B.A. Mass Communication First Year Notes Essay

BA MASS COMM FIRST YEAR NOTES Contents 1. Definition, Nature and Scope of Communication 2. Types of Communications 3. Mass Communications and its Nature and Scope 4. Process of Communications/Models of Communications – Aristotle, Laswell, Shannon & Weaver and Osgood and Schramm’s models 5. Barriers to Communications 6. Origin and Development of Newspapers 7. Bengal Gazette/Hickey’s Gazette/ Origin of Newspapers in India 8. Role of newspapers in India’s struggle for Independence 9. Broadcast Media – Origin and Development 10. Functions of Media 11.

Role of Media in Society 12. Three Media Theories – Authoritarian, Libertarian and Social Responsibility Theory 13.

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MK Gandhi as a Journalist. 14. Growth and Development of AIR 15. Objectives of AIR 16. Vividh Bharathi 17. Recent Innovations in AIR/FM Radio 18. Origin and Development of TV in the world 19. Origin and Development of TV in India/Doordarshan/SITE 20. Prasar Bharathi Act 1990 21. Commercial Service in DD/ DD through 70s and 80s 22. Public service broadcasting and social responsibility/Role of TV in Promoting Development and Social Change 23.

Programme Content of AIR 24. Programme Content of DD 25.

Contribution of radio to development 26. Growth and Impact of Satellite Television in India 089203 99489911 UNIT 1: Communication and its role in society, Types of Communication, Print, Radio, TV, & Films; Process of Mass Communication. What is Communication Interaction, interchange, transaction, dialogue, sharing, communion, and commonness are the ideas that crop up in any attempt to define the term communication. By definition, communication has been defined as –

Biologically – “an activity by an organism that changes or has the potential to change the behavior of other organisms. ” “The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior,” Therefore, communication is not just sending and receiving messages but also involves countless ways of keeping in touch and being connected – by not just words and music, pictures and print, postures and plumages, to every move that catches someone’s eye and every sound that resonates upon another’s ears.

Paul Watzlavick, an Austrian-American psychologist, once said, “One cannot not communicate”. He means that every behavior is a kind of communication and because behavior does not have a counterpart (there is no anti-behavior), it is not possible not to communicate. Examples of this include facial gestures (smiling, frowning), body language (arms crossed, giving someone the “finger”, legs shaking resembling nervousness, sitting upright giving someone their full attention), and the impression you give to others with your appearance (dress, body image, body odor).

Also, the tone of your voice can be expressed non-verbally. For instance, if you are saying one thing, but your tone of voice is saying another, then that reflects how you are truly feeling without speaking a word about it (yelling and crying while saying your okay). Nature and Scope of Communication Communication is part of the very fabric of society. It takes place at all levels between peoples and between institutions from government to people,, from people back to government and through many channels both interpersonal and mediated.

For living beings – humans and animals, the need for communication is as basic as the hunger for food and drink and even more so. The need for communication is both individual and social need. It is both a natural individual demand and a requirement of social existence to use communication resources in order to engage in the sharing of experiences through words or symbol mediated interaction. The severest punishment for a child is to be isolated to be left alone not to be spoken to. Grown ups too and especially the aged need company, need to communicate.

Society punishes criminals by locking them up in solitary cells, thus starving them of the basic need, and indeed the fundamental right to communicate. Communication involves active interaction with our environments – physical, biological and social. Deprived of this interaction we would not be aware of whether we are safe or in danger, whether hated or loved or satisfied or hungry. However, most of us take this interaction for granted unless we experience some deprivation of it. When that happens we adapt ourselves to the environment so that we don’t lose touch, in both the literal and figurative senses.

For to lose touch is to suffer isolation. Types of Communication Communication is classified into four types based on the size of the social group or the number of people involved in the experience of communication. 1. Intrapersonal Communication: Interpersonal communication is individual reflection, contemplation and meditation. For eg. Transcendental meditation or transpersonal communication where one communicates with God, religious and monastic life, in ashrams and places of prayer. 2. Interpersonal communication is the direct face to face communication between two individuals.

It is personal, direct and intimate, allowing for maximum interaction and exchange in word and gesture. All interpersonal exchange is therefore a communion and a sharing at the most intimate and open level. It is total communication for it takes within its compass words, body movements, physical characteristics, body odors, and even clothes. Interpersonal communication has three stages – 1) Phatic Stage: Phatic stage where individuals exchange ritualized greetings like – Hi, How are you? “How is everyone at home’ etc. People use phatic communication to break ice and start a conversation. ) Personal Stage: This stage introduces more personal elements into our conversations. In this stage individuals are willing to share personal information. Professional discussions are also an example of personal stage. They talk about personal interests but do not go beyond it. 3) Intimate stage: This stage is reserved for friends and family depending on the degree of intimacy and closeness of the relationship. 3. Group Communication: Group communication involves more than two people. The larger the group the less personal and less intimate is the possibility of exchange.

Group communication is thus a more complex process than interpersonal communication. The level of mutual participation and understanding among the members suffers as a result. In interpersonal communication if the understanding and participation is not complete there is an increased possibility of checking up and correcting misunderstanding much quickly and easily. However, in group communication, this is possible but with difficulty, because feedback is not instantaneous as in the interpersonal communication. Moreover in group communication it is difficult to measure and respond to feedback.

Interpersonal communication is more pervasive and influential because the people involved can share much more than just words. In group communication particularly where group is large, deception and pretence cannot be detected immediately. That is why we associate acting with group communication – theatre, religious services, dance performances, carnivals, the Kumbh mela, Raslila, and other folk events are examples of group communications. Group communication is effective in terms of reaching a wider audience but not so in terms of understanding and feedback. 4.

Mass Communications: Group communication has been extended by the tools of mass communication: books, the press, the cinema, radio, tv and internet. Messages are disseminated to a much wider audience as opposed to the interpersonal and group communication. But like group communication, the larger the social group becomes, the more difficult it gets to trace how effective our communication is and getting feedback is all the more tedious and cumbersome. Mass Communications It is the process of delivering information, ideas and attitudes to a sizable and diversified audience through use of media developed for that purpose.

The art of mass communication is much more difficult than that of face to face communication. The communicator who is addressing thousands of differtent personalities at the same time cannot adjust an appeal to meet their individual reactions. An approach that convinces one part of the audience may alienate another part. That successful communicator is one who finds the right method of expression to establish empathy with the largest possible number of individuals in the audience. Nature and Scope of Mass Communications 1.

Mass Medium – A mass medium makes it possible for the message to reach far beyond the immediate proximity of the sender. A few hundred feet may be all the distance the human voice can project to a crowd without the aid of public address system. A mass medium can take that same message around the world. 2. Limited Sensory Channels – The presence of a mass medium also limits the number of sensory channels upon which we can draw. When we sat in the auditorium and listened to the politician, all of our senses could take part in the communication process. For examp;e after the speech we might have shaken hands with the politician.

With mass we might only be able to hear and see the politician. 3. Impersonal Communication – In inter-personal communication the first meeting may be impersonal but as the relationship grows, the communication becomes more and more personal. But in mass communication, it is impersonal. 4. Gatekeeper: A gatekeeper is the person who, by selecting, changing and rejecting messages can influence the flow of information to a receiver or group of receivers. A gatekeeper can be a news editor who edits the reporter’s copy, a film producer, who cuts a scene from the original script and so on.

There are three functions of the gatekeeper – i) to limit the information we receive by editing this information before it is disseminated to us; ii) to expand the information we receive by giving us additional facts or view; and iii) to reorganize or reinterpret the information. 5. Delayed Feedback: The feedback in mass communication is not as immediate or complete as it is in face to face communication. And since mass communication involves a chain or network of individuals, the feedback intended for one person in the chains is likely to reach a different member of the chain.

Moreover, it is sometimes impossible for the source in mass communication to respond to make public all the feedback that is received. Process of Mass Communication: Many thinkers tried to analyze and understand the process of communication in the forms of various models. The most significant contribution to the understanding of the process of communications is by: 1. ARISTOTLE Aristotle, writing 300 years before the birth of Christ, provided an explanation of oral communication that is still worthy of attention. He called the study of communication “rhetoric” and spoke of three elements within the process. He provided us with this insight:

Rhetoric falls into three divisions, determined by the three classes of listeners to speeches. For of the three elements in speech-making — speaker, subject, and person addressed — it is the last one, the hearer that determines the speech’s end and object. Here, Aristotle speaks of a communication process composed of a speaker, a message and a listener. Note, he points out that the person at the end of the communication process holds the key to whether or not communication takes place. Our failure to recognize what Aristotle grasped thousands of years ago is a primary cause, if not the primary one, for communication failure.

We fail to recognize the importance of the audience at the end of the communication chain. 2. HAROLD LASWELL (1948) According to Laswell the simplest way to define the process of communication is by answering the following questions- With what EFFECT To WHOM Through which CHANNEL said WHAT WHO Harold Lasswell, a political scientist, developed a much quoted formulation of the main elements of communication: “Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect. “2 This summation of the communications process has been widely quoted since the 1940s.

The point in Lasswell’s comment is that there must be an “effect” if communication takes place. If we have communicated, we’ve “motivated” or produced an effect. It’s also interesting to note that Lasswell’s version of the communication process mentions four parts — who, what, channel, whom. Three of the four parallel parts mentioned by Aristotle — speaker (who), subject (what), person addressed (whom). Only channel has been added. Most modern-day theorists discuss the four parts of the communication process, but use different terms to designate them. 3.

SHANNON AND WEAVER MATHEMATICAL MODEL (1949) Shannon and Weaver, engineers for the Bell Telephone Company, designed the most influential of all early communication models. Their goal was to formulate a theory to guide the efforts of engineers in finding the most efficient way of transmitting electrical signals from one location to another (Shannon and Weaver, 1949). Shannon and Weaver were not particularly interested in the sociological or psychological aspects of communication. Instead, they wanted to devise a communications system with as close to 100 percent efficiency as possible.

You’ll note that the Shannon and Weaver diagram has essentially the same parts as the one formulated by Aristotle and also by Laswell. It’s true the parts have different names, and a fourth component — in this case the transmitter — is included. However, this model has an interesting additional element. Shannon and Weaver were concerned with noise in the communications process. Noise, Weaver said, “may be distortions of sound (in telephony, for example) or static (in radio), or distortions in shape or shading of picture (television), or errors in transmission (telegraph or facsimile), etc. The “noise” concept introduced by Shannon and Weaver can be used to illustrate “semantic noise” that interferes with communication. Semantic noise is the problem connected with differences in meaning that people assign to words, to voice inflections in speech, to gestures and expressions and to other similar “noise” in writing. Semantic noise is a more serious problem or barrier to developing effective communications than most realize. It is hard to detect that semantic noise has interfered with communication. Too often the person sending a message chooses to use words and phrases that have a certain meaning to him or her.

However, they may have an altogether different meaning to individuals receiving the message. In the interest of good communication, we need to work to hold semantic noise to the lowest level possible. We should be aware that there is a semantic noise in face-to-face verbal communication just as there is static noise, for example, in radio communication. 4. OSGOOD AND SHRAMM’S COMMUNICATION MODEL, 1954 Wilbur Schramm, a well-known communications theorist, developed a straightforward communications model (Figure 2) in his book The Process and Effects of Mass Communications.

In Schramm’s model he notes, as did Aristotle, that communication always requires three elements — the source, the message and the destination. Ideally, the source encodes a message and transmits it to its destination via some channel, where the message is received and decoded. Encoding refers to the activities that a source goes through to translate thoughts and ideas into a form that may be perceived by the senses. When you have something to say, your brain and your tongue work together to form words and spoken sentences.

Therefore, in communication, the speaker encodes thoughts into words and similarly with a device like telephone, the waves are encoded into electrical energy and sent across. Decoding process is the exact opposite of the encoding process. It consists of activities that translate or interpret physical messages into a form that has eventual meaning for a receiver. As you read these lines you’re a decoding a message. If you are playing music while decoding these lines, you are decoding two messages simultaneously – one aural and one visual.

Therefore, in communication, the receiver decodes words and understands them and similarly in telephone communications the electrical energy is decoded back into sound waves. Feedback refers to those responses of the receiver that shape and alter the subsequent messages of the source. Feedback represents a reversal of the flow of communication. The original source becomes the receiver; the original receiver becomes the new source. Feedback is useful to the source because it allows the source to attempt to change some element in the communication process.

Feedback can be positive or negative. Positive feedback usually encourages further communication and negative feedback can attempt to change the communication and even terminate it. Schramm model suggests that the process of communication is not linear as discussed in the Laswell’s and Shannon and Weaver’s models. Instead, the process of communication is circular and continuous with the presence of feedback and the sender and receiver keep exchanging roles as vice-versa in the process. The absence of feedback could make the process linear like in the other models Barriers to Communication

There are a number of barriers that prevent the achievement of the desired results. Some of these are: Physical Barriers: Four main kinds of distractions act as ‘physical barriers’ to the communication process. They are: 1. Noise in the form of another conversation going on within the hearing distance. For example, loud music in the background can drown our messages altogether. 2. Environmental Stress: Environmental factors like a high temperature, humidity or strong glare can also be a distraction in listening and interpretation. 3.

Subjective Stress: Stress like ill health, effects of drugs and mood variations, sleeplessness can often lead to difficulties in listening and interpretation. 4. Ignorance of the medium: If the listener is not familiar with the medium of communication used by the speaker, this can act as a barrier to communication. Psychological Barriers: Apart from physical barriers our personal mental or psychological barriers can act as barriers to communication. 1. Self Image: Sometimes the way an individual looks at himself or his self-image can contribute in the way he interprets a message.

We tend to listen attentively to and interpret favorably those messages which give a boost to our self-image and reject or misinterpret those messages which threaten the same image. 2. Resistance to Change: We resist change in any form except where we are convinced it us to our benefit. So the new ideas that do not support our own views are resisted outright. In fact, most of the time we do not actually hear views which are in conflict with our own. But we hear with rapt attention any communication that reinforces our beliefs and our self image. . Defensiveness and Fear: One of man’s most compelling needs is to justify himself and it is closely related to the barrier of resistance to change. Fear can greatly affect an individual’s perception and interpretation. For instance, in a job interview if the candidate is afraid and nervous he can put up a poor show or during an examination when a student is afraid and tensed he can misread the instructions and write a wrong answer. Therefore fear and defensiveness can lead to failure of communication. 4.

Linguistic and Cultural Barrier: A language is the expression of the thoughts and experiences of people in terms of their cultural environment. When the same language is made use of in a different culture, it takes a different form, impact and meaning. For example, English when spoken in India and when spoken in America will have a different impact and sometimes even vary in form and meaning because of the different cultures. Some of the words may have different connotations and contextual meaning depending upon the cultural environment.

In such times, the linguistic and cultural differences can act as a barrier in understanding a single language in two different countries. 5. Language and Meaning: Language facilitates understanding, but there are times when it can be a barrier to communication. For example, if you speak in Sanskrit to an Arab, he may not understand the same because he wouldn’t know the language and the things that you are referring to in one language may not be referred to as the same in the other language. So communication fails in such a situation. Unit 2: Mass Communications and its functions and role in the society History of Mass Media

Mass communicators rely on technical or intermediate transmitters (mechanical or electronic media like newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, film or a combination of these) to disseminate their messages widely and rapidly scattered audiences. But before the development of technology, oral communication was the only way of communication. Writing as a mode of communication evolved much later. Therefore mass media has evolved overtime into what we see today. 1. PRINT MEDIA – INVENTION OF PRINTING TECHNOLOGY Printing was invented by the Chinese somewhere around 600 A. D. They used ooden blocks to emboss characters/alphabets on paper. The modern print industry evolved after Johann Gutenberg invented the first printing system in the western world in the 15th Century. After that the idea of printing spread rapidly and within fifty years over 30,000 books were printed. Printing procedures continued to be slow and cumbersome until 1800 when the French developed a machine that created paper in continuous rolls. And later in 1884 Ottmar Mergenthaler developed the linotype mechanized printing pressed that enabled mechanical type setting. ORIGIN OF NEWSPAPERS

The first newspaper ‘Acta Diurna’ made an appearance around 59 BC in Rome under Julius Caesar’s rule. This paper included important social and political happenings in the state and it used to be put up as a notice on white boards outside the senate. In 8th Century Chinese distributed the handwritten newssheets in Beijing. It was only after Gutenberg invented the printing press that the modern newspaper was born. Many countries had newspapers by the end of 17th Century. Germany had Relation(1605), France had Gazette (1631), Belgium had Niewwe Tjidingen (1616) and England had London Gazette (1665).

Printing technology reached India in 1670. ORIGIN OF PRESS IN INDIA – Before and after Independence First Newspaper in India/ Hickey’s Gazette/Bengal Gazette English Newspapers were published by the British in India primarily to convey news from Britain and Europe to those residing here. The Christian missionaries were among the first to start a Newspaper in English. In those days the proprietors of the newspapers where those who had fallen from grace of the officers of the East India Company, so they were likely to criticize the operations of the company in the sub continent, in their papers.

To this category belongs, JAMES AUGUSTUS HICKEY who takes the credit of having started the first English newspaper in British India in the year 1780. This was the first English newspaper in India and practically the first newspaper in India. Hickey brought out the Bengal Gazette on January 29, 1780. He later renamed it as the Oriental Calcutta General Advertiser. It appeared weekly (every Saturday). Hickey attacked the East India Company rigorously through his paper. Finally when he indulged in casting aspersions on the wife of the Governor General Warren Hastings, he was forcefully deported on the Governor General’s order.

A prominent merchant in the name of JAMES SILK BUCKINGHAM was another pioneer of English newspapers in India. He started the Calcutta Journal (Oct 2, 1818 – Nov 9, 1823) as is proprietor and editor. Buckingham was deported after the Chief Secretary of the Government announced his regulations on the free press by the way of compulsory press publication licensing. Other newspapers like Bengal Harkaru, Friend of India and Bengal Herald were quite popular in the beginning of the 19th Century. Newspapers Years of First Publication State

Bombay Herald 1789 Mumbai Madras Courier 1785 Chennai The Times of India 1838 Mumbai Amrit Bazaar Patrika 1868 Kolkata The Statesman 1875 Kolkata The Hindu 1878 Chennai The Tribune 1881 Chandigarh Contribution of Press to India’s Independence/Role of Press in Indian Struggle for Independence In 19th Century when just a few Indians were acquainted with the English language, some educated leaders ventured to publish English Newspapers and their efforts were successful as publications put across the majority of viewpoints to the British rulers and also intiated the British-influenced Indians into the freedom struggle. The struggle for freedom gained momentum in the last two years of the 19th Century. MK Gandhi who had regularly published “Indian opinion in South Africa” continued to bring out paper even after returning to India.

In addition, he started a publication called Harijan, with this Gandhiji exhorted the press in general to support the struggle for freedom and to continue to appear even in form of handwritten pamphlets in case the printing equipment was confiscated. In spite of the constraints, the English papers continued to criticize the British government fearlessly. The anti-government statement by the papers was not tolerated by the British crown. The punishments were very severe and the penalties ranged from life imprisonment to fines. The man who becomes noteworthy victim of these new laws was Tilak, editor of Kesari. He was jailed many times. World War I introduced severe press laws the vernacular press suffered rigorous suppression for their nationalist attitude. The Swaraj party led by C. R Das, Vallabhai Patel and Motilal Nehru launched Bengal Katha in Calcutta.

Hindustan Times and Basumati in North. During the ‘Quit India Movement’ and ‘World War II’ the press in India including the English language press in India including the English language press played a commendable role in reporting the struggle for freedom and opposed communal riots. Therefore it could be said that press played a great role in India’s victory to freedom. BROADCAST MEDIA A combination of a number of discoveries by technicians and scientists from different countries gave rise to the development of wireless telegraphy and later to radio broadcasting. The invention of the telegraph in 1844 transformed the print media. Telegraph and Telephone

The invention of telegraph was credited to Samuel Morse who proved that electromagnetic signals could be transmitted by wire. He used pulses of current to deflect an electromagnet that moved a marker to produce written codes on a strip of paper that could be decoded by the Morse Code. The telegraph later contributed in the development of telephone. Alexander Graham Bell with his extensive knowledge of the nature of sound and music enabled him to conjecture the possibility of transmitting multiple messages over the same wire at the same time in 1876. Broadcast Radio Radio or Wireless telegraphy owes its invention to telegraph and telephone. Broadcast radio exploded on to the media scene in 1902.

Guglielmo Marconi was the first person to demonstrate exchange of first radio signals in Italy in 1895. Nikola Tesla was the first person to patent the radio technology in 1943. The early development radio revolved around the perfection of point-to-point broadcasting as a substitute for transmission by cable or telephone lines. Broadcast Radio in India Broadcast radio in India was introduced by amateur radio clubs in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and Lahore, though even before the clubs launched their ventures, several experimental broadcasts were conducted in Bombay and other cities. Times of India records that the first ever broadcast was transmitted from the roof of its building in August 20, 1921.

However the first license granted for transmitting a broadcast was given only on February 23, 1922. The Radio club of Calcutta was perhaps the first amateur radio club to start functioning, followed by The Madras Presidency Radio Club which was formed on May 16, 1924. Due to financial difficulties, the clubs joined each other and formed the Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd. (IBC) in 1927. Englishman Lionel Fielden was appointed as India’s first Controller of Broadcasting. 2. Functions of Media Mass media perform a variety of roles in our life, but we can identify five as the most important functions of Mass Media Inform: The primary function of the media of communication is to inform people about what is happening around them.

All the mass media be it TV, Print, Radio or Internet bring to people news from around the world and help them stay ‘informed’ about the situation around and beyond them. Educate: Mass media can play a very important role in education and socialization of media consumers. With some exceptions, they play a minor role in formal education by which we mean structured programs of learning within an institutional framework. Media like academic journals, internet, special interest magazines, certain TV programs and radio programs, movies, documentaries play a minor but significant role in formal learning. However mass media’s real educational function is in informal education or socialization, the process by which people come to identify themselves as members of a social group and to learn group norms.

Mass media hold up a mirror to society and show its members how they relate to each other, what is socially acceptable, what is normal and abnormal, what is good and evil, and what is true and false. Entertain: Entertainment, although perhaps not mass media’s most important role, has nevertheless become its dominant function. Today’s mass media are saturated with entertainment in order to attract readers, viewers, and listeners. Entertainment is not news but news is often entertaining. All mass media, even most newspapers, TV, radio and internet are probably used readers and audiences to entertain themselves more than anything else. All can inform and educate and whereas some do this more than others.

Sell: Mass media, especially in a free market economy, also serve the function of promoting and selling, of telling us what is for sale, and convincing us to buy, usually through advertising. By doing so, media keep the wheels of industry turning and help the free market economy prospering, while also earning revenues that make them viable businesses. Most mass media couldn’t operate without advertising income. Many media owners depend on income they receive from advertising, but advertisers depend on mass media to distinguish their products from their competition and get their message out to the potential customers. Role of Media in Society For a society to exist, certain communication needs must be met.

These needs existed long before Gutenberg bolted together his printing press and Morse started sending dots and dashes. Primitive tribes had sentinels who scanned the environment and reported dangers. Councils of elders interpreted facts and made decisions. Tribal meetings were used to transmit these decisions to the rest of the group. Other members of the tribe may have been storytellers and jesters who functioned to entertain the group. As society became larger and more complex, these jobs grew too big to be handled by single individuals. With the advent of technology that allowed the development of mass communication, these jobs were taken by mass media. Media has phenomenally changed our lives.

The mass media bring to us news from every nook and corner of the earth. The evolution of mass media has shrunken the world so much that now we can afford to call the world a global village with almost all information being just a few minutes or hours away thanks to the wide range of newspapers, radio stations, television channels, websites etc. The time when the man walked on moon and the time when a man rammed his airplane into the twin towers – people watched it all on TV even though they were miles away! Media has a huge cognitive impact on the people in a society. It keeps them up with what the government is doing; it helps them understand what is going on in the world around them.

Apart from keeping them informed, the media also satisfies their curiosity about various things that they would care to learn about, help them learn about how to do things that they must have never done before and by giving them a variety of new ideas by widening their scope of knowledge and cognition media helps in making the society wiser. Media also helps fulfilling the basic need for diversion in human beings. Diversion would mean stimulation or seeking relief, relaxation and escape from boredom or the routine activities of daily life. Several surveys have shown that many people report that they watch TV read books or listen to music when they feel bored or when they have to pass time.

When there is nothing else to do people fill up their idle time with media content simply because it’s better than being bored. Media with different programs on TV, Radio or even cinema can stimulate a bored and tired mind. Media can also relax the mind. There will be certain forms of music on the radio that will help relax the fatigued mind, or when you watch a comedy film with your family you will feel relaxed and refreshed by the emotional release of laughter. Many shows of TV (especially soap operas) and different genres of cinema (like melodrama, horror, comedy etc. ) will bring about catharsis i. e. the release of pent up emotion or energy therefore relaxing the people. However, media can have ill-effects too.

It is always good to view media objectively and not rely on them completely for cognition, stimulation and relaxation. Let yourself regulate the role of media in your life and not the media regulate you and your behavior. As they say, too much of anything could be bad for people and the society. MEDIA AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Theories of Press The original three theories of press/media are i)Authoritarian Theory, ii) Libertarian Theory, iii) Social Responsibility Theories. Each of these theories suit particular political and economic circumstances and focus not so much on the relationship between the press and readers as on the relationships between the press and the government. AUTHORITARIAN THEORY

According to this theory, the press and the other media are expected to respect the authority of the state and the ruling classes. They should always be sub-ordinate to established power and authority and therefore avoid offending the majority or dominant moral, political and economic values. Heavy censorship prevailed and it was justified on the ground that the State must always take precedence over an individual’s right to freedom of expression. It needs to be noted that both dictatorial and democratic regimes resorted to such authoritarian control of the media. FREE PRESS THEORY/ LIBERTARIAN THEORY In contrast with the authoritarian theory, libertarianism is founded on the fundamental right of an individual to freedom of expression.

The First Amendment in the American constitution is an embodiment of this theory: it flows from an individual’s right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. The individual and not the State or society is supreme and popular will is given importance over the power of the State. The free press is seen to be essential for a free society and the dignity of an individual. In practice, however, the theory provides the prerogative of free speech only to the rich and powerful elites of the society. Media merchants and media monopolies exploit that freedom to expand their empires. The theory thus protects media owners rather than the rights of editors and journalists or of the public. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THEORY

This theory suggests that freedom and power without social responsibility will do the society more harm than good. This theory coined by The Hutchins Commission of Freedom of Press in (1947), founded by Henry Luce of Time Magazine, asserted that media must remain free of government control, but in exchange media must remain free of government control, but in exchange media must serve the public. The core assumptions of this theory are: – · Media should accept and fulfill certain obligations to society. · Media can meet these obligations by setting high standards of professionalism, truth, accuracy and objectivity. · Media should be self-regulating within the frame work of law. Media should avoid disseminating material that might lead to crime, violence, or civil disorder or that might offend minority groups. · The media as a whole should be pluralistic, reflect the diversity of the culture in which they operate and give access to various points of view and rights of reply. · The public has a right to expect high standards of performance and official intervention can be justified to ensure the public good. · Media professionals should be accountable to society as well as to their employers and the market. In rejecting government control the media, social responsibility theory calls for responsible, ethical industry operation, but it does not free audiences from their responsibility.

People must be sufficiently media literate to develop firm yet reasonable expectations and judgments of media performance. But ultimately it is practioners through the conduct of their duties, who are charged with operating in manner that obviates the need for official intrusion. MK Gandhi as a Journalist The emergence of Gandhiji at the helm of freedom movement changed the course of Indian history. He shaped national movement and influenced public opinion on various issues. According to Chalapathi Rao, “Gandhi was probably the greatest journalists of all time and the weeklies he ran and edited were probably the greatest weeklies the world has known. He published no advertisements ; at the same time he did not want his newspapers to run at a loss.

He had gained considerable experience in South Africa, where he had taken over in 1904 the editorship of the Indian Opinion and published it in English, Tamil and Gujarathi, sometimes running the press himself. Young India and Harijan became powerful vehicles of his views on all subjects, He wrote simply and clearly but forcefully, with passion and burning indignation. One of the objects of a newspaper, he said, is to understand the popular feeling and give expression to it; another is to arouse among the people certain desirable sentiments and the third is fearlessly to expose popular defects. Gandhiji’s papers published no advertisements. They enjoyed wide circulation. His approach to journalism was totally devoid of ambitions. To him it was not a vocation to earn livelihood; it was a means to serve the public.

Gandhiji looked upon Journalism as a means to serve people. He wrote in his autobiography – “The sole aim of journalism should be service. The newspaper is a great power, but just as an unchained torrent of water submerges whole countryside and devastates crops, even so an uncontrolled pen serves but to destroy. If the control is from without, it proves more poisonous than want of control. It can be profitable only when exercised from within. If this line of reasoning is correct, how many journals of the world would stand the test? But who would stop those that are useless? And who should be the judge? The useful and the useless must, like good and evil, go on together and man must make his choice. Apart from being a national leader and a social reformer, Gandhiji was also great communicator. More than anyone else, he rcognized that communication is the most effective tool to shape opinion and mobilize popular support. He was successful because he had a latent skill in communication that surfaced in South Africa where he had gone initially to set up practice as a lawyer. The practice of communication started by him in South Africa gave him the clue to rally millions of his countrymen when he returned to India. Gandhiji was associated with 6 journals, for two of which he was the editor. His first paper, Indian Opinion was started in South Africa.

In order to ventilate the grievances of Indians and mobilize public opinion in their favor, Gandhiji started writing and giving interviews to newspapers. He focused on Open letters and letters to the editor, but soon realized that occasional writing and the hospitality of the newspapers were inadequate for the political campaign he had launched. He needed a mouthpiece to reach out to people, so in June 1903 he launched Indian Opinion. It served the purpose of a weekly newsletter which disseminated the news of the week among the Indian Community. It became an important instrument for education. Through the columns of the newspaper Gandhiji tried to educate the readers about sanitation, self-discipline and good citizenship.

The two journals Young India and Navjivan were used by him to ventilate his views and to educate the public on satyagraha. In 1933, Gandhiji started Harijan, Harijanbandhu and Harijansevak in English, Gujarathi and Hindi, respectively. These newspapers were vehicles of his crusade against untouchability and poverty in rural areas. UNIT 4: Public Broadcasting RADIO BROADCASTING Introduction: Despite the onslaught of television, radio has its place as a medium of communication. Before the invasion of television into our living room, radio was a bright major, rational, general audience medium. Radio was the most effective form of mass communication until early 80s.

In the zeal of the government to promote television in the 80s, radio had been steadily neglected. In the rural areas, radio has still remained a medium for information and development. It is still a popular medium in rural areas and lower strata of the urban society. It is argued that radio has lost its opportunity for good, but Britain has shown that television does not kill radio. Infact, there is plenty of evidence to show that after the initial onslaught by television, radio re-established itself very firmly. Growth and Development of All India Radio The first radio program in India was broadcast by the Radio Club in Bombay in June 1923.

It was followed by setting up of a broadcasting service that began broadcasting in India in June 1927 on an experimental basis at Bombay Kolkata simultaneously under an agreement between Government of India and a private company called the ‘Indian Broadcasting Company Limited’. In 1930, Indian Broadcasting Company handed over Bombay Station to the government and it was renamed as the ‘Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS). It was renamed All India Radio on 8th June 1936 and came to be known as Akashwani from 1957. When India became independent the AIR network had only 6 stations located in Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow and Thiruchirapalli with a total complement of 18 transmitters, 6 on the medium wave and the rest on the short wave, confined to urban limits of the above mentioned cities.

As against a mere 2,75,000 receiving sets at the time of Independence, today AIR has a network of 215 broadcasting centers including 77 local radio stations with 144 medium frequency, 54 high frequency (SW) and 139 FM transmitters. The coverage is 91. 42% of the area, serving 99. 12% of the people in the largest democracy in the world. AIR covers 24 languages in 146 dialects in home service, in external services, it covers 27 languages, 17 national and 10 foreign languages. According to AIR 1995, there are 104 million estimated radio households and 111 million radio sets. Before 1976, television constituted a part of All India Radio. After that, it was separated from AIR and constituted into a new body and under a new banner Doordarshan.

Now AIR is also called Akashvani like television is called Doordarshan. Radio is one of the media units of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Today 77 local stations, 3 Vividh Bharathi Broadcasting Centres and 3 relay centers and one Auxiliary center. The phenomenal growth achieved by AIR through decades has made it one of the largest media organizations in the world. Radio as a Mass Medium Radio is widely used mass communication medium and has a great potentiality in dissemination of information as radio signals covering almost entire population. More than 215 broadcasting centers, covering 91. 42% of the area, serving 99. 13% of the population in the largest democracy of the world.

Radio being a convenient form of entertainment caters to a large audience with the advent of transistors this medium has reached the common man in urban and rural area of India, though the utilization of radio is more among rural elites. It has advantages over the other mass media like TV, and newspapers in terms of being handy, portable, easily accessible and cheap. It is the most portable of the broadcast media being accessible at home, office, car, buses, street or beach, virtually everywhere at all times. Radio is effective not only in informing the people but also in creating awareness regarding many social issues and need for social reformation, developing interest and initiating action.

For eg: in creating awareness regarding new policies, development projects, programmes, new ideas etc. It can help in creating a positive climate for growth and development. In India, radio with its penetration to the rural areas is becoming a powerful medium for advertisers. It gets 3% of the national advertising budget. Radio is still the cheap alternative to television, but is no longer the poor medium in advertising terms. Since radio listening is so widespread it has prospered as an advertising medium for reaching local audience. As far as audience is concerned radio does not hamper person’s mobility. As a vehicle of information for masses it is still the fastest.

For instance it would take less time for a news reporter for radio to arrive on the spot with a microphone and recorder than the same for TV along with shooting team and equipment. Another important feature of radio as a mass medium is that it caters to a large rural population which has no access to TV and where there is no power supply. In such places, AIR programmes continue to be the only source of information and entertainment. Moreover AIR broadcast programmes in 24 languages and 146 dialects in home service. Arora says, “Radio should be treated akin to newspapers in view of the fact that it is local, inexpensive, linked to communities, has limited bandwidth and operates through simple technology. ”

It can serve as a stand alone medium of information dissemination or a support medium for curricular learning jointly with print material or with field work. Kapoor, Director General of AIR (1995) said, “Radio is far more interactive and stimulating medium that TV where the viewer is spoon-fed. Radio allows you to think, to use your imagination that is why nobody ever called it the idiot-box”. Objectives of the AIR The AIR aims at providing information, education and wholesome entertainment keeping in view the motto, “Bahujan Hitya Bahujan Sukhya” i. e. Benefit and happiness of the large sections of the people. These are the objectives of AIR – 1. To uphold the unity of the country and the democratic values enlisted in the constitution and promote national integration. 2.

Present a fair and balanced flow of information of national, regional, local and international interest, including contrasting views, without advocating any opinion or ideology of its own. 3. To promote the interest and concern of the entire nation ensuring that the programmes reflect the varied elements which make up the composite culture of India. 4. To produce and transmit varied programmes designed to awaken, inform, enlighten, educate, entertain and enrich all sections of the people. 5. To produce and transmit programmes relating to development activities in all their facets including extension work in Agriculture, Education, Health, and Family Welfare & Science and Technology. 6.

To serve the rural population, minority communities, women, children, illiterate as well as other weaker and vulnerable sections of the society. Current broadcasting policy is based on the AIR Code of 1970 which sets down that broadcasts on All India Radio will not permit – a. Criticism of friendly countries b. Attack on religion and communities c. Anything obscene or defamatory d. Incitement to violence or anything against the maintenance of law and order. e. Anything amounting to contempt of court. f. Aspersions against the integrity of the president, governors and judiciary. g. Attack on a political party by name. h. Hostile criticism of any state or centre. i.

Anything showing disrespect to the constitution or advocating a change in the constitutional way should not be debarred. j. The broadcasting of the news of the death of high dignitaries such as the president, the vice president, the Prime Minister and few others can be done only after it has been cleared by the Home Secretary. Vividh Bharati The Vividh Bharathi was started on 2nd October 1957, as a service if light entertainment. Within no time the Vividh Bharathi proved to be a popular channel in every household. The service provided entertainment for nearly 15-17 hours a day. It presented a mix of film music, skits, short plays and interactive programmes.

Some of the old popular prorgammes of Vividh Bharathi are – Sangeeth Saritha, Bhoole Bisre Geet, Hawa Mahal, Jai Mala, In Se Miliye, Chhaya Geet etc. are distinctly recognized by the listeners. From time to time new programmes were introduced like Bioscope ki Baatein, Sargam ki Sitare, Celluloid ke Sitare, Hello Farmaish. All these programmes are produced centrally at Vividh Bharathi service Mumbai, and uplinked to the the satellite. 40 Vividh Bharathi stations across the country down linked these programmes through captive earth stations provided at each of these AIR stations some local programme windows are also provided at these stations to give regional flavor to the listeners.

These 40 Vividh Bharathi stations are known as commercial Broadcasting service stations and are located at all major and commercially vibrant cities covering 97% of the Indian Population. In 1999 Vividh Bharathi service proved its success connecting Indian soldiers posted on remote border areas to their family members through a special programme entitled Hello Kargil through which not only family members of the soldiers but even laymen including young and old conveyed their best wishes to the soldiers to keep up their morale. Eminent actors, playback singers, renowned writers, lyricists, directors and music directors have found way to express their opinion through Vividh Bharathi.

A special programme entitled Ujaale Unki Yaadon Ke takes listeners into the world of nostalgia dipping in to the memories of the artists of yesteryears. On the other hand, debate continued on broadcasting film music on AIR. Earlier AIR had banned film music on its programmes for the reason that it felt that film music was too cheap and vulgar to be broadcast on AIR. But later AIR started broadcasting film music for it was popular on radio and fetched good ad revenue. Recent Innovations in AIR/ FM RADIO Frequency Modulation (FM) Broadcast – In FM radio signals from transmitting station travel into space without hindrance. There is no reflection of signals by the upper atmosphere. It is just sufficient that the reception set is within the area of the station.

It is often called FM radio station. Some stations are referred to as clear channel stations, which refer to powerful station broadcasting to wide area without any reference. It is eventually a local channel with a reach of 70km radius from the place of transmission. Owing to its crystal clear operation it has traditionally been used for broadcasting music, often intercepted with local news and whether forecasts. FM was introduced in 1977 but it was not really activated. The hours of FM Broadcast increased from 6hrs to 12hrs a day. All metros Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai have a 24hr-FM service. FM radio is the key to the comeback of radio.

The local music talent, who have earlier been wholly dependent on music festivals and new year parties now have FM to turn for promotional help. It brings local artists to the force thus; FM radio has scope for its growth as a powerful medium. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF TELEVISION Television was invented by John Logie Baird in the year 1925. By 1928 he was able to transmit moving images using a mechanical disc from London to New York. Just when the technology was to be made available to the consumers, World War II broke out. By 1948 six commercial stations were on air. By the year 1952, 17 million homes had television sets which made 90% of the US households. By this time TVs had a wide variety of TV shows from comedies, dramas, soap operas, quiz shows, news, documentaries etc.

DEVELOPMENT OF TV IN INDIA/ ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF DOORDARSHAN Television came to India on Sept 15, 1959 with experimental transmission from Delhi. It was a modest beginning with a makeshift studio and a low power transmitter. The objective was to find out what it can achieve in community development and formal education. In 1961 television programmes for teachers were started. A daily one hour service with news bulletin was started in 1965 including entertainment programmes. In 1967 rural programmes like Krishi Darshan were started for farmers in 80 villages with teleclubs in Delhi and Haryana. In 1972, TV services were extended to a second city Mumbai. By 1975 Kolkata, Chennai, Srinagar, Amritsar and Lucknow also had TV stations.

In 1975-76 the Satellite Instructional TV Experiment (SITE) bought TV to 2,400 villages in the most inaccessible and the least developed areas for one year. From 1976 television was separated from AIR and constituted under a new body under the new banner called Doordarshan. At present it is one of the media units of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. At present, DD telecasts programs on 19 channels. These channels supplement and complement each other. DD 1 is the primary channel, the flagship of Doordarshan. The programmes are addressed to the entire country. There are three components in these programmes – National, Regional and Local.

The National and Higher education TV programmes are relayed by all territorial DD-1 transmitters DD-3 is a composite service and telecasts three feature films each day, covers sports in the evening and puts out a composite programme on culture, currect affairs and business news in prime time. DD-11 and DD-13 channels are regional language channels. Each channel telecasts two types of programmes, the regional service and additional entertainment programmes. DD-CNN1 is the channel that telecasts news and current affair stories. Prasar Bharathi (Broadcasting Corporation of India) The year 1997 was the landmark year which saw far reaching measures to free broadcast media from the shackles of Government control. 0 years after independence it was the first instance of a government voluntarily bringing legislation to free the media from its control which may set in motion a chain of events in the country bringing revolutionary changes in the field. For over three decades beginning with Chanda Committee report in 1966 and continuing through reports of the Verghese committee (Akash Bharathi) in 1978 and the Joshi committee report in 1985 – expert committee set up by the government made a case for organizational restructuring of Broadcasting so as to give it greater autonomy. As a result, the Prasara Bharathi Act 1990 was formed by the government. It was kept idle for seven years.

In July 1997 it was activated after being notified and came into force on Sept 22, 1997. Then came the amendments to the Act which were widely seen as ushering in a regime of full autonomy to AIR and DD. The Prasar Bharathi Board has been formed with an executive member and six part-time members pairing the way for granting autonomy to DD and AIR. The objectives of the Prasar Bharathi Bill were – 1. To confer autonomy to Akash Vani and DD there by ensuring that they function in a fair, objective and creative manner 2. To uphold of both unity and integrity of the country 3. Upholding of the democratic & social values enshrined in the constitution 4.

To look after the safeguarding of the citizen’s right to be informed freely, truthfully, and objectively. Mehta points out that the Bill has to be in harmony with the basic approach of broadcasting policy as laid down by the Supreme Court, which stated in a recent judgment that “air ways or frequencies for transmission of electronic communication are public property and should not be the monopoly of the government or anybody else. It should offer a plurality and diversity of news and views”. Also the policy has to take cognizance of the rapid changes in the electronic media technology”. Commercial Service in DD/ DD through 70s and 80s Commercial service in TV started in 1976.

A code of conduct for advertisers was framed. Advertisements have to be in accordance with the code without hurting the moral, aesthetic and religious statements of the people. In 1976 AIR was separated from DD under the leadership of Verghese Committee the Janatha government worked for Autonomous National Broadcasting Trust for television. The trust would be responsible to the parliament and would provide a link between the trustees and Broadcasting organization the programmes of dance and music were started in 1981 as the aim of TV was to provide information, education and entertainment and included in it was preserved and promoted our culture and heritage.

In 1982 DD took to color television and the major events like Asian Games and Non Aligned Movement (NAM) were broadcasted in India and abroad in color, the launching of INSAT 1 satellite in 1983 has made it possible to Broadcasting TV programmes to a wider section of population, It also improves the quality of reception of Broadcasting. The year of 1984 was very important in the history of TV. The first sponsored social ‘HUMLOG’ was on air in July. The inspiration for serials was from Mexico. The series Humlog was sponsored by food specialities that launched Maggi Noodles in the market. The sale of Maggi Noodles increased enormously in Urban areas.

Higher education TV, which was produced by the University Grants Commission, was also started as an attempt to educate adults. Educational TV started in 1961 was meant to broadcast for science teachers and students of higher secondary education. Several audio-visual research Institutes and Educational media research centers were set up in different parts of the country to produce programmes. The programmes were meant to supplement old and formal methods of education. PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY/ Role of TV in Promoting Development and Social Change/Contribution of SITE and Kheda Project Public Service Broadcasting is a term used to define state or public sponsored broadcasting in public interest.

The Indian Broadcasting Company set up in July, 1927 started to work broadcasting in a spirit of public service no matter what the problems of distance and of different languages and cultures might be. Later the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) echoed the same policy in public broadcasting. The role of Akashvani and Doordarshan as public service broadcasters has been repeatedly emphasized. The national broadcasters – Akashvani and Doordarshan bore the responsibility to offer a high quality public service broadcasting that informs, educates and entertains people. In India, Prasar Bharati is India’s public broadcaster. It is an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India and comprises the Doordarshan television network and All India Radio.

The public television in India had the following objectives – 1. To act as a catalyst for social change 2. To promote national integration 3. To stimulate a scientific temper in the minds of the people 4. To disseminate the message of family planning as a means of population control and family welfare. 5. To promote and help preserve environmental and ecological balance. 6. To highlight the need for social welfare, measures including welfare of women children and the less privileged. 7. To promote interest in games and sports. 8. To create values of appraisal of art and our culture and heritage. SITE – Satellite Instructional Television Experiment.

Two experiments in rural television have been conducted in recent years with the prime objective of bringing about development and social change. Both were launched in 1975; the more ambitious programe was SITE – Satellite Instructional Television Experiment. In 1967, a UNESCO expert mission conducted with the cooperation of Indian government, a study on the use of satellite for national development. The four hour telecast beamed everyday from earth stations at Delhi and Ahmedabad concentrated on programmes on education, agriculture, health and family planning. These were planned and produced by AIR at production centres set up in Delhi, Hyderabad and Cuttack. The programmes by the SITE included 1.

SCHOOL TELECAST: One and a half hour of daily school telecast aimed at primary school children aged between 5-12. The aim of the school telecast was to make school more interesting and reduce drop out rate. And to improve children’s basic concepts and skills, promote aesthetic sensitivity and instill habits of healthy living, bring awareness of modernization of life and society. However it was observed that the drop out rate in schools was not affected by the SITE initiative, as the drop out rate would depend on other social and economic factors. 2. AGRICULTURE: SITE had an ambitious goal in promoting new agricultural practices like dry-land farming and use of fertilizers, pest control, market trends and weather forecasts. 3.

HEALTH: SITE had programs on the practice of seeking medical aid in delivery of babies, nutrition and healthy habits. 4. FAMILY PLANNING: SITE aimed at spreading awareness about family planning by educating the masses about Vasectomy and its benefits. The Planning Commission’s evaluation of the SITE suggests that TV played an important role for gain in knowledge in the field of animal husbandry (72%), agriculture (60%) and health (45%) on the ground that 89% could recall the main message of the programmes. It was also discovered that 75% of the respondents felt the developmental programmes were on the whole useful and by and large conformed to the local customs, beliefs and practices.

Kheda communications project also proved to be successful in bringing about Social change in a small village in Gujarat called Kheda. The project showed serials like Chatur Mota on the subject of dowry and widow remarriage. Weekend programs like Dadima Ni Hathon, Hun Ne Mara Ae, Jagi Ni Jus Toh were attempts to wean the rural poor from superstition, wasteful expenditure, evils of child marriage, and to provide them new skills. PROGRAMME CONTENT OF AIR/RADIO FORMATS AND GENRES Radio has several genres of programs that enjoy varied length of air time. Music programs enjoy the lion’s share of time with 39. 73%, while Spoken word programs take up 37. 78% of time. News and current affairs enjoy 22. 49%.

Radio programmes may be classified into two broad groups. 1. Spoken Word Programmes, which include news bulletins, talks, discussions, interviews, educational programmes for schools and colleges, specific audience programmes directed at women, children, rural and urban listeners, drama, radio features and documentaries. 2. Music Programmes a. News Bulletins: News Bulletins are put out by AIR almost every hour of the day in English and the various regional languages. The major bulletins are 15 minute long and others are just 5 minute long. b. Newsreels: Newsreels are generally 15 minute long and they present spot reports, comments, interviews, and extracts from speeches. c.

Documentaries/Radio features: Documentaries or Radio features are factual and informational in character and sometimes educational in intent. They bring together the techniques of talks and drama to tell the story of events of past, present or future. d. Radio Plays: Radio drama is a story told through sound alone i. e. with the dialogue, voices of people, background or mood effects, musical effects, atmospheric effects and the like. e. Radio Talks: Radio talks are not public speeches instead they are chats with a friend who addresses you on the radio. Radio talks give an impression to the listener that the speaker is addressing him or her alone in an informal manner. f.

Music Programmes: Music programmes enjoy greater popularity on radio than any other type of program. Vividh Bharathi programmes are usually music based. g. Movie Trailers: Movie trailers on Vividh Bharathi are sponsored programmes usually of 15-30 minutes that aim to show case forthcoming movie releases. PROGRAMME CONTENT OF DD/TV FORMATS AND GENRES DD has several genres of programs that enjoy varied length of air time. Entertainment programs enjoy the lion’s share of time with 45. 3% on the national network, while General Information programs enjoy 20. 3% of air time, followed by News and Current Affairs that take up 17. 9% on national network. School and University education programs take 12. 6% of air time on national network. (.. ccording to a 1997 survey of DD programs). The various programs on TV include – a. News Telecast: Like Radio, TV also has timely news telecasts that report the major events of the day. The newscast includes formal news reading and clippings from other important news reports. b. News Bulletins: News bulletins are longish and include panel discussions, general news stories and other audio visual aids to elaborate and analyze news. c. TV documentaries & Features: TV documentaries are more like Cinema documentaries that informational in character and sometimes educational in intent. The emphasis in documentaries is to portray real people, real events and real situations. d.

Interview Programs: Certain programs interview prominent personalities from various fields. e. Quiz Programs and Game Shows: DD also has quiz programs and game shows that involve active audience participation. f. Children’s Programmes: Cartoons, puppet stories, mythological shows are aimed especially at children’s viewing at special times like holidays or Sunday mornings. g. Programmes for Farmers and Industrial Workers: These are instructional and educational programs aimed specially at farmers and industrial workers to improve their way of working or standard of living. h. Music and Dance programmes: Music and Dance programmes take up the maximum airtime on TV.

The aim is to entertain people with light music and dance based shows. For example- Shaam-e-Ghazal, Chhaya Geet etc. i. Sitcoms and Soap Operas: Domestically produced Indian language TV serials came into their own only in mid 80s. S. S Gill and Shobha Doctor production Hum Log was India’s first serial. j. Ads and TV commercials: When Nestle foods’ Maggi Noodles sponsored Hum Log and became an instant hit food consumable item, India realized how powerful an advertising medium TV is. k. Cinema on TV: Cinema was an extremely popular medium by the time TV became popular in every household; DD telecasted feature films every weekend and devoted an entire channel to the telecasting of feature films later on.

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