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Drug And Polymers Relating To Prostate Biology

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Tamsulosin hydrochloride, a sulfamoylphenethylamine-derivative, alpha -adrenoceptor blocker with improved specificity for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors of the prostate, and is normally used to handle BPH ( benign prostate hyperplasia ) . Drug molecule is commercially available in a racemic mixture of 2 isomers, and is pharmacologically related to Prazosin, Cardura and Hytrin. Though, distinct these drugs, tamsulosin have a higher affinity for the alpha-1A- sympathomimetic receptors, which are largely situated in vascular smooth musculus part. Some pharmacological Surveies prove that tamsulosin has approximately 12 times greater affinity for alpha-1 sympathomimetic receptors in the prostate than in the aorta, which might ensue in a decreased frequence of inauspicious cardiovascular effects.

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Mechanism of action ( MOA ) : All alpa-adrenergic blockers produce important autumn of blood force per unit area in patients with indispensable high blood pressure. Tamsulosin is a selective adversary for alpha-1A and alpha-1B-adrenoceptors in the prostate status, prostate capsule, prostate urethra and vesica cervix. At least three distinguishable alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been identified: I±-1A, I±-1B and I±-1D ; their distribution differs between tissue and human variety meats.

About 70 % of the I±1-receptors in human prostate are of the I±-1A subtype. Blocking of these receptors causes relaxation of smooth musculuss in the prostate and vesica cervix, and therefore curtail urinary escape in work forces.

Absorption: Absorption of tamsulosin HCI from capsules incorporating 0.4 milligram is basically complete ( & gt ; 90 % ) following unwritten disposal under fasting conditions.

Toxicity: LD50 = 650 mg/kg ( in rats )

Protein binding: Approximately 94 % -99 %

Biotransformation: Tamsulosin HCI is widely metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver ; nevertheless, the pharmacokinetic profile of the metabolites in worlds has non been well-known.

t1/2: Elimination half life is 5-7 hours.

Path of riddance: Tamsulosin hydrochloride is widely metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme in the liver and less than 10 % of the dosage was excreted in urine unchanged. Metabolites of tamsulosin hydrochloride undergo broad junction to sulfate or glucuronide predating to nephritic elimination. On disposal of the radiolabeled dosage of tamsulosin hydrochloride to 4 healthy voluntaries, approximately 97 % of the administered radiation was recovered, with urine ( 76 % ) stand foring the primary path of elimination compared to fecal matters ( 21 % ) within 168 hours.

Volume of distributions: 16 L [ endovenous disposal to ten healthy male grownups ]

Clearance: 2.88 L/h

Table 6: Drug- Drug interactions




Use of Tamsulosin and Alfuzosin Concomitantly may consequences in linear antihypertensive effects. By and large this therapy is non recommended here.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP3A4/2D6 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Cimetidine induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP3A4 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Clarithromycin induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP2D6 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Clozapine induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP2D6 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like cocaine induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP3A4 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Cyclosporine induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP3A4/2D6 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Isoniazid induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP3A4/2D6 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Ketoconazole induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP3A4 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Norfloxacin induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP2D6 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Pioglitazone induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP3A4 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Verapamil induction and alteration of dosage.


Metamorphosis and clearance of tamsulosin may be reduced by CYP3A4 inhibitor. Changes in inauspicious effects were monitored in conditions like Tetracycline induction and alteration of dosage.

Table 7: List of marketed sublingual tablets



Isosorbide Dinitrate







Fentanyl ( as citrate )







Subutex 2mg and 8mg SUBLINGUAL TABLETS

Suboxone 2mg and 8mg SUBLINGUAL TABLETS

zolpidem tartrate

Edluar 5mg or 10mg SUBLINGUAL TABLETS



FROM: http/ : dailymed.nlm.nih.gov


Official web site of the Drug Bank: Tamsulosin hydrochloride ( DB00706 ) .


4.2.1 ETHYLCELLULOSE ( Raymond et al. , 2003 )

Nonproprietary Name callings

BP: Ethylcellulose

PhEur: Ethylcellulosum

USPNF: Ethylcellulose


Aquacoat ECD ; Aqualon ; E462 ; Ethocel ; Surelease.

Chemical Name and CAS Registry Number

Cellulose ethyl ether [ 9004-57-3 ]

Chemical construction

Ethyl cellulose, CAS # : 9004-57-3

Figure 6: Structure of ethyl cellulose

Functional class

Coating agent ; seasoning fixative ; tablet binder ; tablet filler ; viscousness increasing agent.

Typical belongingss

Density: 0.4gm/cm3

Glass passage temperature: 129-1330C

Specific gravitation: 1.12-1.15g/cm3

Viscosity: 5-100m Ps ( 7-100cp )


Ethyl cellulose is practically indissoluble in glycerol, propene ethanediol and water.ethyl cellulose that contains less than 46.5 % of ethoxy group is freely soluble in trichloromethane, methylacetate, tetrahydrofuran, aromatic hydrocarbons and ethanol.freely soluble in ethyl alcohol, ethyl ethanoate, methyl alcohol and methylbenzene.

Drug release through ethyl cellulose surfacing dose signifiers can be controlled by diffusion mechanism and is a map of wall thickness and surface country of surfacing thickness.

Stability and storage

It is a stable and somewhat hygroscopic stuff, and is chemically immune to bases and some salt solutions.

Ethyl cellulose is stored at a temperature non transcending 320C in a dry country off from all beginnings of heat.


Incompatible with paraffin wax and microcrystalline wax.


Ethyl cellulose is manufactured by handling purified cellulose with an alkali solution, followed by ethylation of the base cellulose with chloroethane.

Applications in pharmaceutical preparations

Hydrophobic coating agent for tablets and capsules

To modify the release of drug

To dissemble the unpleasant gustatory sensation of drug

To better the stableness of preparations

Thickening agent in picks, lotions and gels

In cosmetics and nutrient merchandises

Binder in tablets

Table 8: Uses of ethyl cellulose


Concentration ( % )


10-20 %

Sustained release tablet coating

3-20 %

Tablet coating

1-3 %

Tablet granulation

1-3 %


Non toxic, non allergic, non irritant stuff

Managing safeguards

Ethyl cellulose is combustible, and hence it is of import to forestall dust of ethyl cellulose from making potentially explosive degrees in air besides it is irritant to eyes.

4.2.2 Pectin ( www.iscanmy food.com )

A. pectin ( from greek-pektiko, ” congealed, curdled ” ) is a structural heterropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell wall of tellurian workss. It was foremost stray and described in 1825 by henri braconnot. It is produced commercially as a white to light brown pulverization, chiefly extracted from citrous fruit fruits and is used in nutrient as jelling agent peculiarly in jams and gelatins. It is besides used in fillings, Sweet, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks and as a beginning of dietetic fibre.

B. Biology

In works cells, pectin consists of a complex set of polyoses that are present in most primary cell walls and peculiarly abundant in the non-woody parts of tellurian workss. Pectin is present throughout primary cell walls but besides in the in-between gill between works cells where it helps to adhere cells together.

The sum, construction and chemical composing of pectin differs between workss, with in a works over clip and in different parts of a works. During maturing, pectin is broken down by the enzymes pectinase and pectinesterase ; in this procedure the fruit becomes softer as the in-between gill interruptions down and cells become detached from each other. A similar procedure of cell separation caused by pectin dislocation occurs in the abscission zone of the leafstalks of deciduous workss at leaf autumn.

In human digestion, pectin goes through the little bowel more or less integral.pectin is therefore a soluble dietetic ingestion of pectin has been shown to cut down blood cholesterin degrees. The mechanism appears to be an addition of viscousness in the enteric piece of land, taking to a decreased soaking up of cholesterin from gall or nutrient.

In the big bowel and colon, microorganisms degrade pectin and liberate short-chain fatty acids that have positive influence on wellness ( prebiotic consequence )


The characteristic construction of pectin is a additive concatenation of alpha- ( 1-4 ) -linked D-galacturonic acid that forms the pectin-back bone, a gay galactturonan. Into this anchor, there are parts where galacturonic acid is replaced by ( 1-2 ) -linked L-rhamnose. From the rhamnose residues, sidechains of assorted impersonal sugars branch off. This type of pectin is called rhamnogalacturonan. Up to every 25th galacturonic acid in the chief concatenation is replaced with rhamnose. Some streaches consist of jumping galacturonic acid and rhamnose- ” hairy parts ” , others with lower denseness of rhamnose- ” smooth parts ” . The impersonal sugars are chiefly D-galactose, L-arabinose and D-xylose, the types and proportions of impersonal sugars changing with the beginning of pectin.

Rhamnogalacturonans ( RGs ) are a group of closely related cell wall pectic polyoses that contain a anchor of the reiterating disaccharide: 4 ) -a-D-GalpA- ( 1,2 ) -I±-L-Rhap- ( 1,2 ) . The term rhamnogalecturonan I ( RG-I ) is typically used to mention to this pectin polyose.

Another structural type of pectin is rhamnogalacturonan II ( RG-II ) , which is a less frequent composite, extremely branched polyose.

Isolated pectin has a molecular weight of typically 60-130,000 g/mol, changing with beginning and extraction conditions.

In nature, around 80 % of carboxyl groups of galactronic acid are esterified with methyl alcohol. This proportion is decreased more or less during pectin extraction. The ratio of esterified to non-esterified galacturonic acid determines the behaviour of pectin in nutrient applications. This is why pectins are classified as high-VS. Low-ester pectins or in short HM vs. LM- pectins, with more or less than half of all the galacturonic acid esterified.

The non-esterified galacturonic acid units can be either free acids ( carboxyl groups ) or salts with Na, K or Ca. The salts of partly esterified pectins are called pectinates, if the grade of esterification is below 5 % the salts are called pectates, the indissoluble acerb signifier, and pectic acid.

Some workss like sugar Beta vulgaris, murphies and pears contain pectins with acetylated galacturonic acid in add-on to methyl esters. Acetylation prevents formation but increases the stabilizing and emulsifying effects of pectin.

Chemical construction

hypertext transfer protocol: //sci-toys.com/ingredients/pectin_2.gif

Figure 7: Structure of pectin

D. Beginnings and production

Apples, Cydonia oblonga, plums, Ribes uva-crispas, oranges and other citrous fruit fruits contain much pectin, while soft fruits like cherries, grapes and strawberries contain small pectin.

Typical degrees of pectin in workss are ( fresh weight )

Apples, 1-1.5 %

Apricot,1 %

Cherries,0.4 %

Oranges, 0.5-3.5 %

Carrot approx. 1.4 % citrous fruit Peels,30 %

The chief raz-materials for pectin production are dried citrus Peel or apple pomance, both byproducts of juice production.pomance from sugar Beta vulgaris is besides used to a little extent.

Applications of pectin in pharmaceutical preparations ( www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules. )

1 ) As an excipients in many different types of dose signifiers such as movie coating of colon-specific drug bringing systems when assorted with ethyl cellulose.

2 ) Micro particulate bringing systems for ophthalmic readyings and matrix type transdermic spots.

3 ) As a high possible hydrophilic polymeric stuff for controlled release matrix drug bringing systems, but its aqueous solubility contributes to premature and fast release of the drug from these matrices.

4 ) Depending on the type and construction of the pectin molecule, pectins can gel in assorted ways. Geling can be induced by acid or cross-linking with Ca ion or by reaction with alginate. When a pectin solution is titrated with acid, the ionisation of carboxylate groups on pectins is pent-up doing pectin molecules to no longer drive each other over their full ironss. The pectins can therefore tie in over a part of their ironss to organize acid-pectin gels. Gel organizing systems have been investigated widely for sustained drug bringing.

5 ) A mixture of xyloglucan with pectin resulted in an in situ gel organizing system with sustained paracetamol drug bringing in rats.

4.2.3 Povidone ( Raymond et al. , 2003 )

Nonproprietary Name callings:

BP: Povidone

JP: povidone

ph Eur: povidone

USP: povidone


E1201 ; Kollidon ; plasdone ; poly [ 1- ( 2-oxo-1-pyrolidinyl ) ethene ] ; polyvidone ; polyvinylpyrrolidone ; pvp ; 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidonone polymer.

Chemical name and CAS Registry figure

1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidinone homopolymer [ 9003-39-8 ]

Chemical construction

chemical construction

Figure 8: Structure of polyvinyl pyrrolidone

Functional class:

Disintegrant ; disintegration assistance ; suspending agent ; tablet binder.

Typical belongingss:

Acidity/alkalinity: pH 3.0-7.0 ( 5 % w/v aqueous solution ) .

Density ( majority ) :0.29-0.39g/cm3for plasdone

Density ( tapped ) : 0.39-0.54g/cm3

Density ( true ) : 1.180 g/cm3


20 g/s for povidone k-15

16g/s for povidone k-29/32

Melting point:

Softens at 150A°c

Moisture content:

Povidone is really hygroscopic, important sums of wet being absorbed at low comparative humidnesss.

Particle size distribution:

Kollidon 25/30: 90 % & gt ; 50I?m, 50 % & gt ; 100I?m, 5 % & gt ; 200 I?m

Kollidon 90: 90 % & gt ; 200I?m, 95 % & gt ; 250I?m.


Freely soluble in acids, trichloromethane, ethyl alcohol, ketones, methyl alcohol and H2O ; practically indissoluble in quintessence, hydrocarbons and mineral oils. In H2O, the concentration of a solution is limited merely by the viscousness of the ensuing solution, which is a map of the k-value.

Viscosity ( dynamic ) :

The viscousness of aqueous povidone solutions depends on both the concentration and the molecular weight of the polymer employed.

Table 9: Dynamic viscousness of 10 % w/v aqueous povidone ( kollidon ) solutions at 20I?0c


Dynamic viscousness ( thousand dad s )











Stability and storage conditions:

Povidone darkens to some extent on warming at 1500 degree Celsius, with a decrease in aqueous solubility. It is stable to a short rhythm of heat exposure around 110-1300c steam sterilisation of an aqueous solution does non change its belongingss. Aqueous solutions are susceptible to model growing and accordingly necessitate the add-on of suited preservatives.

Povidone may be stored under ordinary conditions without undergoing decomposition or debasement. However, since the pulverization is hygroscopic. It should be stored in an air tight container in a cool, dry topographic point.


Povidone is compatible in solution with broad scope of inorganic salts, natural and man-made rosins, and other chemicals. It forms molecular adducts in solution with sulfathiazole, Na salicylate, salicylic acid, Phenobarbital, tannic acid, and other compounds ; the efficaciousness of some preservatives, e.g. , sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate, may be adversely affected by the formation of composites with povidone.

Methods of industry:

Povidone is manufactured by the Reppe procedure. Acetylene and methanals are reacted in the presence of a extremely active Cu acetylide accelerator to organize butynediol, which is hydrogenated to butanediol and so cyclodehydrogenated to organize butyrolactone. Pyrrolidone is produced by responding butyrolactone with ammonium hydroxide. This is followed by a vinylation reaction in which pyrrolidone and ethyne are reacted under force per unit area. The monomer, vinyl pyrrolidone, is so polymerized in the presence of a combination of accelerators to bring forth povidone.

Application in pharmaceutical preparation:

1 ) Povidone solutions are used as binders in wet granulation procedures.

2 ) Povidone is besides added to pulverize blends in the dry signifier and granulated in situ by the add-on of H2O, intoxicant or hydroalcoholic solutions.

3 ) Povidone is used as a solubilizer in unwritten and parenteral preparations ( to heighten disintegration of ill soluble drugs from solid-dosage signifiers )

4 ) Povidone solution may besides used as surfacing agents.

5 ) Used as a suspending, stabilising or viscousness increasing agent in a figure of topical and unwritten suspensions and solutions.

Table 10: Uses of povidone


Concentration ( % )

Carrier for drugs


Distributing agent

Up to 5

Eye beads


Suspending agent

Up to 5

Tablet binder, dilutants ( or ) coating agent



Non-toxic, nonirritant and no sensitisation. Temporary acceptable day-to-day consumption for povidone has been set by the WHO at up to 25 mg/kg organic structure weight

LD50 ( mouse, IP ) : 12g/kg

Managing safeguards ;

Observe normal safeguards appropriate to the fortunes and measure of stuff handled. Eye protection, Gloves and a dust mask are recommended.

4.2.4 I?- cyclodextrin ( Raymond et al. , 2003 )

Non proprietary names:

BP: Betadex

PhEur: Beta dexum

USP NF: Beta dex


I?- cyclodextrins: beta-cycloamylose ; beta-dextrin ; cavamax W7 drug company ; Cyclo heptaamylose ; cyclo heptaglucan ; cyclo maltoheptose ; Kleptose.

Chemical Name and CAS Registry Number

I?- cyclodextrin [ 7585-39-9 ]

Empirical expression

I?- cyclodextrin C 42H70O35

Chemical construction

Degree centigrades: UserssandeepDesktopUntitledBETA CYCLODEXTRIN.png

Figure 9: Structure of I?-cyclodextrin


Cylcodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides incorporating at least sox D- ( + ) -Glucopyranose units attached by I± ( 1a†’4 ) glucoside bonds.

Cyclodextrins occurs as white, practically odorless, all right crystalline pulverizations, holding a somewhat sweet gustatory sensation, some derived functions occurs as formless pulverizations.

Molecular weight:


Functional class:

Solubilizing agent ; stabilising agent.

Typical Properties:

Compressibility: 21.0-44.0 % for I?- cyclodextrin

Density ( majority ) : 0.523g/cm3

( Tapped ) : 0.754g/cm3

( True ) : — –

Melting point: 255-265o degree Celsius

Moisture content: 13.0-15.0 % W/W

Particle size distribution: 7.0-45.0I?m


I?- Cyclodextrin: soluble 1 in 200 parts of propene ethanediol, 1 in 50 0f H2O at 20o degree Celsiuss,

1 in 20 at 50o degree Celsiuss ; practically indissoluble in propanone, ethyl alcohol ( 95 % ) and methylene chloride.

Specific rotary motion [ I± ] 025: I?- cyclodextrin: +162.0o

Surface tenseness ( at 25oc ) :

I?- Cyclodextrin: 71mN/m ( 71 dynes/cm ) .


The activity of some anti microbic preservatives in aqueous solution can be reduced in the presence of hydroxyl propyl- I?-cyclodextrin.

Method of industry:

Cyclodextrin are manufactured by the enzymatic debasement of amylum utilizing specialised bacteriums. For illustration, I?- cyclodextrin is produced by the action of the enzyme cyclodextrin glucosyl transferase upon amylum or a starch hydrolysate. An organic dissolver is used to direct the reaction that produces I?- cyclodextrin, and to forestall the growing of micro-organisms during the enzymatic reaction. The indissoluble composite of I?- cyclodextrin and organic dissolver is separated from the non-cyclic amylum, and the organic dissolver is removed in vacuo so that less than 1ppm of dissolver remains in the I?- cyclodextrin. The I?- cyclodextrin is so C treated and crystallized from H2O, dried and collected.

Applications in pharmaceutical preparations:

1. I?- cyclodextrin used in unwritten tablet preparations, both in moisture granulations and direct compaction processes.

2. I?- cyclodextrin is considered to be non-toxic when administered orally, and is chiefly used in tablet and capsule preparation.

3. I?- cyclodextrin ( least soluble ) is able to organize inclusion composites with a no. of molecules of pharmaceutical involvement.

4. I?- cyclodextrin is nephrotoxic and should non be used in parenteral preparation.


Basically non-toxic and non-irritant stuff.

Severe nephrotoxicity observed by I?- cyclodextrin.

No grounds to propose that cyclodextrins are mutagenic or teratogenic.

Managing safeguards:

Cyclodextrins are all right organic pulverizations and should be handled in a well-ventilated environment.

Attempts should be made to restrict the coevals of dust, which can be explosive.

4.2.5 Hydroxy propylmethyl cellulose ( Raymond et al. , 2003 )


Benecel HPMC ; Cellulose hydroxyroylmetyhl ether ; E464 ; HPMC ; Methocel ; Metolose ; Pharma coat ; Spectracel 6 ; Tylopur.

Non- proprietary Name callings:

USP and BP: Hypermellosee

JP: Hydroxy propyl metyl cellulose

Ph.Eur: Hyperrmellosum.

Chemical name and CAS register name:

Cellulose, 2-hydroxypropyl methyl quintessence [ 9004-65-3 ]

Chemical construction

Degree centigrades: UserssandeepDesktopFile Hypromellose.png – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia_filesHypromellose.png

Figure 10: Structure of Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose

Molecular weight:



Odourless, tasteless, white/creamy, white coloured hempen or farinaceous pulverization.

Functional class:

Coating agent, movie former, rate-controlling polymer for sustained release ; stabilising agent ; suspending agent ; tablet binder ; viscousness increasing agent.

Applications in pharmaceutical engineering:

1. Widely used in unwritten and topical preparations

2. In unwritten merchandises as tablet binder ( 2-5 % ) in movie coating and as drawn-out release matrix.

3. High viscousness classs may be used to retard the release of drugs from a matrix at degrees

of 10- 80 % w/w in tablets and capsules.

4. Used as a suspending and inspissating agent in topical solutions, peculiarly ophthalmic

( 0.45- 1 % w/w ) readyings.

5. Besides used as an emulsifier, suspending agent and stabilising agent in topical gels

and unctions.

6. Used in industry of capsules as an adhesive in plastic patchs and as a wetting agent for difficult contact lenses.

Typical belongingss:


Soluble in cold H2O but indissoluble in trichloromethane, ethyl alcohol ( 95 % ) and ether, but soluble in a mixture of ethyl alcohol and methylene chloride, mixture of methyl alcohol and CH2Cl2, mixture of H2O and intoxicant.

Ph: 5.5- 8 for 1 % w/w aqueous solution.

Melting point:

Browns at 190-200oc ; chars at 225-230o degree Celsius.

Glass passage temperature ; 170-180oc


Tapped: 0.557g/cc

Majority: 0.341g/cc

Stability and storage conditions:

It is stable stuff although it is hygroscopic after drying. It should be stored in a well closed container, in a cool and dry topographic point.


With oxidising agents


Non-toxic and non-irritant stuff although inordinate unwritten ingestion may hold a laxative consequence.

Table 11: Methocel Application Grid:



Classs used

Bulk laxatives

High viscousness classs of methocel K premium can be used efficaciously for their H2O keeping belongings

A4M, K4M, K100M

Creams, Gels and unctions

Good prurience at low concentrations, good solution lucidity.

A4M, K4M, E4M, F4M,

Ocular readyings

Good prurience at low concentrations, good solution lucidity



Efficient thickener, good suspension of solids

A4M, K4M, E4M, F4M


Good microbial opposition, good suspension of solids

A15C, A4M, K4M, K15M, F4M


Good microbial opposition, good suspension of solids

A15LV, E15LV, E5LV

Film former

Clarity, adhesion, tensile strength

E15LV, E5LV, E6LV, E50LV

Cite this Drug And Polymers Relating To Prostate Biology

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