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Escherichia Coli Is More Resistant Towards Antimicrobial Agents Biology

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Antimicrobial agents which include antiseptics, germicides and antibiotics are used to kill or suppress the growing of bacteriums. It has been acknowledged that gram negative bacteriums Escherichia coli is more immune towards antimicrobic agents compared to gram positive bacteriums Staphylococcus auric. This was assessed through two experiments which involved looking at the effectivity of antiseptics and germicides on Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli.

The 2nd experiment involved gram positive and gram negative antibiotic multidisc system M14 and M43 with Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli. The zone of suppression of the Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli was measured for the different disinfectants.

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In the nineteenth century, surgery was insecure and unsafe, patients were at high hazard of infection, due to surgery non being carried out under sterile conditions. Aseptic status is referred to the absence of micro-organisms. Louis Pasteur a Gallic scientist demonstrated that diseases were caused by unseeable bugs.

It was acknowledged during the nineteenth century that sepsis infection was the ground behind the high mortality rate during surgery as about half of the patients died even though the operation had been successful.

Sepsis can be referred to as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome ( SIRS ) where the organic structure is reacting to an infection. It is a status where the organic structure is contending against a terrible infection which has been spread by the agencies of the blood stream. The status can do broad spread redness every bit good as blood curdling.

Joseph Lister an English sawbones was inspired by Pasteur ‘s work. Lister used Pasteur ‘s germ theory of disease and applied it to surgery which was the start of modern antiseptic surgery. A solution called carbolic acid ( phenol ) was used by Lister to disinfect. The carbolic acid resulted in a 45 % lessening in mortality of those patients being operated upon. The solution was sprayed around utilizing a handheld sprayer in the operating room.

Microbial growing can be defined as the addition in the figure of cells being produced instead than the size of the cell increasing, huge sum of micro-organism growing occurs by binary fission.

Microorganisms can be divided into five groups: bacteriums, Fungis, parasitic worms, Protozoa, viruses. Bacterias are prokaryotes individual celled beings which contain both Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) and Ribonucleic acid RNA, although do non hold a defined karyon. Bacterias can be classified as coccus ( spherical ) , bacilli ( consecutive rod ) , coiling or curved rod. Gram discoloration is a process which is used widely in medical bacteriology, due to bacteriums being colourless and really hard to be seen by a light microscopy.

Sterilization is the technique used to destruct and extinguish bacteriums, an object or substance can either be unfertile or non unfertile. There are assorted ways in which sterilization can take topographic point which includes utilizing chemicals, heat, radiation or physically taking the cells.

Gram discoloration allows you to find whether bacterium is gram negative ( Escherichia coli ) or gram positive ( Staphylococcus aurous ) , the process was established by a Danish Dr Hans Christian Gram. It besides allows you to find whether the bacteria is spherical or rod shaped. The cell wall of bacteriums is made up of peptidoglycan, gram positive bacteriums have thick cell walls whereas gram negative bacteriums have thin cell walls with an outer phospholipid bilayer membrane. A crystal violet discoloration is used, if a bluish coloring material appears it indicates that the bacteria is gram positive and has a midst cell wall as the crystal violet has been retained by the cells. Whereas, if a ruddy coloring material appears it indicates that the bacteria is gram negative.

Antimicrobial agents are used to command microbic growings which include chemical preservatives, antiseptics and germicides every bit good as those drugs used in the dainty infective diseases from workss and animate beings. They are chemicals which inhibit or kill the growing of micro-organisms. The antimicrobic agents that kill cells are called cidal agents whereas those that inhibit the growing of cells are called inactive agents.

Antiseptic is a chemical agent that is applied to populating tissues to forestall infection, antiseptics destroy or inhibit the pathogens. Disinfectant is an agent which is usually a chemical that kills micro-organisms but is unsuitable to be applied on life tissues. Disinfectants and antiseptics can be distinguished by measuring whether it is safe to be applied on mucose membranes, which can be influenced on how concentrated the compound is

An antibiotic is a drug which is used to decelerate down the growing of a bacterium or if non kill the bacterium. Antibiotics are classified as disinfectants that are used to handle infection caused by micro-organisms. Severe infections caused by bacteriums have become a planetary job in the twenty-first century as the infections have become opposition to the common antibiotics prescribed.

The first purpose of the probe is to find how effectual germicides or antiseptics with bacteriums and whether there is any difference when utilizing gram negative or gram positive bacteria. The 2nd purpose of the probe is to find the most effectual antibiotic in gram negative and gram positive.

A civilization of Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli was grown in a alimentary stock. An inoculant of each civilization was prepared aseptically by thining 0.1 milliliter of civilization into 9 milliliter of fresh alimentary stock, which was so shaken to guarantee that the civilization had exhaustively assorted.

Spread home bases were prepared by spread plating 0.1 milliliter of inoculants over the surface of the alimentary agar. Two spread home bases were prepared in this mode for each bacteria.

The underside of each spread home base was labelled with the name of the bacteria. Eight merchandises of antiseptics or germicides were obtained and labelled from 1-8.

The first spread home base of the bacteria was subdivided into four subdivisions and labelled from 1 – 4 with a marker pen. The 2nd spread home base was once more subdivided into four subdivisions and labelled 5 – 8 with a marker pen. In entire four spread home bases, two for each bacteria labelled from 1 – 8. The subdivisions 1-8 refer to the 1-8 labeled bottles of antiseptics or germicides.

The tip of the forceps were sterilised by go throughing the tip through the fire of the Bunsen burner two to three times. The unfertile filter paper phonograph record was picked up in an sterile technique with the unfertile forceps and so dipped into the chosen antiseptic or bactericidal labelled 1. It was of import that the extra antiseptic or germicide was drained off.

The unfertile filter paper phonograph record was placed into the Centre of the subdivision labelled 1 on the Staphylococcus auric inoculated home base. The process was repeated for the same antiseptic or bactericidal labelled 1 for subdivision 1 on the Escherichia coli inoculated home base.

The forceps were washed exhaustively with intoxicant prior to the following measure of the process.

Stairss 5 and 6 were repeated for the seven antiseptics or germicides for the staying 2 – 8 subdivisions on both the Staphylococcus auric inoculated home base and Escherichia coli inoculated home base.

Guaranting before a new antiseptic or germicide is used the tip of the forceps is washed exhaustively with intoxicant to do it unfertile, forestalling taint between the antiseptic or germicide.

The tip of the forceps was flamed so that it was unfertile and so used to press down gently the unfertile filter paper phonograph record to guarantee that there was contact with the alimentary agar.

When all four home bases contained the eight soaked unfertile filter paper phonograph record of the antiseptics or germicides. Four soaked unfertile filter paper phonograph record on each home base of the bacteria.

The home bases were sealed with parafilm, followed by the home base being inverted and so eventually incubated at 37A°C for 24 hours.

The home bases were recovered after 24 hours and zones of suppression of the bacterial growing were measured in millimeters ( millimeter ) by mensurating the diameter.

As described in experiment 1 spread home bases for Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli were prepared.

Using sterile technique the tip of the forceps were sterilised by go throughing the tip through the fire of the Bunsen burner two to three times.

The multidisc was carefully placed onto the lawn of Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli on each of the bacteria home base.

There were two multidisc systems M14 and M43. The M14 is a gram negative multidisc system this was placed in the Escherichia coli home base.

The M43 is a gram positive multidisc system which was placed in the Staphylococcus auric home base.

To guarantee the tip of the forceps was unfertile it was flamed two to three times. The forceps were so used to press down gently the M14 and M43 multidisc to guarantee that there was contact with the alimentary agar.

The home bases were sealed with parafilm, followed by the home base being inverted and so eventually incubated at 37A°C for 24 hours.

The home bases were recovered after 24 hours and zones of suppression of the bacterial growing were measured in millimeters ( millimeter ) by mensurating the diameter.

Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli are different types of micro-organism which is why the response to antiseptics, germicides and antibiotics varies. This is the consequence of the micro-organism ‘s cellular construction, composing and physiology being different. Intrinsic opposition can be demonstrated by gm negative bacteriums Escherichia coli. ( McDonnell, G Russell, A D, 1999 )

Staphylococcus auric green goodss invasive and toxin diseases, which are thought to do disease. Escherichia coli aids in the attachment to mucosal cells, invasion into underling tissues or it can change mucosal map. ( Ingles, TJJ, 2007 )

From experiment 1 ( see table 1 & A ; graph 1 ) , the most effectual germicide was the walk pine with a 34mm zone of suppression of the Staphylococcus auric bacteria. The most effectual antiseptic for Staphylococcus auric bacteria with a 24mm zone of suppression was germolene. For the Escherichia coli bacteria, walk pine was the most effectual germicide with a 22mm zone of suppression. Savlon was the most effectual antiseptic with an 18mm zone of suppression for the Escherichia coli bacteria. Savlon ‘s active ingredient is Chlorhexidine gluconate, its mechanism of action involves membrane break. ( McDonnell, G Russell, A D, 1999 )

The least effectual germicide and antiseptic for Staphylococcus auric were Mr Muscle and TCP. Dettol surface cleansing agent, Mr Muscle and TCP were the least effectual germicides and antiseptic for Escherichia coli. From the eight germicides and antiseptics walk pine was the most effectual towards Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli bacteriums. Therefore, germicides are the most effectual at killing or suppressing the growing of bacteriums, due to the high concentrations of active ingredients used and toxicity compared to antiseptics.

Wilko pine germicide ‘s active ingredient is non – ionic surfactant Quaternary ammonium compound ( QAC ) . Wetting agents are surface active agents which two parts hydrophilic ( H2O loving ) and hydrophobic ( H2O detesting ) . QAC ‘s are used in germicides, antiseptics every bit good as difficult surfaces and deodorisation, they are membrane active agents. ( Hugo, W. B and M. Frier, 1969 ) QAC ‘s have the ability to damage the outer membrane of gram negative bacteriums, enabling them to advance their ain consumption. ( McDonnell, G Russell, A D, 1999 )

QAC cetrimide demonstrated to hold an consequence on the proton motor force ( PMF ) in Staphylococcus auric. QAC ‘s are sporostatic as they inhibit the spores out growing nevertheless non the existent sprouting procedures. ( McDonnell, G Russell, A D, 1999 )

A QAC merchandise can bring on decomposition every bit good as morphology alterations of human hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) , which consequences in the loss of infection. ( Prince D L et Al, 1993 )

Mr Muscle contains additives that cause the germicide to go a dilute concentration of the active ingredient hence less effectual as a germicide, compared to the walk pine which it is more concentrated germicide.

Phenol is the active ingredient in germolene, phenols have membrane active belongingss which help lend to their activity as a whole. Phenol induces escape of intracellular constituents. It was demonstrated by Pulvertaft and Lumb that when low concentrations of phenols are used there is rapid lysis of turning civilizations of Escherichia coli. ( McDonnell, G Russell, A D, 1999 )

Experiment 2 demonstrated that the most effectual antibiotic on the M43 – Systemic Gram Positive Ring ( see table 2 & A ; graph 2 ) was Penicillin G ( 1 unit ) with the largest zone of suppression of 32mm of the gm positive Staphylococcus auric bacteria. However, Trimethoprim ( 1.25mg ) and Sulphamethoxazole ( 25mg ) demonstrated opposition towards gram positive bacteria, another possibility for this result could be that there was deficient concentration for the antibiotic to hold an consequence.

Trimethoprim plants by barricading am of import phase in the bacterium ‘s system which involves new DNA being produced. As antibiotic separately Trimethoprim can kill bacteriums but it is really slow procedure. This is the ground why it is combined with another antibiotic Sulphamethoxazole which kills bacteriums much more efficient and rapid. The combination of the two antibiotics is besides able to kill bacteriums which are partially immune to the antibiotics entirely. ( Vinay N. Reddy, M.D, 2008 ) .

Within some zones of suppression little settlements were present, where the bacteria is immune towards the antibiotic.

For Penicillin G to be administered to a patient it is of import to set up the toxicity degrees of the antibiotic, to forestall a allergic reaction and to guarantee it is non harmful to the patient. Trimethoprim and Sulphamethoxazole have demonstrated to work synergistically against a figure of bacteria. ( Rein M F et Al, 1980 ) Antibiotic synergy occurs when combined antibiotics have a greater consequence that an antibiotic by itself. ( Mayer G, 2010 )

Cotrimoxazole is the most effectual antibiotic amongst the M14 systemic gm negative ring ( see table 3 & A ; graph 3 ) with a 28mm zone of suppression of the Escherichia coli gm negative bacteria. Cotrimoxazole is the combination of two antibiotics Trimethoprim and Sulphamethoxazole. Resistance towards the gm negative bacteria was observed by Ampicillin. Antibiotic resistant to the bacteriums for assorted grounds which include the synthesis of enzymes ensuing in the inactivation of the drug, inactivation of the drug or that the mark site has been modified. ( Medoff G et Al, 1999 )

Penicillin G and Ampicillin opposition mechanism involves the hydrolysis of I? – lactam ring by the I? – lactamase. ( Medoff G et Al, 1999 )

The values for Staphylococcus auric are much higher for zone of suppression when compared to Escherichia coli through out the two experiments. This is due to the cell wall of bacteriums is made up of peptidoglycan, gram positive bacteriums have thick cell walls whereas gram negative bacteriums have thin cell walls with an outer phospholipid bilayer membrane. The disinfectants are more effectual towards Staphylococcus auric as there is less incursion required compared to Escherichia coli, as Escherichia coli has a cytoplasmatic membrane which the disinfectant has to traverse hence zone of suppression much smaller. ( Gregersen T, 2004 )

From the above informations collected it is clear that germicides are more effectual than antiseptics towards Staphylococcus auric and Escherichia coli. There are figure of factors that should be taken into history which may act upon the zone of suppression for the disinfectants. The factors include temperature of incubation, the mechanism by which the disinfectant will utilize to kill or suppress the bacterium. The concentration of the antimicrobic being administered. The molecular weight will act upon how efficaciously the antimicrobic crosses the membrane alongside the thickness of the membrane

Cite this Escherichia Coli Is More Resistant Towards Antimicrobial Agents Biology

Escherichia Coli Is More Resistant Towards Antimicrobial Agents Biology. (2017, Jul 07). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/escherichia-coli-is-more-resistant-towards-antimicrobial-agents-biology-essay/

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