Blood glucose is the primary source of energy in the human body, and is theonly source of energy for the brain. The glucose is transported all overthe body via the blood plasma and if there is too much present it is storedin the kidneys as glycogen (polysaccharide carbohydrate).
The level of blood glucose has to be maintained by the body. Too higherlevels or too lower levels will cause problems in the body. The osmoticproperties of the cell will be affected, if there are high amounts ofglucose outside the cell and low amounts inside the cell, which will meanthere are higher amounts of water inside the cell as there is outside thecell, so water will move out of the cell and the cells will begin toshrink. Another big problem is that the cells will not be able to respireproperly as they will not have the correct amounts of energy. This can beparticularly dangerous to the brain cells as their only source of energycomes from glucose. Cells take up the glucose through insulin this issecreted by the Islet B cells (? cells). When the cells do not secreteenough insulin the body cannot take up the glucose properly and problemswill begin to occur.
When the production of insulin in the body starts to break down or ifenough is not produced, problems will occur. This problem is classed as adisease Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes). There are 2 types of diabetes:type 1, diabetes also referred to as Juvenile- onset diabetes or insulindependent diabetes. This type of diabetes starts at a young age and cancause many complications. The pancreas doesn’t secrete any insulin bodythis then causes the cues in the body not to accept any glucose, so thecell starts to metabolise. Se the next available energy source proteins andfats in the body (this process is know as gluconecgenesis), which leads toa build up of keto-acids in the body, these lower the PH in the body andthis can lead to a person going in to a coma.
Type 1, diabetes can be caused by a genetic disorder where the genetic codefor the production of insulin is not present or there is a deficiency inthe genetic coding. The reason why this occurs is a person may get aspecific virus and when the white blood cells go to destroy it they alsodestroy any infection and cells, if there is no cells present any insulincan be secreted. Type 2, diabetes is the other type of diabetes that canoccur. This is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or maturityonset insulin. This type of diabetes is normally seen in lot patients andin obese people. Type 2, diabetes also seems to be passed on genetically.
With this type of diabetes, insulin is produced from the pancreas but thereisn’t enough or don’t respond receptors on the cells so only small amountsof glucose are taken in by the cells. This type of diabetes can goundetected for a long time and people will hardly notice it. Currently type2, diabetes is being diagnosed is children a lot more, but this is believedto be linked with obesity. The symptoms are, the same for both types ofdiabetes mellitus.
The symptoms include: o Tiredness- unable to concentrate o Acidosis occurs- affects the PH and enzymes begin to denature.
o Muscle waste ages o Loss in weight o Constantly thirstyDiabetes mellitus cannot be cured (at the moment) but both are treateddifferently. Type 1, diabetes is treated with regular insulin jabs. Type 2,diabetes can be treated through a balanced diet. In both causes it is bestto have a well balanced diet and to eat small amounts regularly. This wellbalanced diet has to be maintained. During the day the levels of glucose inthe body are constantly changing this has to do with the food eaten. Aftera meal the amount of glucose in your blood will increase, this is whereinsulin would be secreted in a normal person, but in a person with diabetesthis would not occur and the glucose levels would remain high, due to thisthe cells in the body would shrink due the osmotic properties of the cells.
See figure 2Figure 2 biology 2 bookLegendThis shows how the blood glucose levels differ during the day and what thebody does to counter act this.
Diabetic people will have to monitor their own blood glucose levels. Theperson taking a number of blood samples during the day can do this, theywill be able to see if there glucose levels are too high or too low.
Currently advancements are being made to control diabetes or even cure it.
A new drug called ISO-1 is said to be a potential cure for type-1 diabetes.
This works by blocking the protein that plays a major role in the immunesystem, which eventually causes the destruction of the beta cells. Usingthis drug will stop the destruction of the cells, so they can continue tosecrete insulin. This has only been tested on mice that were geneticallymodified so that they would develop diabetes, 90% of these mice did notdevelop diabetes. It is still awaiting trails in humans. currently peoplewith diabetes are having to have insulin jabs a number of times a day. Anew device has been created that makes the diabetics life easier. The pumpdelivers small amounts of insulin throughout the day so the body can absorbit in to the cells more effectively, so now people can decide when theywant to eat and don’t have to schedule it with there jabs. The pump worksby pumping small amounts of insulin in to the blood stream throughout theday. It is pumped into the body via a plastic pipe, which is put under theskin near the abdomen. The drug is a potential cure and in a number ofyears the doctors have said that they can modify the drug so that it can beeffectively used in human.
Bibliography1) http://www.diabetes.org.uk/home.htm2) http://www.minimed.com/patientfam/pf_insulinpumptherapy.shtml3) Coster S, Gulliford MC, Seed PT, Powrie JK, Swaminathan R, MonitoringBlood Glucose Control In Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review, 20004) Dr Antony Leeds, Professor Jennie Brand-Miller, A Glucose Revolution,19965) http://www.diabetes.org/home.jsp6) http://my.webmd.com/content/article/56/659027) Mary Jones, Jennifer Gregory, Cambridge Advanced Sciences Biology 2,2001word count 1096