Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (Term: January 23,1899-April 1, 1901) Emilio Aguinaldo was born on March 23, 1869 in Cavite Viejo (Kawit) to Carlos Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy, a Chinese mestizo couple who had eight children, the seventh of whom was Emilio. The Aguinaldo family was quite well-to-do, as Carlos Aguinaldo was the communities appointed gobernadorcillo. Emilio became the Cabeza de Barangay of Binakayan, a chief barrio of Cavite del Viejo, when he was only 17 years old. In 1895, a law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted.
At the age of 26, Aguinaldo became Cavite Viejo’s first captain municipal.
First Republic (Malolos Republic) 1899-1901; He was a Filipino general, politician , and independence leader. He had an instrumental role during the Philippines’ revolution against Spain and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of the Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation. Aguinaldo became the Philippine’s first president. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country’s president, the longest lived former president (having survived at age 94) and the president to have outlived the most number of successors.
The president of the first Philippine Republic (1899). He started as a member of the Magdalo chapter of the Katipunan in Cavite, then was elected president of revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention on March 22, 1897, and later, Biak na Bato Republic. He proclaimed Philippine Independence at Kawit on June 12, 1898. His capture foreshadowed the end of large scale armed resistance to American Rule.
Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (Term: November 15, 1935-August 1, 1944) Quezon was born in Baler in the district of El Principe (Baler, Aurora). His Spanish parents were Lucio Quezon and Maria Dolores Molina. His father was a primary grade school teacher from Paco, Manila and a retired sergeant of the Spanish colonial army, while his mother was a primary school teacher. He won the elections held in September 1935 to choose the head of the Commonwealth Government. It was a government made possible by the Tydings-McDuffie Law, which Quezon secured from the U.S. Quezon had emerged as the acknowledged leader of Philippine politics and possessed the kind of background and experience that appealed to Filipinos.
He had a bachelor of arts degree, studied law, and landed fourth place in the 1903 Bar examinations. He served in the revolution, fighting in Tarlac, Pampanga, and Bataan, and ended up with the rank of major. The first Filipino president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under American rule. He was president of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. For advocating Filipino-language amendments to the 1935 Constitution, he is known as the “Father of the National Language.” The Commonwealth Government was interrupted by the Japanese invasion of 1941. Quezon and his government were forced to go into exile in the U.S. He died on August 1, 1944, in New York.
Jose Paciano Laurel y Garcia (Term: October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945) José Paciano Laurel y García was born on March 9, 1891 in the town of Tanauan, Batangas. His parents were Sotero Laurel, Sr. and Jacoba García. His father had been an official in the revolutionary government of Emilio Aguinaldo and a signatory to the 1898 Malolos Constitution. While a teen, Laurel was indicted for attempted murder when he almost killed a rival suitor of his girlfriend with a Batangas fan knife. While studying and finishing law school, he argued for and received an acquittal. Laurel received his law degree from the University of the Philippines College of Law in 1915, where he studied under Dean George A. Malcolm, whom he would later succeed on the Supreme Court. He then obtained a Master of Laws degree from University of Santo Tomas in 1919. Laurel then attended Yale Law School, where he obtained a Doctorate of Law.
Laurel began his life in public service while a student, as a messenger in the Bureau of Forestry then as a clerk in the Code Committee tasked with the codification of Philippine laws. During his work for the Code Committee, he was introduced to its head, Thomas A. Street, a future Supreme Court Justice who would be a mentor to the young Laurel. President of the Second Republic from 1943 to 1945. He had been secretary of the interior (1923), senator (1925 – 1931), delegate to the Constitutional Convention (1934), and chief justice during the commonwealth. When World War II broke out, he was instructed by Quezon to stay in Manila and deal with the Japanese to soften the blow of enemy occupation. As president, he defended Filipino interests and resisted Japanese efforts to draft Filipinos into the Japanese military service. Upon return of the American forces, Laurel was imprisoned in Japan when Douglas Macarthur occupied that country He was returned to the Philippines to face charges of treason, but these were dropped when President Roxas issued an amnesty proclamation. In the Third Republic, he was elected senator and negotiated the Laurel-Langley Agreement.
Sergio Osmeña y Suico (Term: August 1, 1944-May 28, 1946)
Sergio Osmeña was born in Cebu to Cebu Chinese tycoon Don Pedro Lee Gotiaoco and Juana Osmeña y Suico, who was reportedly only 14 years of age when she gave birth to him. Owing to the circumstances of his birth, the identity of his father had been a closely guarded family secret. Although carrying the stigma of being an illegitimate child – Juana never married his father – he didn’t allow this aspect to affect his standing in society. The Osmeña family, a rich and prominent clan of Chinese Filipino heritage with vast business interests in Cebu, warmed to him as he established himself as a prominent figure in local society. The first Filipino national leader under the American regime as speaker of the Philippine assembly and the second president of the Philippines (1944-1946).
Manuel Acuña Roxas (Term: May 28, 1946-April 15, 1948) Roxas was born to Gerardo Roxas, Sr. and Rosario Acuña on New Year’s Day 1892 in Capiz (Roxas City). He was a posthumous child, as his father Gerardo had died after having been mortally wounded by Spanish guardias civiles the year before. He and his older brother, Mamerto, to be raised by their mother and her father, Don Eleuterio Acuña. The young Manuel received his early education in the public schools of Capiz, and at age twelve attended St. Joseph’s Academy in Taiwan, but due to homesickness, he went back to Capiz. He eventually transferred to Manila High School (Araullo High School), graduating with honours in 1909. Roxas began his law studies at a private law school established by George A. Malcolm, the first dean of the University of the Philippines College of Law. On his second year, he enrolled at University of the Philippines, where he was elected president of both his class and the student council. In 1913, Roxas obtained his law degree, graduated class valedictorian, and subsequently topped the bar examinations with a grade of 92% on the same year. The last president of the Philippine Commonwealth and the first president of the republic (1946 – 1948).
Elpidio Rivera Quirino (Term: April 17, 1948-December 30, 1953) Elpidio Quirino was a native of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur although born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur to Don Mariano Quirino of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur and Doña Gregoria Mendoza Rivera of Agoo, La Union. Quirino spent his early years in Aringay, La Union. He studied and graduated his elementary education to his native Caoayan, where he became a barrio teacher. He received secondary education at Vigan High School, then went to Manila where he worked as junior computer technician at the Bureau of Lands and as property clerk in the Manila police department. He graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and also passed the civil service examination, first-grade. Quirino attended the University of the Philippines. In 1915, he earned his law degree from the university’s College of Law, and was admitted to the bar later that year. He was engaged in the private practice of law. President of the Philippines from 1948 to 1953. As vice president during Manuel Roxas’s term, he was also secretary of foreign affairs. He became president when Roxas died in 1948. He was elected president in his own right in 1949.
Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay (Term: December 30, 1953-March 17,1957) Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales on August 31, 1907 to Exequiel Magsaysay (1874-1968), a blacksmith, and Perfecta del Fierro (1887-1980), a schoolteacher. He spent his high school life at Zambales Academy at San Narciso, Zambales. After high school, Magsaysay entered the University of the Philippines in 1927, where he enrolled in a pre-engineering course. He worked as a chauffeur to support himself as he studied engineering; and later, he transferred to the Institute of Commerce at José Rizal College (1928–1932), where he received a baccalaureate in commerce. He then worked as an automobile mechanic in a bus company and shop superintendent. President of the Philippines from 1953 to 1957. He had been President Quirino’s secretary of defense who was instrumental is suppressing the HUK rebellion. As president, he persuaded Congress to pass the Agricultural Tenancy Act (1954). It was during his term that the Retail Trade Nationalization Act was passed. He secured revisions in the Bell Trade Act and was the first president to revise the US Military Bases agreement to bring it more in line with Philippine interests.
Carlos Polistico Garcia (Term: March 18, 1957-December 30, 1961) García was born in Talibon, Bohol, to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polistico (from Bangued, Abra). García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology) where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination. Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname “Prince of Visayan Poets” and the “Bard from Bohol”. President of the Philippines from 1957 to 1961. Remembered for his Filipino First Policy. He was among the founders of the Association for Southeast Asia (1963), the precursor of the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (Term: December 30, 1961-December 30, 1965) Diosdado Macapagal was born on September 28, 1910 in Lubao, Pampanga, the second of four children in a poor family. His father, Urbano Macapagal, was a poet who wrote in the local Pampangan language, and his mother, Romana Pangan Macapagal, was a schoolteacher who taught catechism. He is a distant descendant of Don Juan Macapagal, a prince of Tondo, who was a great-grandson of the last reigning Rajah Lakandula. The family earned extra income by raising pigs and accommodating boarders in their home. Due to his roots in poverty, Macapagal would later become affectionately known as the “Poor boy from Lubao”. Macapagal graduated valedictorian at Lubao Elementary School, and salutatorian at Pampanga High School. He finished his pre-law course at the University of the Philippines, then enrolled at Philippine Law School in 1932. However, he was forced to quit schooling after two years due to poor health and a lack of money.
Returning to Pampanga, he joined boyhood friend Rogelio de la Rosa in producing and starring in Tagalog operettas. It was during this period that he married Purita de la Rosa in 1938. He had two children with de la Rosa, Cielo and Arturo. Macapagal raised enough money to continue his studies at the University of Santo Tomas. After receiving his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1936, he was admitted to the bar, topping the 1936 bar examination. He later returned to his alma mater to take up graduate studies and earn a Master of Laws degree in 1941, a Doctor of Civil Law degree in 1947, and a PhD in Economics in 1957. President of the Republic of the Philippines from 1961 to 1965. He asked Congress to pass the Agricultural Land Reform Code, which abolished share tenancy and installed a leasehold system in its place; it finally passed on August 8, 1963. This was a significant step toward resolving the agrarian problem. It was during his presidency that Independence Day was moved from July 4 to June 12, the date when General Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence in Cavite.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. (Term: December 30, 1965-February 25, 1986) Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born September 11, 1917 in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin. According to the family’s oral history, the original surname was Quidit, and their Ilokano stock had some Han Chinese and Japanese admixture. Marcos once claimed that one of his forefathers was a “15th century Chinese pirate.” This pirate is the well-known Limahong. Rumors in the Chinese community claims he is the illegitimate child of Judge Chua to Josefa Edralin. Thereby making him a half-Chinese by blood. President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. Declared martial law on September 21, 1972. After the People Power revolution in February 1986, he was ousted from power and lived in exile in Honolulu, Hawaii.
María Corazón Sumulong “Cory” Cojuangco Aquino (Term: February 25, 1986-June 30, 1992) Born on January 25, 1933, in Paniqui, Tarlac, María Corazón “Cory” Sumulong Cojuangco was the fourth child of José Cojuangco, Sr. and Demetria Sumulong. Her siblings were Pedro, Josephine, Teresita, Jose, Jr. and Maria Paz. Both Aquino’s parents came from prominent clans. Her father was a prominent Tarlac businessman and politician, and her great-grandfather, Melecio Cojuangco, was a member of the historic Malolos Congress. Her mother, Demetria, belonged to the Sumulong family of Rizal who were politically influential; Juan Sumulong, a prominent member of the clan, ran against Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon in 1941. As a young girl, Aquino spent her elementary days at St. Scholastica’s College in Manila, where she graduated on top of her class and batch as valedictorian. For high school, she transferred to Assumption Convent for her first year of high school. Afterwards, she went to the United States to finish her secondary education. There she continued her college education.
She went to the College of Mount Saint Vincent in New York City, where she majored in Mathematics and French. President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. With Salvador Laurel as running mate, she led the opposition that overthrew the authoritarian government of Marcos, who went into exile after the successful People’s Power revolution of 1986. She first established a revolutionary government under the Freedom Constitution, later replaced by the Constitution of 1987, which served as the basis for reestablishing democracy.
Fidel Valdez Ramos (Term: June 30, 1992- June 30, 1998)
Fidel Ramos was born on March 18, 1928 in Lingayen, Pangasinan. His father, Narciso Ramos, was a lawyer, journalist and 5-term legislator of the House of Representatives. His mother, Angela Valdez-Ramos, was an educator, woman suffragette and daughter of the respected Valdez clan of Batac, Ilocos Norte making him a second degree cousin to Ferdinand Marcos. Ramos received secondary education at the Centro Escolar University in Manila. Afterwards he went to America and he graduated from the United States Military Academy, with Bachelor of Science and the University of Illinois, with a masters degree in civil engineering. He also holds a master’s degree in National Security Administration from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a Master’s degree in Business Administration (MBA) from the Ateneo de Manila University. President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1997. As head of the Constabulary under President Marcos, he was instrumental in helping to design and implement martial law. Together with General Ponce Enrile and the RAM, he defected from the government in 1986 and joined the People’s Power revolution that ousted Marcos from power. His presidency is remembered for better integrating the national economy in the
Joseph “Erap” Ejercito Estrada (Term: June 30, 1998-January 20, 2001) Joseph Ejercito Estrada was born on April 19, 1937 in Tondo, an urban district of Manila. His family later moved to the wealthy suburb of San Juan. He belonged to an upper-middle-class family, and was the eighth of ten children of Emilio Ejercito and his wife Maria Marcelo. He was kicked out during his primary studies at the Ateneo de Manila University and subsequently enrolled in an engineering course at the Mapua Institute of Technology in an effort to please his father, but dropped out. President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001. During his term in office, he was arrested and stood trial at a congressional impeachment hearing on charges of accepting bribes and corruption. While this trial was aborted when the senators voted 11 to 10 not to open incriminating evidence against him, he was ousted from power anyway as a peaceful People’s Power II revolution arose and called for his resignation.
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Term: January 20, 2001-June 30, 2010) She was born as María Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal to politician Diosdado Macapagal and his wife, Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal. She is the sister of Dr. Diosdado “Boboy” Macapagal, Jr. and Cielo Macapagal-Salgado. She spent the first years of her life in Lubao, Pampanga, with her two older siblings from her father’s first marriage. At the age of four, she chose to live with her maternal grandmother in Iligan City. She stayed there for three years, then split her time between Mindanao and Manila until the age of 11. She is fluent in English, Tagalog, Spanish and several other Philippine languages, most importantly, Kapampangan, Ilokano, and Cebuano. In 1961, when Arroyo was just 14 years old, her father was elected as president. She moved with her family into Malacañang Palace in Manila.
A municipality was named in her honor, Gloria, Oriental Mindoro. She attended Assumption Convent for her elementary and high school education, graduating valedictorian in 1964. Arroyo then studied for two years at Georgetown University’s Walsh School of Foreign Service in Washington, D.C. where she was a classmate of future United States President Bill Clinton and achieved consistent Dean’s list status. She then earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Assumption College, graduating magna cum laude in 1968. The current president of the Philippines. She served as vice president under President Estrada and became president when he was forced to step down for malfeasance, through the People’s Power II revolution. PGMA has confronted some of the same obstacles as did her father, President Diosdado Macapagal, when he tried to clean up corruption in government. Her government continues enjoy political legitimacy in the face of opposition.
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III (Term: June 30, 2010-Incumbent) Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” Aquino III ,also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th President of the Philippines since June 2010, was born on February 8, 1960 in Manila. He is the third of the five children of Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., who was then the Vice Governor of Tarlac province, and Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino, former President of the Philippines. He has four sisters, Maria Elena (Ballsy) Aquino-Cruz, Aurora Corazon (Pinky) Aquino-Abellada, Victoria Elisa (Viel) Aquino-Dee, and Kristina Bernadette (Kris) Aquino. He attended Ateneo de Manila University in Quezon City for his elementary, high school, and college education. He graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor’s degree in Economics. The Presidency of Benigno S. Aquino III began at noon on June 30, 2010, when he became the fifteenth President of the Philippines, succeeding Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He was the third youngest president and first president to be a bachelor, being unmarried and having no children.
Cite this Biography of the Philippine presidents
Biography of the Philippine presidents. (2016, Nov 24). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/biography-of-the-philippine-presidents/