, egg dictionaries,atlases Contact local library. Contact local library. Field trips Visits to places of interest that relate to the different learning areas. Arrange visits for learners and plan follow-up activities. Health workers to talk about sexuality; AIDS etc; professionals may be invited to talk to learners about specific careers. Regular commercial and educational programmed. These can provide information, help to develop problem-solving and analytical skills; and engender critical awareness. Programmed to reinforce different aspects of the learning areas; learners can also videotape themselves and learn through a process of watching themselves on tape.
Usually run educational courses mind out what is available in your area. Use activities as described, as well as using them to stimulate other ideas. Learners have a wide knowledge of the community, as well as the skills to find and make their own learning materials. To access a wide range of innovative materials that have been produced by various Nags. Tourist information centers can advise on landmarks or places to visit. Contact local municipality. Ask your local civic organization, or your colleagues and learners in your school. SABA, and local community radio stations. Newspapers carry programmer details.
Museums Community resource persons Television/ radio Video recordings Technician students usually take video recordings; ask your local library about videos. Non- governmental organizations Education supplements Ask your colleagues about local NO’S. Appear in different newspapers and magazines, egg Bona magazine, Drum magazine, Daily News, Sweeten, Evening post. Learners Directory of learning materials It was compiled by Education Foundation/ Media in Education and Aurora Associates International
Assessing Outcomes-Based Learning
In order for learners to develop their learning, their knowledge, skills and attitudes have to be assessed.
Assessment forms an important and integral part f OBEY for several reasons. These reasons are given in your study guide in Unit 7. In short, assessment has to (be): integral to the teaching and learning, not separated from it occurs continuously throughout the year and not only at the end of the year focus on applying skills, not on performance in isolation involve a range of methods, not only tests and examinations encourage understanding, not comparison 9 promote success, not failure focus on co-operation, not competition (Curriculum 2005 1997: session 6, poster b).
It is imperative to know that it is important to asks yourself the following questions: Why I am teaching what am teaching? Why am I assessing what I am assessing? These will assist you to teach and assess with a clear purpose in mind. In the study guide we gave you examples of continuous assessment (CA). The document Curriculum 2005 (1997: Session 6, resource 2) also gives examples of continuous assessment. I have given you some extracts from this document for you to critically analysis: Example Group projects Description A number of learners work on a task together.
This might require planning, research, discussion and group presentation. Learners present work that they eave researched orally to the teacher/class. This could be an essay. These assignments involve descriptions, analysis, explanations and summaries Advantages You can assess learners’ abilities to work as a team and to complete the task competently. This method facilitates cooperation between learners. Allows students to tell us what they know. Assesses both the work completed and the ability to communicate what has been learnt. Can be used to assess a learner’s understanding of an issue.
This method can show how learners use facts and how they structure these coherently into arguments. In addition, can monastery learners’ thinking, writing and communication skills. Learners are involved in the assessment process and not threatened by it. They are more likely to learn from this process. Demonstrates clearly how well learners understand certain specific concepts and how they translate these into practical implementation. This allows for assessment over a period of time. Learners are not assessed on a once performance. Includes a selfsameness.
Interviews and oral presentation Written assignments Peer assessment Learners give their own opinion of their group’s performance compared to the outcomes they should have reached. These could be scientific experiments, building models, drawing a map of the community, etc. These are files or folders that contain the work the learner has done over a period of time. The file or folder should include the learner’s best work as well as initial plans; drafts; equalization; and feedback from peers and teachers. Learners are asked to assess themselves against the given outcomes, egg “My essay was good because… Practical assignments Portfolio assessment Self-assessment Learners begin to recognize the limitations of their work. Are involved in the process, understand it and are more likely to learn from it. This “new/’ approach to assessment is old news to some teachers, and “new news” to others. Curriculum 2005 (1997: Session 6, resource 4) makes the following comments about the assessment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Start small. Follow someone else’s example in the beginning. Try out one assessment activity together with a traditional test. Expect to take more time at first.
Developing and evaluating alternative assessments can be time consuming in the beginning. Once you and the learners are comfortable with the method, it will become quicker and easier. Make changes to the existing curriculum. Plan our assessment so that it reflects these changes. Assessment is an essential part of the teaching and learning process. Have a partner. Sharing ideas and experiences with a colleague will help you as a teacher and will help your leaders. Do some research. Look for examples of alternative assessments or activities that could be modified for your leaders.
Keep these on file and readily available. Give assessment a high value. Leaders need to see that assessment is important and worth the time spent on it. Keep them informed about all the assessment activities and what it is you are assessing. Expect to learn by trial and error. Be willing to take risks and learn from mistakes. The best assessments are developed over time and with repeated use. Try peer assessment activities. Get learners to assess each other. This will develop learner evaluation skills. By involving them in administering assessments, they will become accountable to each other. Don’t give up.
If the first tries are not as successful as you had hoped, remember this is new to learners too. They can help you improve on the process. Once you have tried an alternative assessment, reflect and evaluate the activities. Ask yourself these questions: What worked? What needs modification? What would I do differently? Would I use this activity again? How did the learners respond? Did the end result justify the time spent? Did leaders learn from the activity? 11 6 A FINAL WORD We trust that you have found your study of the BEd course in general and of Teaching Social Sciences in particular, an enjoyable and enriching experience.
Please let us know if you experienced any problems with our course which you would like to bring under our attention. We are open to criticisms. We hope that you will pass the examination with flying colors We wish you all of the best for your studies and the examination! Mrs. V. P Lethe e-mail: lethovp@unisa. AC. AZ Tell: (012) 429-4758 Mrs. MM Mach e-mail: machabmm@unisa. AC. AZ Tell: (012) 429-4819 SELF-EVALUATION ANSWERS This tutorial letter contains the “model answers” to Assignment 01. You will notice that your answers have been marked and no comments were given. This is because Assignment 01 was designed for self-evaluation.
You are therefore going to award YOURSELF marks by using the enclosed “model answers”. Please remember that these answers are not definitive: you can add to and amend them according to the insights you have gained from studying various sources. In Hess model answers, we have simply provided you with just the essential points that should feature in each answer. PLEASE NOTE: An asterisk (*) immediately after a fact indicates that a mark should be awarded for mentioning it. An oblique stroke (I) indicates alternatives. Do not be alarmed by the fact that there is or no percentage mark on the assignment cover.