__________ are receptors that can respond to changes in pressure.
Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.
Which receptors adapt most slowly?
Feeling a gentle caress on your arm would likely involve all of the following except ________.
Pacinian corpuscles can be exteroceptors, interoceptors, or proprioceptor,
Which of the following is not a way that sensory receptors are classified?
sensitivity to a stimulus
Which type of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?
Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?
the number of dendritic endings present
Which of the following is composed of encapsulated nerve endings?
The first level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the __________ level.
__________ do NOT exhibit the property of adaptation.
In the somatosensory system there are no third-order neurons in the cerebellum.
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Which of the following is not a main level of neural integration in the somatosensory system?
Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?
The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.
Select the correct definition.
Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.
All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.
Which of the following is not an aspect of sensory perception?
Transduction refers to conversion of ________.
stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential
Three main levels of neural integration operate in the somatosensory system. Which level involves processing in the sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?
Why might an individual experience the phenomenon known as “referred pain”?
Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.
Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called __________.
__________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The hyperalgesia that is common in phantom limb pain could be blocked if a new drug was developed that could prevent (without triggering any side-effects) the ______.
diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors
Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.
After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.
Regeneration within the CNS ________.
is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes
Select the statement that is most correct.
Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.
Which connective tissue layer directly surrounds each axon in a nerve?
Choose the FALSE statement about nerves.
The majority of a nerve’s bulk is due to axons.
There are __________ pairs of cranial nerves.
The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the __________.
Spinal nerves are all classified as __________.
The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains sensory fibers.
The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves.
External strabismus and ptosis could be caused by damage to the oculomotor nerve.
The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.
Bell’s palsy is ________.
characterized by paralysis of facial muscles
Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all except the ________.
Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?
A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?
David, an aspiring baseball player, was struck on the left side of his face with a fastball pitch. He was not wearing a safety helmet. His zygomatic arch was crushed, as well as parts of the temporal bone. Following the accident and reconstructive surgery, he noted that his left lower eyelid was still drooping and the corner of his mouth sagged. What nerve damage did he sustain?
Facial nerve damage on his left side
A nurse is asked about the cause of the excruciating pain of tic douloureux. How should the nurse answer?
The excruciating pain is caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. Pressure on the trigeminal nerve root can turn normal stimuli, like tooth brushing, into painful stimuli.
The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers.
The cranial nerve with a cervical origin (spinal cord) is the ________.
Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?
Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?
The phrenic nerve serves the __________.
In carpal tunnel syndrome, the __________ is compressed.
Hiccups could occur if there was irritation or damage to the ______.
motor branches of ventral rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
The brachial plexus can be palpated at the lower lateral border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Injury to the brachial plexus could cause weakness or paralysis to all of the following EXCEPT the ______.
In carpal tunnel syndrome, there may be tingling and numbness in the thumb due to compression of the ______.
cutaneous branches of the median nerve
Damage to the ulnar nerve could result in the inability to ______.
flex the wrist
If “wrist drop” were to appear, there would also be an increased probability of ______.
inability to extend the forearm
A herniated lumbar disc could interfere with ______.
skin sensations from the lateral thigh
skin sensations from the medial thigh
adduction of the thigh
Sciatica has no direct affect on ______.
control of the adductor longus
The meningeal branch of a spinal nerve actually reenters the vertebral canal to innervate the meninges and blood vessels.
The musculocutaneous nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus.
The dorsal ramus consists only of motor fibers bringing information to the spinal cord.
Dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves.
Dorsal and ventral rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibers.
Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups.
The obturator nerve branches from the sacral plexus.
Which of the following nerves does not arise from the brachial plexus?
The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the ________ nerve.
Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order):
roots, trunks, divisions, cords
A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ________.
Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the ________.
Striking the “funny bone” is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the ________.
The sciatic nerve is a combination of which two nerves?
common fibular and tibial
The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?
If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?
a complete loss of voluntary movement
Ralph sustained a leg injury in a bowling accident and had to use crutches. Unfortunately, he never took the time to learn how to use them properly. After two weeks of use, he noticed his fingers were becoming numb. Then he noticed his arms were getting weaker and had a tingling sensation. What could be his problem?
Compression of the radial nerve (in the region of the armpit) may cause temporary cessation of nervous transmission, often called “Saturday night paralysis.”
Which nerve is compressed in carpal tunnel syndrome?
A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in ________.
What type of nerve fibers are found in the ventral ramus of a spinal nerve?
both sensory and motor
The primary nerve that controls breathing is found in which nerve plexus?
The thickest and longest nerve in the body is the __________.
Which of the following lists the hierarchy of motor control from lowest to highest level of control?
segmental level, projection level, precommand level
Which structure is involved in the segmental level of motor control?
Somatic reflexes activate __________.
The knee-jerk reflex is an example of a __________.
The cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved in regulating motor activity, starting
and stopping movements, and coordinating postural movements.
What parts of the brain ultimately plan and coordinate complex motor activities?
cerebellum and basal nuclei
Which of the following does NOT occur as people age?
peripheral nerves die off
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.
Which of the following is the correct simple spinal reflex arc?
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
Inborn or intrinsic reflexes are ________.
involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior
Anatomically, all general sensory receptors are encapsulated nerve endings.
A knee-jerk reflex that is unusually strong may be caused by ______.
transmission of excitatory signals from the brain to the neurons that form the femoral nerve
Reciprocal inhibition means that while one sensory nerve is stimulated, another sensory neuron for synergistic muscles in the same area is inhibited and cannot respond.
The patellar “knee jerk” reflex is an example of a(n) ________.
A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a ________.
Golgi tendon reflex
In a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________.
Which reflex is important for maintaining muscle tone?
Which reflex is triggered when a stranger suddenly grasps your arm?
CNS nerve fibers lack the intrinsic capacity to regenerate, while PNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.
A joint and the muscle that moves that joint tend to be innervated by different nerves.