The development of gender theory and research results based on a gender approach, gra-dually led to the realization that to consider any social problem without taking into account the gen-der component is incomplete and one-sided. Gender stereotypes were formed on the basis of per-ception and interpretation of gender differences in different historical periods, in different cultures, as well as centuries-existing division of labor.
In every society, especially a multicultural and multiethnic, it is necessary to bear in mind gender diversity. This means that the provisions relevant masculinity and femininity, their imple-mentation may be different for different generations, different ethnic, cultural and religious groups, it is an acute and persistent problem, especially in developing countries (Esteve-Volart 2). Unders-tanding discrimination as a result of individual negative behavior with respect to a particular group of individuals neglect the structural aspect of the phenomenon. Therefore, it is difficult to expect that one or several projects will lead to serious changes and conspicuous shifts in social relations. Constant educational and educational work is needed, as well as carrying out consistent measures aimed at identifying and researching gender discrimination and the problems that it causes in labor relations, education, and the family. In particular, with regard to gender discrimination, such pro-blems are most noticeable. The status of women has changed significantly over the last century. As a result, differences that were considered objectively justified fifty years ago (for example, when hiring, receiving education or social security) after adopting the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women are considered discriminatory. However, there are fundamental differences in the perception of this “objective justification” in societies with different levels of women’s emancipation. For example, in Sweden and Saudi Arabia, the position of women is seen differently, although, for example, the right to life is recognized as equally valuable.
Masculine gender role requires activity, aggressiveness, dominance, ambition. These diffe-rences have traditionally been considered a manifestation of the internal differences in the nature and interests of women and men, although research clearly shows that people, regardless of their biological sex, in varying degrees, have two sets of characteristics. Gender roles are socially cons-tructed rather than biologically predetermined. In all societies where male roles are valued higher than women, there is an asymmetry of gender relations. The combination of professional and mo-therhood makes women feel great overload that leads to such negative phenomena as limiting the number of children in families.
This study analyzed the interview which shows the discrimination of women in employ-ment. This interview is an example of occupational segregation where women are compared to men unequal access to the prestigious professions and positions (assuming, and higher wages) as the narrator is a man but ‘most people’s default setting in the absence of any other clues is to assume Kim is a women’s name ‘(Bahadur) so he had difficulty finding a job. Also, ‘Many employees and supervisors persisted in treating women in a demeaning or sexual way. Some women were requi-red to wear sexually provocative uniforms on the job” (Abrams 1187).
Gender discriminatory practices are particularly acute for two groups of workers – women with minor (especially young) children, and young women of childbearing age who are potentially ready to become mothers. discrimination against them can be considered as a separate and dange-rous form of infringement of rights. Separate – because the basis for it is not the sex itself, but the fertility, reproductive and socialization functions of women. Dangerous – because it can have far-reaching consequences not only for the individual, the family, but also for society.
The practice of infringing the labor rights of women on the basis of the presence of minor children or the opportunity to become a mother can adversely affect the motivation to form a family, give birth and raise children, which in turn can be one of the factors for reducing fertility. In combina-tion with the dominant values in society, when not family and children are put in the first place, but social achievements in education, career, profession, social status, discrimination in reproductive spheres.
In such a situation, positive demographic policy measures taken by the state may turn out to be ineffective, or at least ineffective. Moreover, the wider the spread of discriminatory phenomena, the more doubts arise in the ability of family and demographic policy measures to positively in-fluence the demographic behavior of the population.However, it should be noted that discrimina-tion occurs not just for women, women today in industrialized countries have already received legal equality in all spheres of life, and cases of infringement of their rights due only to social prejudices, stereotypes and superstitions. Men also have to deal not only with the same stereotypes, but due to the fact that the state itself is often in the fight against discrimination against women carries infrin-gement of the rights of men. In many cases, outright discrimination is explicitly stated in the law; in other cases, the laws are formulated in gender-neutral terms, but the state used in the manner of discrimination of men.
However many cases prove that women were the victims of multiple discrimination: sex, age, or, as in the first case, by marital status. There are situations, though less frequently, when gender discrimination in the labor market and workers are exposed to a male. The dismissal is rare-ly present wording, which would qualify the actions of the administration as discriminatory even if ‘the gender wage gap should be smaller in competitive markets than in concentrated markets, all else equal’ (Black, Brainerd 4). Regulations regarding the behavior associated with gender roles, particularly evident in the sexual division of labor into male and female, are often related to gender discrimination or gender discrimination. Gender discrimination is evident in areas such as employ-ment, political and religious career, housing; social policy, the right to property in civil and criminal law.
First of all, discriminatory practices are generated by gender stereotypes that have been formed in us since childhood. As practice and research experience shows, educational programs for young people are an effective mechanism for dethroning them. As a mechanism to prevent gen-der discrimination, as well as solutions to many other social problems, there is intersectoral interac-tion, because this problem has a lot of perspectives and can be solved only by joint efforts of the authorities, NGOs, the press, and business. To overcome gender discrimination, as well as to solve other pressing social problems, it is necessary not only to strengthen the interaction between the most active representatives of various sectors of society, but also with public organizations and communities engaged in similar activities. This contributes to the accumulation of positive expe-riences and practices that can be used by other NGos.