Astronomy and Atmosphere


In the man’s academic evolution world, there has been changing of world of ideas and perception - Astronomy and Atmosphere introduction. Therefore in this connection Geography has undergone this gradual dynamism. For instance in the early stages Geography can be traced from Greece by   Eratosthenes, from ge meaning earth and graphy meaning writing. Therefore in simple terms Geography discipline started as writing about earth. But today the discipline is a complex area of study with much wide scope. In this regard, today is termed as the science of the earth’s physical features, resources, astronomy, climate and population (Richardson, 2005, pp. 54).

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Relationship of Geography with other scientific disciplines

Geography as earth’s science is closely related to other scientific disciplines since they supplement each other. In order to understand this interrelationship, it is necessary to identify the source of connectivity. Whereby geography is in two broad categories of Geosystems or Physical geography that deals with patterns and processes of natural environment which is usually subdivided into spheres like atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, geosphere, cryosphere and pedosphre. Whereas human geography looks at the built environment (Richardson, 2005, pp. 183). These two categories give the connection. For instance geology that examines the earth’s minerals or elements is core to chemistry that studies the properties of these elements disclosed by geologist.

While branches of geography like geomorphometry that studies the earth surface is vital for the architectural sciences that are relevant today. To biological sciences, geography is linked through such branches like biogeography, environmental geography and hydrological. Space engineering is linked through geomatic, weather and astronomic related studies, even where physics is factored in.  In social sciences, geography links through spatial geography that emphasizes that relation are spatial. Hence contributes to sexuality studies today.

However despite this entire interrelationship with other scientific discipline, since geography emergences in 19th century as a result of European nations need to keep track on their empires. The discipline faces some shortfalls and strengths as compared to origin eras.

The pros of geography are the fact that it enhances the use of observations through new methods, field survey tools and maps. Secondly, enhances interdependence on geology and people in relation to learning mode and content. Thirdly helps in understanding of research design that can be applied to other academic researches. However weaknesses were seen after the end of Second World War. For instance in 1948 James Conant Harvard University’s president, announced that Geography was not a university subject. This was the start in addition to the nature of geography that involves quantitative study approaches that give geographers difficulties. Additionally, there is slow pace in incorporating technology in geographical studies. Thus it has contributed to slow development to compete effectively like other disciplines.


In Geosystems the environment is subdivided into spheres. These spheres construct the foundation for the systematic study of geography. Therefore astronomy is a vital area of space dimension of study in relation to the atmosphere. In this connection modern astronomy was developed from ideologies of Nicolaus Copernicus in the year 1473 to 1543 heliocentric view of the universe through his reconstruction the solar system. In the year 1546 to1601Tycho Brahe’s had more precise observations that had a legacy to astronomy. In 1630 Johannes Kepler contributed by his three laws of planetary motion astronomy.

Then lastly in 1642 Galileo Galilee constructed a telescope that lead to important discoveries. Sir Isaac Newton in 1727 can not be forgotten for his efforts law of universal gravitation, laws of motion, and prove that the force of gravity. However despite this scholarly contribution the geocentric view was not furthered on al dimension which is undoing of the research and researchers (William, 2007, pp. 206).

Weather and climate

When it comes to the atmosphere and weather and climate are the proponents that are vital. In this sense, weather is daily changes of atmospheric conditions like sunshine, rainfall, temperature, precipitation and humidity. Whereas climate shall refer to average weather condition of the region over a long period of time like 100 years. Thus weather is local and short term, while climate is intraregional and long term. For instance climatic zones like equatorial have distinct weather conditions in relation to elements of weather.

However our globe today has seen dramatic change in the climatic conditions as a result of pollutants from burning of fossil fuels (William, 2007, pp. 90). These give rise to excessive greenhouse gases such as water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide and carbondioxide. These green house gases increases in concentration leads to increase in the absorption in infrared radiations that result to increase in temperatures causing a green house effect. This green house effect usually results to significant increase in earth’s climatic temperatures over a short period of time. Then this resulting condition is referred to as global warming.

Global warming has adverse effects to people and environment. These effects are according to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes) statistics that reveals that snow cover has significantly reduced from 4.0 million square km to 3.1million square kilometers, this snow melt has lead to increase in sea level from -100 mm to 55mm, rise in global mean temperatures from -0.4 Celsius to 0.5 Celsius from 1900 to 2000 and increase in carbondioxide concentration in atmosphere from 310 ppmv to 375 ppmv between 1955 and 2005. This dynamism impedes nature balance that results to excessive storms, floods, droughts, and heavy precipitation, excessive cold or warm temperatures that are not conducive for human survival

Relationship between Wind movement and climate

Wind movement is key in climatic interpretations and meaning. In this case wind is referred to as air in motion. That comes as a result of spatial differences in atmospheric pressure due to uneven absorption of solar radiation. This variation in pressure gradient between two regions creates pressure gradient force (PGF), (Rahnstorf, 1998, pp. 231) which shall force wind to move from high pressure zone to low pressure zones. However as the winds move the earth’s rotation creates Coriolis force (CF), that opposes PGF through deflecting wind path. Thus in northern hemisphere which is at higher pressure belt wind is deflected to the right while southern hemisphere deflects to the left. However deflection and movement decreases towards the equator which is at low pressure belt.

Air movement on earth surface is not affected by CF and PGF, but with friction on land irregularities like hills, mountain, and valleys. The movement of wind from water bodies to the land carries moistures that falls as precipitation, while the reverse forms drought conditions or little rains. But also global warming results to anabatic cooling of water vapors that can give rainfall.

Comparison of Csa and Cfa

In order to compare and contrast is important to point out that here ocean currents plays a major role in this distinction. For instance during summer the cold California flows along the show to bring cool effect, while sub tropic humid has warm current. However Csa and Cfa have warm with dry hot summer, average temperature of coldest month ranges from -3C to 18C, average temperature of warm month is 22C.

The difference is that at Csa has rainfall of 4CM, mild moist winters, hot dry summers. While Cfa rainfall of about 65-250 CM, high humidity, monsoonal influence and frost with polar air masses. These patterns influence our human based activities economical and social- economical (Wilson, 2003, pp. 219).


Richardson Johnston, (2005), Dictionary of Human Geography, Oxford; Blackwell,

Rahnstorf Stefan, (1998), Abrupt Climate Change, Routledge; New York

William Wyckoff, (2007), Progress in Human Geography, McGraw-Hill; New York.

Wilson Jefferson, (2003). American landscape, New Haven; Yale University Press.



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