Enzyme Lab Report Essay
The oxygen can be observed as bubbles comic Eng from the reaction site - Enzyme Lab Report Essay introduction. Catalane is found in many living tissues of organisms, including chicken liver. T he purpose of this experiment is to determine what changes in pH, temperature, and enzyme co concentration have on the rate catalane works to break down hydrogen peroxide. If the pH, temperature, or e enzyme concentration changes, then the reaction rate of catalane will either speed up or slow down.
Materials and Procedures Materials needed include 1 molar HCI solution, 1 molar Noah solution, 6 test tubes, measuring pipette, 1 Mol graduated cylinder, 40 ml 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, strait tagged razor blade, scissors, forceps, stirring rod, fresh liver, fresh apple, fresh potato, test tube h elders, ice bath, warm water bath, and boiling water bath. Place 2 ml of the 3% hydrogen peroxide solution into a clean test tube. Using f races and scissors, cut a small piece of liver and add it to the test tube.
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Push it into the hydrogen peroxide with a stirring rod. Observe the bubbles. Assume this reaction is rated 4 on a scale of 05. This rear action is the control group for the experiment. The 05 scale based on bubbles is the measurement technique e for each experiment. Pour off the liquid into a second test tube. This used liquid is the independent Varian able. Add more liver to this liquid. Record the reaction rate. The reaction rate will be the dependent Varian able in each experiment.
Add another 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide to the liver remaining in the first test tube. Record the reaction rate. B Place 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide in each of 3 clean test tubes and then add EAI chi of the three test substances (potato, apple, chicken) to the tubes. The three substances are the independent variables. As you add each test substance, record the reaction rate for each tube. C Put a piece of liver into the bottom of a clean test tube and cover it with a SMS all amount of water. Place this test tube in a boiling water bath for 5 minutes.
Remove the test tub e from the hot water bath, allow it to air cool, then pour out the water. The fact that the liver was boiled is the independent variable. Add 2 ml Of hydrogen peroxide. Use a destitute holder for hot test tubes. Record the re action rate. Put equal quantities of liver into 2 clean test tubes and 1 ml H2O into 2 other test tube s. Put one test tube of liver and one of H2O into an ice bath. Place the other set in a warm water bath (not b oiling). The temperature of each set of liver and peroxide is the independent variables.
After 3 minutes, pour e ACH tube of H2O into the corresponding tube of liver and observe the reaction. Record the reaction rat Add 2 ml hydrogen peroxide to each of 5 clean test tubes. Add 4 drops of HCI to the first test tube, 1 rope HCI and 3 ml water to second, 4 drops Noah to third, 1 drop Noah and 3 ml water to fourth, and 3 drops water to fifth. The independent variable is pH of the solution added to e ACH test tube. Add liver to each of the test tubes at the same time. Record the reaction rate of each tube.
Results,Data Collection, and Analysis The H2O fully reacted with the catalane in the first experiment because it did not react anymore when more catalane (liver) was added. However, the catalane was still present after the reaction because it converted additional H2O at the same reaction rate. The reaction rates of the three tests are in the following table: Us absence Rate Of Reaction (05) normal hydrogen peroxide and liver 4 reused hydrogen peroxide reused liver The potato, apple, and chicken liver all contained catalane because they cause De a noticeable reaction when hydrogen peroxide was added.
The reaction rates of the three test substances: Substance Rate of Reaction (05) Potato 5 Apple 3 Chicken liver Boiling the liver caused no reaction when added to hydrogen peroxide. The co old liver and peroxide reacted much faster than the warm liver and peroxide. The reaction rates oft he three substances: Substance boiled liver and hydrogen peroxide old liver and hydrogen peroxide warm liver and hydrogen peroxide The reactions in acids were slower than the neutral and weak base reactions, which were slower than the strong base.
The reaction rates of the acidic, neutral, and basic subset encase: HCI solution 2 diluted HCI solution H2O solution diluted Noah solution Noah solution The following graph contains the reaction rates of all the tests performed in t his lab: Conclusion Catalane had various changes in reaction rate when the pH, temperature, or e enzyme concentration were changed, supporting the hypothesis. The enzyme is affected by it’s sours ending environmental conditions. This lab showed that reusing the substrate did not produce a reach Zion. Reusing the catalane produced a reaction equal to the control.
Different tissues showed the present CE Of catalane in differing quantities. Catalane denaturized when boiled and did not induce faster reacts on rates. Catalane worked more efficiently in cold environments than in warm environments. Catalane w irked faster in more basic environments. From the results gathered, the conclusion can be drawn that c tales is a reusable enzyme that works better in basic, cold environments and is denaturized when heated o much. The measuring systems used were not very accurate, especially using physical observations to measure the reaction rates.
A person can be inaccurate and inconsistent in co gnarling reaction rates on a small scale like the one used. The amount of catalane available for the reaction n varied with the size of the liver and how much surface area was available, so the amount of catalane coo old not be regulated in every experiment. A machine or substance can be used to measure the reaction rat e more precisely, possibly by measuring the rate oxygen is released. The liver can be blended and measure in specific quantities or catalane can be extracted to regulate the amount of catalane being used. VI. Treasure Citation Cain, M. Campbell, N. A, Jackson, R. B. , Minority, p. V. , Rice, J. B. , Array, L. A. , and Wassermann, S. A. , 201 0, An Introduction to Metabolism, Campbell Biology, San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings. Questions Part A What gas is being released? Oxygen is being released. Has it gotten warmer or colder? The test tube has gotten warmer. Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? The reaction is exothermic. What is this liquid composed of? The liquid is composed Of water. What do you think would happen if you added more liver to this liquid? No reaction would occur.
Is catalane reusable? Explain how you know. Catalane is reusable because it isn’t used up in the reaction and reacted when used again. Part B Which tissues contained catalane? All three substances potato, apple, and chicken liver contained catalane. Do some contain more catalane than others? How can you tell? Some contained more catalane than others because the reaction rate was fast term, so more catalane was present. Part C What will boiling do to an enzyme? Boiling an enzymes will denaturized it, or make it unusable by altering its shape Part D What is the optimal pH for catalane (estimate)?
The optimal pH for catalane is approximately 8 because it worked best in a we AK base. Part E Sing the techniques you learned in this lab, design a new experiment to test the properties of enzymes and substrates. Add 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide to a clean test tube. Place this test tube in a b oiling water bath for 5 minutes. Using the test tube holder, remove the test tube from the hot water bath. Add a piece of liver. Record the reaction rate. Data Analysis Describe the relationship between catalane and hydrogen peroxide.
Enzyme Lab Report Essay
An enzyme is a protein that serves as a biological catalyst (Denniston, 2007) - Enzyme Lab Report Essay introduction. Metabolic reactions happen with in cells. Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them (Mader, 2010). Catalase is a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into H2O and O (Campbell Reese, 2008). The environment plays an important role in the reaction that enzymes have. In this experiment, enzymes were exposed to changes in temperature, pH, and concentration.
In this experiment, the environment of the enzyme was altered, by increasing or decreasing the temperature, pH and concentration. The purpose was to observe if and how the enzyme would react to such changes. This experiment tested whether heating or cooling a catalase would increase or decrease the rate of reaction. The temperature was increased by placing the test tube in boiling water to test if the enzyme would begin to denature and break down, causing less of a reaction. The temperature was also decreased by placing the test tube in a refrigerator to test if the enzyme would slow down and the reaction would be minimal or it would cease. Altering the pH would cause denaturing of the enzymes and slow its reaction rate to almost non-existent. Increasing the concentration of catalase, you will see a correlation in the increase of the reaction.
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• 250mL Beaker
• Four 100mm test tubes
• Mortar and Pestle
• Hydrogen Peroxide
• 7.0 pH Phosphate buffer solution
The potato was crushed with a mortar and pestle to make a slurry (the catalase) and poured it into a 250 ml beaker. Four 100 mm test tubes (marked at every cm) were filled from the beaker with a mixture of the catalase and a 7.0 pH phosphate buffer solution to the 1 cm mark on each of the test tubes. One test tube was placed in the refrigerator at 7°C, one in the incubator at 37°C, one in boiling water at 100°C, and one was left at room temp (23°C). After 15 minutes, remove the test tubes one at a time and 2 cm of hydrogen peroxide were added to each and then swirled for approximately fifteen seconds. Twenty seconds after swirling the height of the bubble column was measured and recorded.
For the second test, the concentration of the peroxide to catalase ratio was changed, leaving the temperature and amount of hydrogen peroxide as constants. Three test tubes (all marked at every cm) were used. In the first tube, 1cm of catalase mixture with 4cm of hydrogen peroxide was added. The second tube contained 2cm of catalase with 4cm of hydrogen peroxide was added and the third was added, 3cm of catalase with 4cm of hydrogen peroxide. The height of the bubble column was recorded for each.
For the third test, the pH of each solution was altered, keeping the concentration and temperature constant. Three separate test tubes (all marked at every cm) were filled, each starting with 1cm of catalase. 2cm of hydrochloric acid was added to one tube, with a pH of 3. Test tube two was left neutral adding 2cm of a 7.0 phosphate buffer, and to the third test tube was added 2cm of sodium hydroxide with a pH of 11. 4cm of hydrogen peroxide was added to all three tubes. They were swirled for approximately fifteen seconds. After that, the height of the bubble column was recorded.
For our first test, the height of the bubble column was recorded as a reaction to the enzyme and temperature change. The following results were obtained. The test tube that was placed in the incubator (37°C) had 10mm of bubble height. The test tube that was left at room temperature (22°C) had a small reaction with 5 mm of bubble height. The test tube that was in the refrigerator (7°C) had the largest reaction with 15 mm of bubble height. The test tube that was in boiling water (100°C) had no reaction. By increasing the temperature, the catalase would begin to denature and have a very minimal reaction. The cold temperature would slow down or stop the reaction. For our second test, the amount of catalase concentration was increased. The following results were obtained. Test tube one was 1 cm to 5 cm with the bubble height measured at 50 mm. Test tube two was 2 cm to 6 cm with the bubble height measured at 30 mm. Test tube three was 3 cm to 7 cm with the bubble height measured at 70 mm. For the third test the pH increased and decreased. The following results were obtained. With a pH of 2, test tube one had no reaction. With a pH of 7 the height of the bubble column was measured at 30 mm. With a pH of 11 test tube three had no reaction. We concluded that the closer the pH is to neutral the more of a reaction will occur.
Incubator (37°C) 10mm
Fridge (7°C) 15mm
Boiling (100°C) 0mm
Room Temp (22°) 5mm
Incubator (37°C) 15mm
Fridge (7°C) 20mm
Boiling (100°C) 0mm
Room Temp (22°) 5mm
pH 3 0mm
pH 7 30mm
pH 11 0mm
Figure 5.2 (above) shows the effect temperature has on enzyme activity. The temperature is measured in Celsius and enzyme activity is measured in bubble height in millimeters (mm). The different settings of temperature were The Refrigerator at 7 degrees Celsius, Incubator at 37 degrees Celsius, in boiling water at 100 degrees Celsius and in room temperature at 22 degrees Celsius. The bubble height are as follows the refrigerator at 20mm, Incubator at 50mm, Boiling water at 0 mm, and at room temperature activity rose to 50mm.
Figure 5.3 shows the amount of enzyme. We measured the amount of enzyme in centimeters (cm) and bubble height in millimeters (mm). The amount of enzyme are in ranges as follows: tube 1 1cm-5cm, tube 2: 2cm- 6cm, and tube 3: 3cm -7cm. The bubble height follows: tube 1: 50mm, tube 2: 90mm, and tube 3: 100mm.
Figure 5.4 shows the effect different pH levels have on enzyme activity. We tested to see if the pH levels have any effect on the activity of enzymes. Tube 1 had a pH of 3 and there was no effect of activity. Tube 2 had a pH of 7 and the activity in this particular on was a bubble height of 30(mm). Lastly we tested tube 3 with a pH of 11 and there is no activity going on. The graph will show these changes in activity. Overall the data tells us that neither acidic or basic pH levels cause a change, but the exception would be a moderate level would cause some change. Discussion
The temperature increases or decreases the reaction of an enzyme. pH also plays an important role in enzyme reactions. The closer the pH is to neutral, the more of a reaction will occur. Increased temperatures increased the reaction rate until reaching higher temperatures where the rate of reaction slowed down due to the denaturation of the enzyme. Enzymes only function within specific pH levels and the optimal level was found to be eight. Increased concentration of enzymes increased the rate of reaction until the concentration is higher than that of the substrate where the substrate became a limiting factor. Increased concentration of substrate increased the rate of reaction until the concentration was too high and the enzymes were at maximum velocity, which caused the rate of reaction to not increase any further.
Bennett, T. P., and Frieden, E.: Modern Topics in Biochemistry, pg. 43-45, Macmillan, London (1969). Campbell, N. A. (2008). Biology. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Holum, J.: Elements of General and Biological Chemistry, 2nd ed., 377, Wiley, NY (1968). Mader, S. S. (2010). Laboratory Manual. New York: Mc-Graw Hill. Martinek, R.: Practical Clinical Enzymology: J. Am. Med. Tech., 31, 162 (1969). Harrow, B., and Mazur, A.: Textbook of Biochemistry, 109, Saunders, Philadelphia (1958). Pfeiffer, J.: Enzymes, the Physics and Chemistry of Life, pg 171-173, Simon and Schuster, NY (1954)