Canadian Immigration Policy Essay, Research Paper
Immigration has been an of import factor of population growing in Canada. Between the old ages of 1851 to 1996 over 13.5 million immigrants entered Canada ( see Appendix 1 ) , largely from Western Europe and Great Britain ( Grindstaff, 1998:435 ) . The figure of immigrants admitted into Canada is regulated by Canadian Immigration Act and its policies, which are, in bend, regulated by federal and provincial authoritiess ( Jackson & A ; Jackson, 1998: 86 ) . Historically, early Canadian in-migration policies were mostly discriminatory ; therefore in-migration policies and ordinances have changed, largely to extinguish expressed favoritism on the footing of race or nationality.
The first Immigration Act was established in 1869, when the British North American Act gave the duty of in-migration to federal and provincial authoritiess. This in-migration act did non hold any specific regulations and ordinances about who can or who can non come in and populate in Canada. Thus, between the old ages of 1869 to 1895 1.5 million people immigrated to Canada ( Kubat, 1993:25 ) . These new colonists were largely British laborers, eastern European provincials, and American husbandmans ( Jackson & A ; Jackson, 1898: 86 ) .
However, between the old ages of 1881 and 1884 about 15,701 Chinese laborers entered Canada, most of them as a? inexpensive laborers? for the building of Canadian Pacific Railway ( CPR ) . Knowles ( 1997:50 ) besides points out that? without these Chinese laborers the building and completion of the CPR would hold been postponed indefinitely. ? Yet, because the Canadian federal authorities favoured? white? British, American, and Northern Europeans immigrants, ? colored? immigrants, Chinese peculiarly, were no longer welcomed in Canada. Thus, upon the completion of the CPR, a new act was passed in 1885? to curtail and modulate Chinese in-migration? ( Knowles, 1997:50 ) . This new policy did non forbid the Chinese from come ining Canada ; yet the Chinese immigrants had to pay a $ 50 caput revenue enhancement in order to be allowed to come in Canada. Yet, ? the Whites? from British Columbia were non satisfied with $ 50, and so the revenue enhancement was raised to $ 100 per individual of Chinese origin come ining Canada in 1900, and subsequently to $ 500 in 1903 ( Knowles, 1997: 51 ) .
Furthermore, between the old ages of 1906 and 1907 about 7,000 new immigrants entered British Columbia, largely of Nipponese and east Indian beginning. This new moving ridge of? colored? immigrants created a great trade of agitation in British Columbia? s? white? occupants. As a consequence of this dissatisfaction, Vancouver occupants started to arise against the admittance of the Japanese into British Columbia, due to their fright of? a Nipponese invasion? ( Knowles, 1997:92 ) . Hence, the federal authorities of Canada passed a measure in the Immigration Act of 1910, known as the? uninterrupted journey regulation. ? This ordinance prohibited an entry to Canada to any immigrants, who did non came straight from their state ; without any other Michigans at any other ports along the manner ( Knowles, 1997:93 ) . Therefore, this new ordinance made it impossible for the Nipponese and east Indians to come in Canada, because there were no direct steamer service from either state into Canada ( Knowles, 1997:93 ) .
After a piece, the federal authorities was one time once more pressured from British Columbia on the issue of Chinese in-migration into British Columbia. Therefore, the Immigration Act 1923 was passed, which banned all Chinese from entry to Canada, except? members of the diplomatic corps, kids born in Canada to Chinese parents, pupils, and merchandisers who had a lower limit of $ 2,500 invested in a concern for at least three old ages and who were prepared to put at least $ 2,500 in a concern in Canada? ( Knowles, 1997:107 ) . Because of this limitation, merely 20 five Chinese people entered Canada between the old ages of 1923 and 1946 ( Knowles, 1997:107 ) .
During the old ages of World War II, Nipponese Canadians had to digest another know aparting stage from the federal authorities of Canada. After the bombardment of Pearl Harbor in 1941, the federal authorities ordered the arrogation of Japanese-Canadians? belongingss, and all Nipponese foreigners had to register with the RCMP ( Knowles, 1997:124 ) . Afterward, every bit many as 22,000 Japanese-Canadians were relocated into assorted detainment cantonments and unsettled countries in British Columbia. Besides, many of the Japanese-Canadians were relocated to work in the sugar Beta vulgaris Fieldss in Alberta, Manitoba, and Ontario. The terminal of WW II, nevertheless, did non set an terminal to these limitations against Japanese-Canadians. Almost 4,000 Nipponese were ordered by the federal authorities to go forth Canada for Japan, even though most of these Nipponeses were either Canadian-born or new Canadian citizens ( Knowles, 1997:124 ) .
After WW II, there was a big motion of immigrants from Europe to Canada. The authorities welcomed the new moving ridge of immigrants from Europe, therefore the Canadian authorities introduced its Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946. This new moving ridge of immigrants was aimed to increase the Canadian criterion of life. New immigrants were expected to assist to develop Canadian resources, which would increase the domestic market and, therefore, lessening Canada? s independency on the export of primary merchandises ( Hawkins, 1989:37 ) . However, Prime Minister Mackenzie King stated that this new policy would be a selective one, in order to avoid? a large-scale in-migration from the Orient, ? and the authorities will non go against the limitations on Asian in-migration from old policies ( Hawkins, 1989: 38 ) .
Although the Immigration Act of 1952 was more broad, it still gave the authorities of Canada the right to restrict or forbid the entry of immigrants on evidences of their nationality, geographical country of beginning, mutual exclusiveness with respect to the clime, wonts and manners of life, likely inability to go readily assimilated, and other such grounds ( Foster, 1998:90 ) . Therefore, it was non until the 1960? s when the? White Canada policy? came to an terminal ( Hawkins, 1989: 39 ) .
During the late 1950? s and 1960? s the Canadian authorities wanted to set up a good relationship with new independent provinces in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean ( Dirks, 1995:10 ) . Therefore, on January 19, 1962 Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Ellen Fairclough, and her Deputy Minister, Dr. George Davidson introduced a new in-migration ordinance to? el
iminate all favoritism based on colour, race or creed? ( Hawkins, 1989:38 ) . The lone privilege it gave the European immigrants over non-Europeans was, that the authorities could still modulate the sponsoring of a broad scope of relations. It was due to the fright of a big unwanted moving ridge of immigrants from India ( Hawkins, 1989: 39 ) .
In the twelvemonth of 1967 all the race standards in the Immigration Act were replaced with? a Point System? ordinances ( see Appendix 2 ) . By this new system, the manque immigrants had to derive at least 50 out of 100 possible points on the footing of 10 factors, such as age, occupation experience, cognition of English or Gallic, developing experience, and relationship with individuals already in Canada. This new system was largely directed to pull affluent business communities and such people into Canada, irrespective of their race ( Dirks, 1995:11 ) . However, even this new in-migration ordinance was non flawless. Because the Act allowed visitants to use for landed immigrant position while sing in Canada, increasing Numberss of people from the United States, Latin America, Europe, Asia, the Caribbean and other states made Canada their finish ( see Appendix 3 ) . This created a big obstruction of instances before the Immigration Appeal Board. The state of affairs became important, the federal authorities was forced to take action, and the Immigration Act of 1976 was being planned ( Knowles, 1997:160 )
The Immigration Act of 1976 has been described as? a beautiful piece of work-logical, well-constructed, broad, and feasible? ( Hawkins, 1989:70 ) . This Act recognizes three classs of individuals, who could be eligible for landed immigrant position. First, the household class, which includes the immediate household, such as hubbies, married womans, parents, grandparents, and dependent kids. Second, the refugee class, which include convention refugees or members of a specially designated category of refugees. The 3rd class is the independent class, which is divided into five subcategories: enterprisers, investors, freelance individuals, skilled workers, and assisted relations ( Head, Ries & A ; Wagner, 1997:133 ) . The persons that fall into the independent class are selected on the footing of the point system, and their rating is besides based on their part to the Canadian economic system ( Hawkins, 1989: 70-72 ) .
The point system was, nevertheless, revised in the Immigration Regulations of 1978. It still complemented the Act of 1976 ; yet it put a great accent on practical preparation and experience every bit opposed to formal instruction. Assisted relations from the independent class merely had to be rated on seven of the 10 factors, as three did non use to them. Members of the household and refugee class were non selected by the point system at all ( Hawkins, 1989:77 ) .
As a consequence of these new in-migration policies, between the old ages 1979 to 1994, 39 % of all immigrants to Canada were admitted under the household class, 18 % refugees, and 43 % were independent immigrants ( Head, Ries & A ; Wagner, 1997:136 ) . Furthermore, the in-migration policy besides admits those persons, such as pupils, visitants, impermanent workers on term contract, and domestic workers, who wish to come in Canada for a short period of clip and for specific intents. These persons must hold proper visa and employment mandate ( Dirks, 1995:28 ) . Therefore, at this point any single with proper paperss can come in Canada, irrespective of their race or nationality.
On the whole, Canadian Immigration Acts have changed significantly. In the past, people from assorted states wanted to assist to construct new state called Canada. Yet, they were refused to come in because of their different tegument colour. Besides, the ground for their refusal was that most of the historical policies were plagued by racism, as a consequence of fright of losing? the Canadian White Identity. ? The new alterations of more broad in-migration policies came approximately as a consequence of the force per unit area from non-racist organisations, assorted spiritual groups, and the general populace. Thus, today? s Canadian in-migration policy categorizes people, who want to go lasting occupants, by three classs ; irrespective of their tegument colour, nationality, or race.
Dirks, Gerald E. Controversy and Complexity: Canadian Immigration Policy During
The 1980? s. Montreal, Quebec: McGill-Queen? s University Press, 1995.
Economic Council of Canada. New Faces in the Crowd: Economic and Social Impact
of Immigration. Ottawa, Ontario: Economic Council of Canada, ( 1991 ) : pp. 4-5.
Foster, Lorna. Turnstile Immigration: Multiculturalism, Social Order & A ; Social Justice
In Canada. Toronto, Ontario: Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. , 1998.
Grindstaff, Carl F. ? Demography and Population Study. ? In J.J. Teevan & A ; W.E.
Hewitt ( Eds. ) , Introduction to Sociology: A Canadian Focus. 6th erectile dysfunction. Scarborough,
Ontario: Prentice-Hall, 1998. Pp. 413? 441.
Hawkynss, Freda. Critical Old ages in Immigration: Canada and Australia Compared.
Montreal, Quebec: McGill-Queen? s University Press, 1989.
Head, Keith, John Ries, and Donald Wagner. ? Immigration as Trade Catalyst. ? In
A.E. Safarian & A ; W. Dobson ( Eds. ) , The People Link: Human Resource Linkages
Across the Pacific. Volume 3. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press,
( 1997 ) : pp. 131? 151.
Jackson, Robert G. and Doreen Jackson. Politicss in Canada: Culture, Institutions,
Behaviour and Public Policy. 4th erectile dysfunction. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall Canada
Inc. , 1998.
Knowles, Valerie. Strangers at Our Gates: Canadian Immigration and Immigration
Policy, 1540? 1997. Rev. erectile dysfunction. Toronto, Ontario: Dundurn Press, 1997.
Kubat, Daniel. ? Canada: Immigration? s Human-centered Challenge. ? In D. Kubat ( Ed. ) ,
The Politics of Migration Policies: the Settlement and Integration-the First World
Into the 1990? s. 2nd erectile dysfunction. Staten Island, NY: Center for Migration Studies, 1993.
pp. 23? 44.
Logan, Ronald. ? Immigration During the 1980? s. ? Canadian Social Trends: A
Canadian Studies Reader. Volume 2. Toronto, Ontario: Thompson Educational
Publishing, Inc. , ( 1994 ) : pp. 31? 34.