Do you know what the meaning of history is? History is the study of past human affairs which we can assess changes that occurred over a period of time. Do you know what revolution is? Revolution is an aggressive rebellion of a particular government to obtain a new system. The French Revolution in France was the defeat of the Bourbon kingdom that started 1789 and ended 1799. (Google) The French Revolution was an innovative effort that affected France between the year 1789 and 1 799; this was also called the Revolution of 1789.
Hence the conventional term “Revolution of 1789,” noting the end of the ancient r©game In France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions of 1830 and 1848. ” (French-Revolution) The National Assembly which happened between the year 1789 and 1791 that happened between Estates-General and the National Constituent. The purpose of the Estates-General who was called in May of 1789 was to help with the financial down fall but then it immediately started an argument over its own organization.
Its members had been elected to represent the estates of the realm: the First Estate (the clergy), the Second Estate (the nobility) and the Third Estate (which, in theory, represented all of the commoners and, in practice, represented the bourgeoisie). “(Wick) The Third estate had twice as many representatives. They had been informed that the voting would be done by the different estates not by the boss, so that made them powerless and useless but they still continued to meet in private.
As for the Legislative Assembly which took place during part of Revolutionary period and also in the Second Republic that occurred during September 1 791 and they began to meet from October of 1 791 to September of 1 792 which as later exchanged by the National Convention. The Legislative consisted of 11 people. Antoine-Christopher Merlin was a democrat that became a leader of the organization Thermoforming which was a rebellion during the Revolution. Claude-Antoine Prier-Diversion was a military French engineer who worked on the Public Safety Committee.
François-Rene-Augusta Mallard was the president of the 1793 Convention and a French revolutionist. Georges Cotton was the French Jacobin leader. Georges Dayton was also a revolutionary leader and speaker who is said to be the boss of helping rebel against the monarchy and formation of the First French Republic. Jacques-Pierre Bristol was a leader of the Britons. Jean-Baptists- Robert Linden was part of the Public Safety Committee. Lazars Carrot was a military engineer, F-ranch statesman, general and also a manger the successive governments of the French Revolution.
Marguerite-Lie Guided led the Gridiron faction Of the reasonTABLE bourgeois revolutionaries. Marie-Jean- Antoine-Nicolas De Carat was the philosopher and humanist for the educational reform. Pierre-Victories Virginian was also a French presenter during the Gridiron faction that took place during the French Revolution. National Convention took place during the French Revolution that consist of meeting of the constitution and legislative body of France that began September of 1 792 and ended in October of 1795 that held great power during the French First Republic first years.
The Committee of Public Safety convention exercised executive power from 1 793 to 1794. The Convention however was a success thanks to the Directory, and since then have not utilized an elected constitutional convention to draft constitutions instead they leave that up to the executive and legislative branches before having them voted on. The Directory was an establishment an office of five directors who ruled France. They ruled France after the Reign oftener ended and the Jacobin had no power in France.
This all took place during while Nation Convention was in charge. This constitution still made it impossible for a lot to vote because once you couldn’t afford the voting fees you were not TABLE to place votes. The Reign of Terror happened June 1793 that was when the French became extra violent and careless thus leading to the “Jacobin seizing control Of the National Convention from the more moderate Gridirons and instituted a series of radical measures, including the establishment of a new calendar and the eradication of Christianity. () Robberies who was in charge of the Public Safety Committee was responsible for many of the killings until he himself was killed on the 28th of July 1794. His death then began the Thermoforming Reaction which was a sensible stage for the French people dismayed the Reign of Terror. The Old regime was a political and social system that consists of three estates, The First, Second, and Third Estate. The First Estate included the wealthy, ministry members, more privileged people.
They made up only 1% of France total population but controlled close to 10% of the land in France which help them become wealthier from different products that they had among the land and they also rented out to peasants as a form of income. These people were supposed to be taxed 10% to help the church but instead they used that taxation to help do other extra circular activities. In other words these were the people who were higher up the food chain they were the upper class people. The Second Estates were the nobles and privileged people.
These were the people who were well off but not the highest class of people. They made up a total of 2% of the population and possessed 25% of the land in France. And as a form of income they collect money from the peasants that lived on their property which help them live a wealthy lifestyle. The Third Estate was the not so well off people who were the laborers, city workers, middle class people. These were the poorer of the two. The Third Estate however was the biggest group and when called together they helped each other out.
They made up almost 97% Of the population and they were limited in power in terms Of rights and political power. The life style for them was very difficult because they had to ay tithe to the church and tax, so this left them with little money to support their family. These were the little people because they had little possessions. Many historians cannot come to a consensus about what were the true causes of the Revolution. But the reasons that are often used are : the increase in a few selected rich commoners such as manufacturers, merchants, professionals which were also called bourgeoisie.
Bourgeoisie is a French word that represents the wealthy few of the middle class that were originated in the middle ages that were categorized with the different fields such as political economy, political philosophy, sociology, and history. Another reason that there peasants were aware of their situation that they were in and didn’t have the urge to support old and troublesome feudal system. Feudalism was a fixed legal and military custom, which happened to be a system for organizing humanity around relationships, resulted from the holding of land in exchange for work and services.
Other reasons were the philosophies also known as intellectuals of the 1 8th century, the French participating in the American revolution which led to the government almost owing bankrupt, and also the failure in much of the countries crop in 1 788 which led to economic difficulties and made the people very fidgety. During the French Revolution, Charles-Alexander De Caledon was the head general of finances who organized a meeting of different representatives to create a plan to decrease their low funds in budget and to do so he suggested an increase in the taxation of the wealthy.
Unfortunately the meeting was denied because the assembly refused to take responsibility and recommended they see higher people which were the Estate General and the Third Estate which haven’t met since 1614. Caledon push and fight to do this applied for financial improvement despite the battle from the wealthy which led a rebellion of the aristocratic bodies. The Old Regime government was aristocratic. This means that they had a government ran by the small fortunate class or the best individuals for the job. They were powered by the minority of those who were superior to them in terms of wealth.
However the French Revolution put an end to the system of governance and then they took control. The church had a lot to play with their government. Your economic stand was all based on your households’ production and consumption. The households were consisting of about six people, the husband and wife, about two children, and the workers in the house. Now the main source of income was through farming and crops. Having premarital sex was a norm, and most people married very young. As a servant after a spending a couple years working hard you try to obtain wealth, your own property for your family.
In the household the father was in charge of bring home the money for the family, the mother was in charge of the kids, and the servants were in charge of the cleaning and maintenance Of the house. So based on your possessions you will know if you were among he rich, the people who are doing good, or the lower class people. The French Revolution did get responses from America. The revolution came around because of their king. America knows what it means to fight for freedom, and that is why they help the French.
Another reason America came into the picture is because they admired a French reformer Marquis De Fayette who was a leader that fought with America in their Revolution. After the year 1793 the Revolution became more violent, this cause major organizations to gain power, that later lead to the beheading of the king and queen. This was call the Reign of Terror where thousands of French people were killed. The violence did cause a division among the Americans and French. Despite the division some continued to support the French such as Thomas Jefferson.
Thomas Jefferson how ever did not like or support the killing of the king and queen. It also had others that disagreed to the killing such as Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, and many others. But even though he didn’t support it, he felt it was necessary for the French to win their freedom. The French Revolution did scare a lot of European rulers and nobles. The Revolution however did cause a chain reaction of wars that went on for over 20 years. America then had to make a challenging decision on foreign policy. Foreign policy is the action that the two countries take to become one.
By them becoming on France utilized America’s ports to import their ships’ supplies and launch attacks. The cause of the rebellion was because of the king Louis XVI. The peasants and middle class people paid heavy taxes while the upper class paid none, thus causing the people to try and protect their rights as people. The long term cause of the Revolution was mainly because of the bad harvest. People were unTABLE to pay for many things such as bread, because it was so expensive. The only people among the French who could afford the bread were those who were wealthy. Cost of living was up by 45% and the estates were unfair to the people.
The estates voting system was set up where each Estate had a vote but seeing that the First and Second Estate stayed together it was very hard for the Third estate which happen to be the little people to get any voting across cause they were outvoted. The long term effect of the French Revolution on the economy eyeing bad or limited by political power, religious power, and social power. The economic part was because the people suffered of hungry, no financial help for the unhealthy and dying peasants which meant that there was a great lack of funds and unemployment making it difficult for people to provide for their family.
The political stand point was that ‘ ‘The American Revolution led the way, demonstrating that a determined group of “common folk” could beat the King and his army, and set up a new democratic government. ” Social stand point was that the French was very firm about their three Estates. Which mean that the Aristocracy held high ranks because they had all the land and power and didn’t pay much taxes, that made the middle people and the less fortunate to pick up the slack in paying for taxes and had little power and rights to land.
The religious cause was that the catholic was on the side with the Aristocrat and the wealthy people because they were in the First Estate. The short term cause of the because of the attack on the Pastille prison and also the fact that the French were a part of the American Revolution. Another short term effect of the revolution was the decrease in ends, due to the lack of political stability it was hard to tax citizens during the revolution thus decreasing the amount of funds entering the government to help with various activities and public service centers.
France was one of the major nations invested in training and continuously increased their customs tariffs. They had internal tariffs for regions around France, arbitrary tax- barriers used for various boundaries which caused France to develop a unified market. There were also high taxes for private collectors such as farmer. Due to the holdings growth of farmers there was a illegitimate mount of money in which tax collectors received from farmers which was way more than they deserved to receive.
Peasants by law had to pay a tenth of the income to the church, pay land tax, and a 5 percent property as well as taxes for every person in the family. Peasants were required to pay more money that rich people. Tax collectors and public officials were mostly wealthy because they paid for their positions from the king and Were required to pay additional money if they wanted a higher or better position. These government officials were normally bias because they accepted bribes room everyone and “milked” the taxpayers (wick).
Another effect was the famine and drought that plagued France in the late 17th century and the early 18th century. As a result food prices increased, harvesting decreased, and many psychological and medical diseases were rampant around France. In 1780 there was an increase in the scarcity (Wick). During this scarcity it was said that there was a plot of the nobility to starve the peasants. Because bread was a main source of food for the peasants they had to save, a normal worker received fifteen to thirty souse per day, while a skilled worker received hairy to forty.
Bread prices increased from nine to fifteen souse causing a 67 percent increase in the price in one year alone. Another short problem during the French revolution was the arguments in regards to the voting rights which were led by the 3rd Estate. This voting right caused the estate to assemble a National Assembly who were dead set on keeping the voting rights among themselves (Google). This Assembly had no interest in the social, cultural, or economic reforms but rather ensuring that they had all the power and their rights were at the forefront of all decision making.
The Pastille’s fall also had n effect on the Revolution. This fall helped make the Revolution more popular and something that everyone will remember for the rest of their lives. This fall also attracted desperate and unemployed citizens to involve themselves in the revolution. The king and his family in 1 789 were forced to live in Paris and forget about their hometown, Versailles (Wick). As a result in the summer Of that same year the peasants became angry and went to reclaim their King back to his rightful place in their country. Transparency or clearness is another effect of the war.
Helmet a philosopher during the French revolution said. Properly speaking, the people ought to have been accustomed to the fact that the French government did not fulfill its financial obligations, for since the time of Henry IV, that is, within two centuries, it had failed to meet its obligations fifty-six times. In earlier days such catastrophes had not been announced and publicly discussed. Now all France, which for two generations had been worked upon by the party of rationalism, shared the outcry against the financial situation. “(Wick).
Basically Helmet was saying that the France government did not serve its people, they cause horrendous hinges to happen to the nation and left the peasants and laborers to suffer and fend for themselves. The issue was never the debt that they had but rather the increasing power of that the wealthy people had over the commoners in regards to the government and its control over decisions. In conclusion there were many things that made up the French Revolution. This revolution has had long term and short term effects on not only France but the world around us that we live in today. The French Revolution continues to be a mystery to the world.
This revolution took on the theme “out with the old ND in with the new one”. It caused many emotions such as hope, fear, terror, and faith to sweep a nation and also help improve he lives of a group of people while betraying and giving false hope to others. The reason why this revolution continue to be a conundrum is because there is no one to blame for the shortcomings or achievements due to this movement.
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