Teaching methods for diverse learners Essay

Annotated Bibliography

1 - Teaching methods for diverse learners Essay introduction. Algozzine, Robert, Pam Campbell and Adam Wang. Sixty-three tactics for teaching diverse learners, K-6, Thousands Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2009.
The publication provides sixty-three instructional methods which are applicable to all elementary students with disabilities and also to those without. The contents in the publication are diverse as they cover all major areas and grade levels for all the students in spite of it concentrating on elementary school. The authors provide a teaching framework that is practical and research based and in addition the framework focuses primarily on instruction aspects which include its planning, management, deliverance and evaluation.

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            The primary benefit of using this strategy is that it enables teachers to assess their teaching skills and tactics and in addition it provides then with a better and more result oriented approach. The successful learning is depended on the teacher and their instructional methods thus making this approach much relevant as it focuses on improving the skills and tactics of teachers.

2. Brown, David. ‘Micro-level teaching strategies for linguistically diverse learners.’ Linguistics and Education, Volume 17, Issue 2, summer 2006, 175-195.

The publication begins by critically arguing that learners require access to privileged rhetorical forms which most pedagogies do not facilitate. The author proposes that an understanding of the fluencies which students already have and synthesis of the strengths of instructional approaches might be useful in improving diverse students learning. The publication covers five crucial areas; social formation and markets, linguistically informed instruction, rethinking linguistic capital in schools, linguistic diversity and the process of writing, and exposing markets using genre.

            The method is beneficial to the teachers as it enables them to critically evaluate their teaching approaches and modify them in accordance with the needs of their students. Application of the strategy provided in the publication requires more effort from the teachers and not students. Furthermore, the strategy is applicable in classroom but its success depends on the teacher.

3. Cartledge, Gwendolyn, Gardner, Ralph and Ford, Donna. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Inclusive Classroom. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2008.

            The publication focuses on the special needs of all racially as well as culturally diverse learners with exceptionalities in classroom. The authors attempt to build a strong case concerning the need for intensive attention for diverse learners, points of greatest need for this population and reasons why the certain instruction methods are more appropriate for students with significant educational needs. The publication also contains special additional features such teacher tips which provides steps for applying the procedures and strategies suggested by the authors, and explicit examples of concerning ways in which the information can utilized in the classroom perspective.

            The approach provides teachers with an understanding of the different cultures within the classroom and also provides ways of approaching diverse students that makes them feel appreciated. In classroom there are students from different cultures thus using such an approach the students will feel appreciated and in turn improve their grades.

4. Cole, Robert. Educating Everybody’s Children: Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners, 2nd Edition, Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development, 2008.

            The publication identifies a range of principles and instructional strategies using results from various studies concerning the success of addressing needs of diverse students from economic, linguistic, ethnic and culture perspective. In spite of the fact that good teaching is applicable to all students, the authors proposes that instructors need to develop extensive repertoire regarding instructional tools in order to meet the needs of diverse students. The strategies contained in the publication are based on the instructional tools and the knowledge base behind them.

            The strategies are focused at ensuring all teachers have the capability of delivering a curriculum which is standard based, one that describes what the students need to know and have the ability to apply. Furthermore, the strategy emphasizes that the standards are delivered using a adequate and engaging pedagogy of plenty. By using the two actions described in the strategy diverse students will have an easy time learning and this will improve their performance.

5. Conteh-Morgan, M. ‘Connecting the Dots: Limited English Proficiency, Second Language Learning Theories, and Information Literacy Instruction.’ Journal of Academic Librarian ship , 28(4), 2002, 191-196.

            The publication provides strategies which are geared towards empowering diverse learners. The author proposes that English Second Language (ESL) instructors need to be involved fully in the development of information literacy objectives which are to be integrated into the ESL curriculum. The publication centers mainly on use of learner centered instruction. The strategy provided involve use of a clear structure which entail giving students written materials containing objectives and expectations, and maximizing opportunities concerning use of language. When using verbal communication the author proposes use of longer pauses between semantic groups.

This strategy increases the level of comfort among the diverse students and also incorporates language learning into the instruction library. The strategy is applicable in classroom but it focuses primarily on improving teaching tactics being used by teachers.

6. Jiao, Q.G. and Onwuebguzie, A. ‘Sources of Library Anxiety among International Students.’ Urban Library Journal, 11(1), 2001, 16-27.

            The authors focus on empowering students from different cultures by conducting a research  concerning issues affecting diverse learners. The publication provides an insight concerning the two greatest causes of library anxiety for diverse students. Accordance to the authors, mechanical and affective barriers are the root causes of anxieties. The author provides a strategy to ESL instructors which involve understanding the implications of the anxieties on learning and reducing the anxieties in the learning sessions.

            The method equips teachers with an understanding of causes of anxiety and also provides them with ways of eliminating anxieties in classrooms. Anxiety is part of classroom environment that requires critical analysis and elimination in order to enhance learning.

7. Glazer, Susan. ‘To Build Self-Esteem, Know Thyself. Teaching Diverse Learners.’ Teaching Pre K-8, v27 n5 p102-103 Feb 1997

            The document focuses on building confidence among the diverse learners as most diverse students have low self-esteem. It therefore proposes a vital plan which involves creating a progress report form where students can record things they know and those they need to learn. The author suggest that by giving students the urge to learn to express their knowledge and skills and what they need from class helps in building careful and responsible risk taking learners.

            This strategy can play a vital role in building confident among diverse learners in classroom if applied effectively. The strategy does not require any additional knowledge and also saves much time as it involves few steps. In the classroom perspective the strategy can improve the performance of the students through confidence building.

8. Hoerr, Thomas. Becoming a multiple intelligence school. First edition, Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development, 1999.

            The publication advocates a multiple-intelligence approach to address the needs of diverse learners in schools. The author provides four critical steps which are essential for schools in becoming  multiple intelligence. The first step entails introducing the theory of multiple intelligence to students, parents and the entire faculty. Second step is instilling a team-work approach throughout the entire the school. Third, is the creation of new school curriculum and instructional approaches which focus on cultivating intelligence strengths of the students. The final step involves developing a new assessment method for tracking and reporting the progress of the students.

            The method covers all the relevant individuals involved in the learning process of students thus improving the performance of the students through team-work. Not all the steps in the strategy are relevant in the classroom perspective as some are institutional. Creation of new curriculum is the role of the entire institution not classroom.

9. McCarthy, Bernice and Dennis McCarthy. Teaching Around the 4mat(r) Cycle: Designing Instruction for Diverse Learners with Diverse Learning Styles. First edition, New York: Sage Publications, 2005.

            The publication revolves around a brain-based method of teaching students that focuses solely on the thinking capacity of the students. The method advocates diverse learning styles, teaching concepts and facts, learner individuality and high level assessment as critical factors for improving students thinking and performance. The 4MAT(R) method entails using a four-quadrant cycle  of learning that commences by engaging all learners via direct experience and then moving them towards  reflective observation, abstract conceptualizing, problem solving and active experimentation, and finally integration of new skills and knowledge.

            Using the method improves the thinking capacity of the students thus improving their level of performance in their studies. Its limitation is that application of the method requires adequate training to assure its effectiveness. The method can be applied in the entire school rather than solely on classroom level.

10. Mohr, Laura. ‘Teaching Diverse Learners in Inclusive Settings: Steps for Adapting Instructions.’ Presentation at the Annual International Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children, 73rd, Indianapolis, IN, April 5-9, 1995. 13pages

            The author proposes strategies and accommodations for diverse learners regarding the learning procedures, learning environment, instructional materials and methods, progress measurement, and techniques for classroom management. The publication entails issues concerning time allowed for processing information and completing the tasks, the student’s daily schedule and expected work rate, class and homework assignments, modification of grading and testing, course organizers, study groups, modification of learning objectives, adaptations of oral and visual materials and methods, variations with respect to methods of teaching and learning, and the classroom techniques which are useful for provision of structure and support. In addition to that, the author further proposes accommodations for reading, writing, mathematics, science and social studies.

            The strategies proposed covers all the aspects of learning thus making it universal. It contains ways which are easy to follow and implement in the context of a classroom. Materials contained in the publication are thus relevant and applicable in the classroom and involve both the students and their teachers.

Annotated Webliography

1. Belgrad, Susan. Ten successful instructional strategies that reach and teach diverse learners. 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2009 from http://www.csun.edu/~sb4310/pptpresents/TenSuccessfulInstructionalStrategies_files/frame.htm

            The web article outlines ten strategies which the author considers to be essential in ensuring successful teaching of diverse learners. The strategies entail; people search, involving introduction of the students to one another; Think, pair and share, which involves response thinking and sharing the idea with your desk-mate; Human graph, this involves grouping the students; Graphic organizers which entail using visual tools; Agree or disagree, focusing on promoting critical literacy; Tolls for reflective practitioner; Performance rubrics; Portfolio showcase; and finally, Session logs.

        The benefit of using these strategies is that they enhance teacher-student interaction thus building confidence among the students. However, the strategies require much time to be assimilated in order to produce results and in addition to that they are too many to follow and apply. Despite the limitation, the strategies are applicable in the context of a classroom as they involve all students and their teachers.

2. Center for Development and Learning. Learning Profiles: Differentiated Instruction for Diverse Learners.  Retrieved August 5, 2009 from

http://www.cdl.org/for_educators/development/learning_profiles.htm

            The author puts more emphasis on teachers to understand their students who they are and their ways of learning and in addition to that understand how emotions and behavior affect the process of learning. The article examines six components of the learning process; attention, memory, language, higher order thinking, organization and graphomotor.

            The teaching method provides in depth, research based instruction to teachers on the practical and technical aspects of learning process components, and also provides instructional tactics and strategies for teaching diverse ;learners that practical and applicable to the classroom. The method has several advantages; one is that it enables teachers to learn ways of accounting the needs of all students; secondly, it provides an array of strategies and skills for diagnosing and responding to multiple learning situations and factors; thirdly, it teaches instructors ways of engaging the students completely into the learning process and also provides assistance in creating a learner centered classroom; and its fourth advantage is that it allows use of case studies in the instructions thus making them easier to understand.

3. Ganly, Sarah. Best practices for teaching diverse learners. October 10, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/403949/best_practices_for_teaching_diverse.html?cat=4

            The article provides an insight concerning the different types of learning group which are inclusive cultural, gender and linguistic. The author emphasizes on the importance of using teaching methods which encourage equal participation regardless of class. In putting emphasis on learning methods the author provides better ways of teaching diverse learners. Use of concrete example is suggested as one of the teaching methods of enhancing learning however the author proposes interaction as the best learning method.

            The strategy encourages students to pursue their careers in areas they are interested in as the strategy breaks down fears and aspects associated with gender. Furthermore the strategy helps in building confidence among the learner through interaction. Interaction occurs in classroom thus making the strategy applicable in classroom.

4. Hensley, Pat. Diverse learners in One Setting. Successful teaching, September 24, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from http://successfulteaching.blogspot.com/2007/09/diverse-learners-in-one-setting.html

            The author acknowledges the difficulties experienced in teaching diverse learners as most teachers have not adapted better teaching methods. Strategies covered in the article involve definition of the goals and objectives by teachers and students, step by step vocabulary learning, creation of different learning activities and involving the students in the learning.

            The strategies encourage teachers to appreciate their teaching career and also provide ways of improving their teaching methods. Another benefits incurred as a result of using the strategies is improvements in the classroom behavior as cases of misconduct are reduced in the classroom. In classrooms cases of misconducts are always there thus making this strategy useful in reducing such cases.

5. Monash University. Strategies. 2009. Retrieved August 5, 2009 from http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/inclusivity/Strategies/

            The article encapsulates approaches which are used by staff at the University for implementing teaching strategies which are considered inclusive. The approach involves use of flexible teaching methods and designing the learning environment in a way that makes it safe and accessible to all students. Flexibility involves acknowledging that students vary in terms of learning styles and ways of dealing with constraints or pressures thus deadlines are negotiable. In addition the approach advocates for direct negotiations with the students concerning their requirements. The strategy also involves provision of learning materials and contents ahead of time in order to allow students extra time to read the material.

            Provision of learning materials earlier ensures that the students are aware of what the lesson entails thus enabling students to prepare early. The method also provides students with conducive environment for learning thus improving their performance level as they are allowed adequate time to complete their tasks. Learning material and completion of tasks are part of the activities that take place in the classroom thus making this strategy essential and relevant.

6. Study Group Series. Effective Decoding instruction for Diverse Learners. 1999. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from http://www.cs.oswego.edu/~borgert/OCM/rdagenda-1.html

            The publication is based on studies done by cognitive scientists, which revealed that fluent and accurate decoding is the pillar for skilled reading and that automatic word recognition allows readers to attend to meaning. In recognizing such findings the author puts forward a strategy which emphasizes on designing a research based instructional practice that provides an understanding and skills essential for automatic word recognition. The strategy also advocates for alignment of the decoding instructions with English language structure.

            The primary benefit to this strategy or method is that it provides learners with adequate reading skills however it has several limitations; first is that it requires general language comprehension ability; secondly, accurate and fluent identification of words in print might be difficult; and the final limitation is that it requires knowledge and application of other specific strategies to maximize its effectiveness.

7. Teaching Resources for Florida. Instructional strategies. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from http://www.cpt.fsu.edu/ese/in/strmain.html

            The article provides a method which can be used in ensuring that the instructional sequence helps students to learn. The method involves use of six strategies which include identifying and focusing on essentials, making linkages explicit and more obvious, having prime background knowledge, provision of temporary support for learning, using conspicuous steps and reviewing fluency and generalization.

            This method is beneficial as it builds confidence among the teachers when applying it in classroom. The major limitation to this method is that it requires much knowledge and practice which some teachers may not have thus making it ineffective. However, if applied in classroom adequately and effectively it can improve significantly the performance of the students.

 8. Teacher Vision. Structuring Lessons for Diverse Learners – Planning Pyramid. Retrieved August 5, 2009 from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/learning-disabilities/printable/6727.html

            The publication provides a planning pyramid framework which outlines guidelines for planning ways of meeting the diverse student needs and in addition, the framework provides assistance in differentiating instructions used in general education classrooms. The framework classifies instruction into those that every student must know to those that few students must know.

            This method has several benefits to the teachers as enables them to plan their lesson in a way that needs of most students are met satisfactory thus improving the performance of most students. The methods saves a lot of time as time which would have been spent in teaching concepts which few students need is saved thus the teacher has adequate time to concentrate more on teaching concepts which majority learners need to know.

9. The Education Alliance. Principle for cultural responsive teaching. 1999. Retrieved August 6, 2009 from http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/tl-strategies/crt-principles.shtml

            The article is based on the importance of culture on learning as it plays a vital role in shaping the process of thinking of individuals and groups in addition to its role in communication. According to the author a strategy that acknowledges, responds and appreciates fundamental culture provides a full and equitable access to education all diverse students. In recognizing cultural importance on learning the article puts forward a strategy that involves includes cultural references of all students in all aspects of learning. The strategy is composed of seven characteristics; parents and families positive perspective, communication of high expectations, learning within cultural context, student-centered instruction, cultural mediated instruction, reshaping the curriculum, and teacher as a facilitator.

            Benefits of the strategy include better scholastic achievement due involvement parents and families in the educational progress of their child, development of healthy self concept by students as result of effective and consistent high expectation communication, and provision of an understanding to the students concerning different ways of interpreting an event, action or statement. The main limitation to this strategy is that it interferes with emotional and cognitive development of the students from minority cultures which might lead to school failure.

10. University of Washington. Equal Access: Universal Design of Libraries. 2007. Retrieved August 5, 2009 from http://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Academics/equal_access_lib.html.

            The article provides guidelines advocating for creation of universal design which caters for the special needs of all learners. The author recommends for facilities and services to be designed in a way that caters for the needs of people with wide range of disabilities, abilities and characteristics involving age, learning style, reading abilities, cultures and language, instead of designing them for average users.

The strategy ensures that teaching methods are designed universally thus meeting the needs of diverse learners effectively. However, implementation of the strategy might be impossible due to its cost as redesigning facilities and services is expensive and also requires much time for adaptation. The strategy might not be applicable in the classroom perspective but in the school perspective.

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