The undermentioned paper describes the bacteriums Lactococcus lactis antecedently referred to as Streptococcus lactis. Lactococcus lactis is used in the devising of dairy merchandises. The most common of these merchandises are milk, cheese, and yoghurt. Research workers are besides looking at the potency of Lactococcus lactis to be used in concurrence with vaccinums. I chose to compose about this bug because of the many utilizations and interesting facts. Lactococcus lactis has served humanity in the yesteryear ; soon it remains utile in many ways and has the possible to be even a greater plus in the hereafter.
Lactococcus lactis ( L. lactis ) , is a lactic acid bacteriums ( LAB ) that is nonpathogenic and Gram-positive. The genus Lactococcus is closely related to the genus Streptococcus and is used extensively in the zymosis of milk. It is besides the best-characterized lactic acid bacteria ( Bolotin, Wincker, Mauger, Jaillon, Malarme, Weissenbach, Ehrlich, & A ; Sorokin, 2001 ) . By nature, L. lactis inhabits a map connected to works and animate being surfaces and the GI piece of land of the animate being. On works surfaces, it is inactive but it is believed to reproduce in the GI piece of land after being swallowed ( Bolotin et al. , 2001 ) . In comparing, research workers have termed what they call a “ domesticated ” species of L. lactis. This species is used in the devising of dairy merchandises such as cheese, buttermilk, and yoghurt. It besides serves a different map that is identified by the usage of engineering such as “ fast growing and rapid production of lactic acid in milk ” ( Bolotin et al. , 2001 ) .
Streptococcus lies under the Domain Bacteria. The term strepto agencies chained and the term cocci means unit of ammunition, hence streptococcus cells are spherical and occur in braces or ironss that can be short or long in length ( Breed, Murray, & A ; Smith, 1957, p. 508 ) . Up until 1985, L. lactis was originally classified under the genus Streptococcus ( MicrobeWiki, n.d. ) . They are non-motile, do non bring forth spores and have a “ fermentative metamorphosis ” ( Bacteria Genomes, n.d. ) . They besides have no pigment ; nevertheless, in some strains a brick-red or xanthous pigment may happen under certain environments ( Breed et al. , 1957, p. 508 ) . “ A fermentable saccharide or polyhydroxy intoxicant is indispensable for suited growing in unreal media ” ( Breed et al. , 1957, p. 508 ) . “ The mean cocci is little about 1 I?m in diameter ” ( Engelkirk & A ; Engelkirk, 2011 ) , which may change from unsmooth to smooth to mucoid ” ( Breed et al. , 1957, pps. 508-509 ) . “ Carbohydrate agitation is homofermentative with dextro rotator lactic acid as the chief terminal consequence. Carbon dioxide is produced in really little sums or non at all from sugar agitation ” ( Breed et al. , 1957, p. 509 ) . With regard to their nutrition, all streptococcuss are peculiar and “ and necessitate a figure of the B vitamins and aminic acids for growing ” ( Breed et al. , 1957, p. 509 ) . Speciess have their ain nutritionary demands. “ Streptococcus is by and large found wheresoever natural substances that contain sugars are accumulated. They occur on a regular basis within the oral cavity and bowels of worlds and animate beings, in dairy and other nutrient merchandises, and in works juices that are fermenting ” ( Breed et al. , 1957, p. 509 ) .
“ The genome of L. lactis is a round chromosome with 2,365,589 base brace, where 86 % of the genome codification for protein, 1.4 % for RNA, and 12.6 % for noncoding part. 64.2 % of the cistrons codification for known functional proteins and 20.1 % of the cistrons for known protein with unknown map. The staying 15.7 % of the cistrons are unidentified proteins that may be alone to the Lactococcus ” ( MicrobeWiki, n.d. ) . Harmonizing to Todar, ( 2011 ) , the races of L. lactis are used extensively as theoretical accounts in lactic acid bacteriums research. One races, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris is characterized by the research lab strains LM0230 and MG1363, and it is best preferred for the devising of difficult cheeses. The other races, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis is considered the “ workhorse strain ” and is represented by IL1403 ( Todar, 2011 ) . This subspecies is best preferred for the devising of soft cheeses. Todar ( 2011 ) besides suggests that “ get downing in 2001, these strains have been sequenced ” . In other words, there is a better apprehension of how these bacteriums are associated with their map.
Finally, the ability to compare genomes has led to more cognition of how the assortment of Lactococcus strains adapt to their environments. This ability to compare has besides lead to unforeseen findings. It has been suggested that this “ bacteria can execute aerophilic respiration and can undergo horizontal cistron transmittal by the procedure of transmutation ” ( Todar, 2011 ) . With that, it is possible that Lactococcus lactis can be used to better minuscular things such as “ spirit, texture, and saving of 10 million lbs of cheese that is produced yearly ” ( Todar, 2011 ) .
It is of import to be able to analyze and decode the features of bacteriums in order to “ supply informations for designation and categorization ” ( Engelkirk & A ; Engelkirk, 2011 ) .
As antecedently mentioned, Lactococcus lactis ( L. lactis ) is “ one of the most of import microorganisms in the dairy industry ” ( Bacteria Genomes, n.d. ) . It is indispensable in the development and production of merchandises by this industry. When L. lactis is added to milk, “ the bacteria uses enzymes to bring forth energy molecules ( called ATP ) from milk sugar. The by-product of ATP energy production is lactic acid ” ( Bacteria Genomes, n.d. ) . This lactic acid that is produced by the bacteria causes the milk to clabber and divide to bring forth curds, which is so used for cheese and whey ( Bacteria Genomes, n.d. ) . The specific types of dairy that use L. lactis for its fabrication include the cheeses Cheddar, Colby, Camembert, Roquefort, Brie, bungalow cheese, pick cheese, and other dairy merchandises such as butter, buttermilk, rancid pick, and kefir ( Todar, 2011 ) . It is besides accepted as a beginning of vegetable agitation for pickled Cucumis sativuss and sauerkraut and for other fermented liquids such as beer and vino.
L. lactis has besides been considered for the development of presenting vaccinums. “ The bacteria can be genetically engineered to bring forth proteins from infective species on their cell surfaces ” ( Todar, 2011 ) . This is done by shooting an animate being with a modified strain of the bacteria by manner of a rhinal spray. An immune response to the strain is obtained which provides an eventual unsusceptibility to the pathogen ( Todar, 2011 ) .
Because L. lactis is non-pathogenic and non-colonizing it is a promising campaigner for presenting biologically active proteins by mucosal paths. In a study by Chinese research workers it is described that “ recombinant L. lactis is applicable for the development of unrecorded mucosal vaccinum against hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) ” ( Zhang, Zhong, & A ; Huan, 2011 ) . In a lab trial mice were given an unwritten immunisation and it induced both mucosal and systemic immune responses against HBV at the same magnitude. These consequences indicated that the lactococci-derived vaccinums could be attractive campaigners as alternate HBV vaccinums for forestalling hepatitis B ” ( Zhang, Zhong, & A ; Huan, 2011 ) . The increased research of L. lactis would be good to people in developing states and where illness and other diseases is high.
In decision, the bacteria Lactococcus lactis appears versatile. The current research suggests that, with more geographic expedition, L. lactis can be used to better the quality of dairy merchandises every bit good as the wellness of persons by manner of vaccinums.