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The cortical neuron flash card

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    The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except
    taste.
    Which of the following is not one of the special senses?
    vibration
    The general senses
    involve receptors that are relatively simple in structure.
    Gustatory receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to
    receptor specificity.
    In order for a sensation to become a perception,
    it must received by the somatosensory cortex.
    A receptor potential may
    A. increase neurotransmitter release.
    B. decrease neurotransmitter release.
    C. be a hyperpolarization.
    D. be a depolarization.
    ALL ARE CORRECT
    Peripheral adaptation ________ the number of action potentials that reach the CNS.
    decreases
    A labeled line is
    a link between a receptor and a cortical neuron.
    Sensory encoding of the perceived location of a stimulus depends on
    the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated.
    Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by
    nociceptors.
    Thermoreceptors
    A. are found within the dermis.
    B. are free nerve endings.
    C. for “cold” are structurally indistinguishable from those for “warm.”
    D. are more numerous for cold than for warm temperatures.
    ALL ARE CORRECT
    Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called
    proprioceptors.
    Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called
    baroreceptors.
    Bladder fullness is to ________ as blood pH is to ________.
    baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
    Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations?
    A. pressure
    B. touch
    C. vibration
    D. muscle length
    ALL OF THESE
    ________ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure.
    Baroreceptors
    Chemoreceptors are located in all of the following, except
    in the skin.
    The spinal tract that carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS is the
    spinocerebellar.
    Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of
    referred pain.
    Stimulation of a neuron that terminates in the superior region of the left postcentral gyrus would produce
    a sensation in the right leg.
    The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the
    anterior spinothalamic.
    Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord, except the
    reticulospinal tract.
    The afferent neuron that carries the sensation to the CNS is a ________ neuron.
    first-order
    Thalamic neurons that project to the primary sensory cortex are ________ neurons.
    third-order
    We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because
    sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions.
    Descending (motor) pathways always involve at least ________ motor neuron(s).
    2
    The medial pathway that controls involuntary movements of head, neck, and arm position in response to sudden visual and auditory stimuli is the ________ tract.
    tectospinal
    The pyramidal system provides
    voluntary control over skeletal muscles.
    The corticospinal system is often referred to as the
    pyramidal system.
    The area of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is proportional to the
    number of motor units in that region.
    Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces
    flaccid paralysis of its muscle fibers (motor unit).
    The pyramids on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata are formed by fibers of the ________ tracts
    corticospinal
    The basal nuclei
    provide the background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities.
    Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle
    require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain
    Some neurons within the basal nuclei are known to
    inhibit neurons with GABA and stimulate neurons with acetylcholine.
    Motor neurons whose cell bodies are within the spinal cord are called ________ neurons.
    lower motor
    Upper motor neurons are located in the
    precentral gyrus and the brain stem.
    Arachn-
    spider
    Gangli-
    swelling
    Narc-
    the numb or deaden
    Neur-, Neuro-
    nerve
    Medull-
    under/ beneath
    Nenin-
    membrane
    Plex-
    network
    Sphin-
    squeeze
    -algia
    pain
    -graph, -graphia
    to write/ record
    -mural
    wall
    -osis
    state, condition
    -plegia
    a blow

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