The twelvemonth 1763 marked the terminal of the Gallic and Indian War. the concluding licking of the Gallic and their Native American Alliess in America. For America’s English settlers. this was a cause for great jubilation and pride in their English individuality. Expressions of English nationalism were widespread. But merely twelve old ages subsequently. these same American settlers found themselves locked in a bitter and violent struggle with the female parent state that had so late been the object of their proud regard. To this twenty-four hours. now over two hundred old ages subsequently. the grounds behind this disconnected passage of England and its American settlements from Alliess to enemies are debated.
The undermentioned paperss address the inquiry of whether the American settlers were truly justified in engaging war against England. Examine each papers carefully. and reply the inquiry or inquiries that follow.
Document 1This extract is from “Considerations … . ” a booklet written by Thomas Whately. Whately was an adviser to George Grenville. British Chancellor of the Exchequer ( 1763-1765 ) and the writer of the Stamp Act. In this booklet. Whately explained why the British were justified in imposing revenue enhancements on their American settlers. We are non yet recovered from a War undertaken entirely for their [ the Americans’ ] Protection … a War undertaken for their defence merely … they should lend to the Preservation of the Advantages they have received… .
1. Why did Whately ( and likely most other English functionaries ) feel that the American settlers should be willing to pay higher revenue enhancements to Parliament?
Document 2These extracts are from Letterss from a Farmer in Pennsylvania by John Dickinson. Dickinson was a Pennsylvania political leader who served in the Stamp Act Congress of 1765. Later in his calling. he served in the Continental Congress. and subsequently still. in the Constitutional Convention. In the undermentioned statement. Dickinson condemned some of the new revenue enhancements being imposed by Parliament.
There is another late act of parliament. which appears to me to be unconstitutional. and … destructive to the autonomy of these colonies… . The parliament unimpeachably possesses a legal authorization to modulate the trade of Great Britain. and all her settlements. I have looked over every legislative act [ jurisprudence ] associating to these settlements. from their first colony to this clip ; and I find every one of them founded on this rule. till the Stamp Act administration… . All before. are calculated to modulate trade… . The elevation of gross … was ne’er intended… . Never did the British parliament. [ until the transition of the Stamp Act ] think of enforcing responsibilities in America for the intent of raising gross. [ The Townshend Acts claim the authorization ] to enforce responsibilities on these settlements. non for the ordinance of trade … but for the individual intent of imposing money upon us.
2. Harmonizing to Dickinson. what revenue enhancements was Parliament justified in enforcing on the settlements? 3. Why did he object to the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts?
On March 5. 1770. a crowd of Boston male childs and work forces surrounded a figure of British soldiers and began teasing and cussing them while they pelted them with sweet sand verbenas. Order rapidly broke down. and the scared soldiers fired into the crowd. When the shot ended. several people were dead and more were wounded. This engraving by Paul Revere. a leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty. was sent throughout the Colonies in the undermentioned hebdomads to elicit anti-British feelings.
4. How does the scratching tell a different narrative from the above description of the Boston Massacre? 5. Where do you say the term “massacre” came from that describes this event?
Document 4In The Journal of Nicholas Cresswell. 1774-1777. Cresswell. a immature Englishman. kept an history of his travels through the American Colonies. The undermentioned extracts are dated October 19. 1774 and state of his visit to Alexandria. Virginia.
Everything here is in the extreme confusion. Committees are appointed to inspect into the characters and behavior of every shopkeeper. to forestall them selling tea or purchasing British industries. Some of them have been tarred and feathered. others had their belongings burnt and destroyed by the populace… . The King is openly cursed. and his authorization set at defiance… . everything is mature for rebellion. The New Englanders by their canting. whining. insinuating fast ones have persuaded the remainder of the settlements that t the authorities is traveling to do absolute slaves of them.
6. Who did Cresswell fault for the turning hostility between the British and the American settlers? _
Document 5This extract is from “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Weaponries. ” issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 5. 1775. The war had broken out in April. when British forces had marched to Lexington and Concord. two small towns merely outside of Boston. This papers. written mostly by John Dickinson and Thomas Jefferson. was designed to explicate and warrant the combat that had continued since April.
[ The British declare ] that parliament can “of right brand Torahs to adhere us in all instances whatsoever. ” What is to support us against so tremendous. so unlimited a power? … We are reduced to the option of taking an unconditioned entry to the dictatorship of annoyed [ British functionaries ) . or opposition by force. – The latter is our pick.
7. Why. harmonizing to this papers. were the Americans justified in contending the British?
Document 6These extracts are from Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. published in January 1776. This popular booklet helped to convert many Americans that the struggle with England was beyond peaceable colony and that independency was America’s merely class.
Work force of inactive piques look slightly lightly over the discourtesies of Great Britain. and. still trusting for the best. are disposed to name out. COME. COME. WE SHALL BE FRIENDS AGAIN FOR ALL THIS. But … so state me whether you can hereafter love. honor. and dependably function the power that hath carried fire and blade into your land? … No adult male was a heater wisher for a [ peaceable colony ] than myself. before the fatal nineteenth of April. 1775 [ the conflicts at Lexington and Concord. Massachusetts. occurred on this twenty-four hours ] . but the minute the event of that twenty-four hours was made known. I rejected the hardened. sullen-tempered [ King of England ] everlastingly.
8. Why was Paine unwilling to be reconciled with Britain? __ 9. Was Paine an nonsubjective and indifferent newsman? Explain. _
Document 7These extracts are from “The Declaration of Independence. ” adopted by the Continental Congress of July 4. 1776.
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of perennial hurts and trespasss [ improper ictuss ] . all holding in direct object the constitution of an absolute Dictatorship over these States. In every phase of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most low footings ; Our perennial Requests have been answered merely by perennial hurt. A Prince. whose character is therefore marked by every act which may specify a Tyrant. is unfit to be the swayer of a free people.
10. How does this papers describe King George?11. Be the Declaration an aim and indifferent statement of the American-British struggle? Explain.
Were the American settlers justified in engaging war and interrupting off from Britain?