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Green Computing: Environmentally Sustainable Computing

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Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. It is “the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. Green IT also strives to achieve economic viability and improved system performance and use, while abiding by our social and ethical responsibilities.

Thus, green IT includes the dimensions of environmental sustainability, the economics of energy efficiency, and the total cost of ownership, which includes the cost of disposal and recycling.

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It is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. ” With increasing recognition that man-made greenhouse gas emissions are a major contributing factor to global warming, enterprises, governments, and society at large now have an important new agenda: tackling environmental issues and adopting environmentally sound practices.

Greening our IT products, applications, services, and practices is both an economic and an environmental imperative, as well as our social responsibility.

Therefore, a growing number of IT vendors and users are moving toward green IT and thereby assisting in building a green society and economy. The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product’s lifetime, and promote recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste.

Green computing researchers look at key issues and topics related to energy efficiency in computing and promoting environmentally friendlycomputer technologies and systems include energy-efficient use of computers, design of algorithms and systems for environmentally-friendly computer technologies, and wide range of related topics. Roads to Green Computing To comprehensively and effectively address the environmental impacts of computing/IT, we must adopt a holistic approach and make the entire IT lifecycle greener by addressing environmental sustainability along the following four complementary paths: Green use — reducing the energy onsumption of computers and other information systems as well as using them in an environmentally sound manner Green disposal — refurbishing and reusing old computers and properly recycling unwanted computers and other electronic equipment Green design — designing energy-efficient and environmentally sound components, computers, servers, cooling equipment, and data centers Green manufacturing — manufacturing electronic components, computers, and other associated subsystems with minimal impact on the environment These four paths span a number of focus areas and activities, including: design for environmental sustainability nergy-efficient computing power management data center design, layout, and location server virtualization responsible disposal and recycling regulatory compliance green metrics, assessment tools, and methodology environment-related risk mitigation use of renewable energy sources and eco-labeling of IT products Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems.

Elements of such a solution may comprise items such as end user satisfaction, management restructuring, regulatory compliance, disposal of electronic waste, telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, energy use,thin client solutions, and return on investment (ROI). The imperative for companies to take control of their power consumption, for technology and more generally, therefore remains acute. One of the most effective power management tools available in 2009 may still be simple, plain, common sense.

Origins In 1992, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star, a voluntary labeling program which is designed to promote and recognize energy-efficiency in monitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies. This resulted in the widespread adoption of sleep mode among consumer electronics. The term “green computing” was probably coined shortly after the Energy Star program began; there are several USENET posts dating back to 1992 which use the term in this manner.

Concurrently, the Swedish organization TCO Development launched the TCO Certification program to promote low magnetic and electrical emissions from CRT-based computer displays; this program was later expanded to include criteria on energy consumption, ergonomics, and the use of hazardous materials in construction. Regulations and industry initiatives The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has published a survey of over 90 government and industry initiatives on “Green ICTs”, i. e. information and communication technologies, the environment and climate change.

The report concludes that initiatives concentrate on greening ICTs rather than tackling global warming and environmental degradation through the use of ICT applications. In general, only 20% of initiatives have measurable targets, with government programmes including them more frequently than business associations. Government Many governmental agencies have continued to implement standards and regulations that encourage green computing. TheEnergy Star program was revised in October 2006 to include stricter efficiency requirements for computer equipment, along with a tiered ranking system for approved products.

The European Union’s directives 2002/95/EC (RoHS), on the reduction of hazardous substances, and 2002/96/EC (WEEE) on waste electrical and electronic equipment required the substitution of heavy metals and flame retardants like PBBs and PBDEs in all electronic equipment put on the market starting on July 1, 2006. The directives placed responsibility on manufacturers for the gathering and recycling of old equipment (the Producer Responsibility model). There are currently 26 US States that have established state-wide recycling programs for obsolete computers and consumer electronics equipment.

The statutes either impose a fee for each unit sold at retail (Advance Recovery Fee model), or require the manufacturers to reclaim the equipment at disposal (Producer Responsibility model). Industry Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) is an effort to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active and inactive states. The CSCI provides a catalog of green products from its member organizations, and information for reducing PC power consumption. It was started on 2007-06-12. The name stems from the World Wildlife Fund’s Climate Savers program, which was launched in 1999.

The WWF is also a member of the Computing Initiative. Green Computing Impact Organization, Inc. (GCIO) is a non-profit organization dedicated to assisting the end-users of computing products in being environmentally responsible. This mission is accomplished through educational events, cooperative programs and subsidized auditing services. The heart of the group is based on the GCIO Cooperative, a community of environmentally concerned IT leaders who pool their time, resources, and buying power to educate, broaden the use, and improve the efficiency of, green computing products and services.

Members work to increase the ROI of green computing products through a more thorough understanding of real measurable and sustainable savings incurred by peers; enforcing a greater drive toward efficiency of vendor products by keeping a community accounting of savings generated; and through group negotiation power. Green Electronics Council– The Green Electronics Council offers the Electronic Products Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) to assist in the purchase of “green” computing systems. The Council evaluates computing equipment on 28 criteria that measure a product’s efficiency and sustainability attributes.

On 2007-01-24, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13423, which requires all United States Federal agencies to use EPEAT when purchasing computer systems. The Green Grid is a global consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in data centers and business computing ecosystems. It was founded in February 2007 by several key companies in the industry – AMD, APC, Dell, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Rackable Systems,SprayCool, Sun Microsystems and VMware. The Green Grid has since grown to hundreds of members, including end sers and government organizations, all focused on improving data center efficiency. International Professional Practice Partnership (IP3) is a programme of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) for global certification of ICT professionals. The program includes certification in Green ICT Strategies, using a curriculum developed by theAustralian Computer Society. The Green500 list rates supercomputers by energy efficiency (megaflops/watt, encouraging a focus on efficiency rather than absolute performance.

Green Comm Challenge is an organization that promotes the development of energy conservation technology and practices in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). Green Comm Challenge achieved worldwide notoriety in 2007, when it enlisted as one of the challengers in the 33rd edition of the America’s Cup, an effort meant to show how researchers, technologists and entrepreneurs from around the world can be brought together by an exciting vision: building the ultimate renewable energy machine, a competitive America’s Cup boat. Approaches to green computing

Algorithmic efficiency The efficiency of algorithms has an impact on the amount of computer resources required for any given computing function and there are many efficiency trade-offs in writing programs. As computers have become more numerous and the cost of hardware has declined relative to the cost of energy, the energy efficiency and environmental impact of computing systems and programs has received increased attention. A study by Alex Wissner-Gross, a physicist at Harvard, estimated that the average Google search released 7 grams of carbon dioxide (CO? ).

However, Google disputes this figure, arguing instead that a typical search produces only 0. 2 grams of CO?. Algorithms can also be used to route data to data centers where electricity is less expensive. MIT, Carnegie Mellon University, and Akamai project up to a 40 percent savings on energy costs. Computer virtualization refers to the abstraction of computer resources, such as the process of running two or more logical computer systems on one set of physical hardware. The concept originated with the IBM mainframe operating systems of the 1960s, but was commercialized forx86-compatible computers only in the 1990s.

With virtualization, a system administrator could combine several physical systems into virtual machines on one single, powerful system, thereby unplugging the original hardware and reducing power and cooling consumption. Several commercial companies and open-source projects now offer software packages to enable a transition to virtual computing. Intel Corporation andAMD have also built proprietary virtualization enhancements to the x86 instruction set into each of their CPU product lines, in order to facilitate virtualized computing. Terminal Servers Terminal servers have also been used in green computing methods.

When using terminal servers, users connect to a central server; all of the computing is done at the server level but the end user experiences the operating system. These can be combined with thin clients, which use up to 1/8 the amount of energy of a normal workstation, resulting in a decrease of energy costs and consumption. There has been an increase in using terminal services with thin clients to create virtual labs. Examples of terminal server software include Terminal Services for Windows and the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) for the Linux operating system. Power management

The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), an open industry standard, allows an operating system to directly control the power saving aspects of its underlying hardware. This allows a system to automatically turn off components such as monitors and hard drives after set periods of inactivity. In addition, a system may hibernate, where most components (including the CPU and the system RAM) are turned off. ACPI is a successor to an earlier Intel-Microsoft standard called Advanced Power Management, which allows a computer’s BIOS to control power management functions. citation needed] Some programs allow the user to manually adjust the voltages supplied to the CPU, which reduces both the amount of heat produced and electricity consumed. This process is called undervolting. Some CPUs can automatically undervolt the processor depending on the workload; this technology is called “SpeedStep” on Intel processors, “PowerNow! “/”Cool’n’Quiet” on AMD chips, LongHaul on VIA CPUs, and LongRunwith Transmeta processors. Recently a computer activity and putting computers into power saving modes if they are idle. 1000 PC and more can be admisitered very easily resulting in energy consumption reduction of 0 – 80%. University of Berkeley has started an initiative using Auto Shutdown Manager and wireless power meters to measure energy consumption and reduction in real time. They are using a solution called Auto Shutdown Manager. http://www. itpowersaving. com. Power supply Desktop computer power supplies (PSUs) are generally 70–75% efficient, dissipating the remaining energy as heat. An industry initiative called 80 PLUS certifies PSUs that are at least 80% efficient; typically these models are drop-in replacements for older, less efficient PSUs of the same form factor. As of July 20, 2007, all new Energy Star 4. -certified desktop PSUs must be at least 80% efficient. Storage Smaller form factor (e. g. 2. 5 inch) hard disk drives often consume less power per gigabyte than physically larger drives. Unlike hard disk drives, solid-state drives store data in flash memory or DRAM. With no moving parts, power consumption may be reduced somewhat for low capacity flash based devices. Even at modest sizes, DRAM-based SSDs may use more power than hard disks, (e. g. , 4GB i-RAM uses more power and space than laptop drives). Though most flash based drives are generally slower for writing than hard disks. n a recent case study Fusion-io, manufacturers of the world’s fastest Solid State Storage devices, managed to reduce the carbon footprint and operating costs of MySpace data centers by 80% while increasing performance speeds beyond that which is was attainable by multiple hard disk drives in Raid 0. In response, MySpace was able to permanently retire several of their servers, including all heavy-load servers, further reducing their carbon footprint. As hard drive prices have fallen, storage farms have tended to increase in capacity to make more data available online.

This includes archival and backup data that would formerly have been saved on tape or other offline storage. The increase in online storage has increased power consumption. Reducing the power consumed by large storage arrays, while still providing the benefits of online storage, is a subject of ongoing research. Video Card A fast GPU may be the largest power consumer in a computer. Energy efficient display options include: No video card – use a shared terminal, shared thin client, or desktop sharing software if display required. Use motherboard video output – typically low 3D performance and low power.

Select a GPU based on average wattage or performance per watt. Display LCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent bulb to provide light for the display. Some newer displays use an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in place of the fluorescent bulb, which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display. Operating system issues Microsoft has been heavily critizied for producing operating systems that, out of the box, are not energy efficient. Due to Microsoft’s dominance of the huge desktop operating system market this may have resulted in more energy waste than any other initiative by other vendors.

Microsoft claim to have improved this in Vista, though the claim is disputed. This problem has been compounded because Windows versions before Vista did not allow power management features to be configured centrally by a system administrator. This has meant that most organisations have been unable to improve this situation. Again, Microsoft Windows Vista has improved this by adding basic central power management configuration. The basic support offered has been unpopular with system administrators who want to change policy to meet changing user requirements or schedules.

Several software products have been developed to fill this gap including Auto Shutdown Manager,Data Synergy PowerMAN, Faronics Power Save, 1E NightWatchman, Verdiem Surveyor/Edison, Verismic Power Manager, WakeupOnStandBy (WOSB), TOff and Greentrac (also promotes behavioral change) among others. Materials recycling Main articles: Electronic waste and computer recycling Computer systems that have outlived their particular function can be repurposed, or donated to various charities and non-profit organizations. However, many charities have recently imposed minimum system requirements for donated equipment.

Additionally, parts from outdated systems may be salvaged and recycled through certain retail outlets and municipal or private recycling centers. Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium out of landfills, but often computers gathered through recycling drives are shipped to developing countries where environmental standards are less strict than in North America and Europe. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition estimates that 80% of the post-consumer e-waste collected for recycling is shipped abroad to countries such as China and Pakistan.

Computing supplies, such as printer cartridges, paper, and batteries may be recycled as well. Telecommuting Teleconferencing and telepresence technologies are often implemented in green computing initiatives. The advantages are many; increased worker satisfaction, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travel, and increased profit margins as a result of lower overhead costs for office space, heat, lighting, etc. The savings are significant; the average annual energy consumption for U. S. office buildings is over 23 kilowatt hours per square foot, with heat, air conditioning and lighting accounting for 70% of all energy consumed.

Other related initiatives, such ashotelling, reduce the square footage per employee as workers reserve space only when they need it. Many types of jobs – sales, consulting, field service – integrate well with this technique. Voice over IP (VoIP) reduces the telephony wiring infrastructure by sharing the existing Ethernet copper. VoIP and phone extension mobility also made Hot desking and more practical. A Brief History of Green Computing Do you know how much energy your computer uses? Probably not but if you do a little research to find out then you will realize how important green computing is.

In fact, if you realize how much space old computers take up in landfills and haw difficult they are to dispose of then you would also appreciate the idea of green computing. These days computer recycling is of more importance than ever and everyone should do their job to help keep the environment clean. Learning a little more about protecting the environment and computer disposal is important so you can do your part for the environment. When it comes to PC disposal you need to know everything there is to know in order to be involved in green computing. Basically, the whole green aspect ame about quite a few years back when the news that the environment was not a renewable resource really hit home and people started realizing that they had to do their part to protect the environment. Basically, the efficient use of computers and computing is what green computing is all about. The triple bottom line is what is important when it comes to anything green and the same goes for green computing. This considers social responsibility, economic viability and the impact on the environment. Many business simply focus on a bottom line, rather than a green triple bottom line, of economic viability when it comes to computers.

The idea is to make the whole process surrounding computers more friendly to the environment, economy, and society. This means manufacturers create computers in a way that reflects the triple bottom line positively. Once computers are sold businesses or people use them in a green way by reducing power usage and disposing of them properly or recycling them. The idea is to make computers from beginning to end a green product. The solution to green computing is to create an efficient system that implements these factors in an environmentally friendly way.

A good example would be IT managers purchasing hardware that has been EPEAT approved meaning that maintenance is reduced, the hardware’s life is extended, and makes recycling the computer easy once it is no longer necessary. If everyone takes into account green computing then our world of computers will have as little a negative impact on our physical world as possible and that is what green computing is all about. Caitlina Fuller is a freelance writer. These days computer recycling is of more importance than ever and everyone should do their job to help keep the environment clean.

Learning a little more about protecting the environment and computer disposal is important so you can do your part for the environment. When it comes to PC disposal you need to know everything there is to know in order to be involved in green computing. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton’s Third Law of Motion Consumption of energy sources has a negative reaction on the environment. Datacenters use a large amount of power and consequently cooling energy is needed to counteract the power usage. It can be an endless circle of energy waste.

Businesses are looking to minimize energy waste and reduce the carbon footprint of datacenters. The cooling costs of datacenters are rising, and smart companies are looking for ways to reduce the costs. IPsoft focuses on streamlining your business applications and processes, ensuring that the energy is used wisely and conservatively. Our green computing solutions are the answer to reducing your carbon footprint and utilizing energy efficiently, all while diminishing computing costs. IPsoft Green Computing Solutions: Consolidation

Companies can maximize each server with server consolidation, making the most of data center investments. Server consolidation reduces the amount of servers needed by optimizing the available capacity of each server. IPsoft expertly manages consolidation so that business processes are streamlined, saving energy resources. Virtualization Virtualization allows networks and servers to be accessed and used independent of location. IPsoft’s virtualization techniques utilize existing servers to the maximum output. Using servers to capacity cuts down on the energy needed. On-Demand Computing

Instead of buying and running extra computing resources, on demand computing provides computing resources as they are needed. CPU, applications bandwidth and storage are all available on an on-demand basis. IPsoft’s on-demand computing solutions allow businesses to allocate resources per specific needs and growth, decreasing the amount of wasted energy. Utility computing Utility computing is an on demand service which allows companies to pay for only needed computing resources. Providing scalable flexible computing usage, utility computing enhances productivity. Utility computing uses irtualization to enlarge the computing and storage capabilities. By only investing in resources as they are needed, companies can keep energy expenditures and costs down. Grid computing Grid computing is a cost effective way to acquire computer resources. Used for large computing needs, grid computing uses multiple computers in a network at the same time. Grid computing can utilize geographically dispersed resources to process a large amount of data. By providing a quick solution to usage changes, grid computing provides businesses with extra capability when needed, without consuming large amounts of energy.

Service Oriented Architecture Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) consolidates business processes, combining business management services. Businesses use SOA to lower IT costs and speed acceleration and security for web applications and datacenter management. With SOA’s multi-application and server monitoring and management, businesses enhance business services and functions, such as: customer service, order service and inventory service. IPsoft’s SOA solutions reduce superfluous application processes, and introduce an organized, streamlined method of application management.

Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. It is “the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. Green IT also strives to achieve economic viability and improved system performance and use, while abiding by our social and ethical responsibilities.

Thus, green IT includes the dimensions of environmental sustainability, the economics of energy efficiency, and the total cost of ownership, which includes the cost of disposal and recycling. It is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. ” [1]. With increasing recognition that man-made greenhouse gas emissions are a major contributing factor to global warming, enterprises, governments, and society at large now have an important new agenda: tackling environmental issues and adopting environmentally sound practices.

Greening our IT products, applications, services, and practices is both an economic and an environmental imperative, as well as our social responsibility [2]. Therefore, a growing number of IT vendors and users are moving toward green IT and thereby assisting in building a green society and economy. Pathways to Green Computing To comprehensively and effectively address the environmental impacts of computing/IT, we must adopt a holistic approach and make the entire IT lifecycle greener by addressing environmental sustainability along the following four complementary paths:

Green use — reducing the energy consumption of computers and other information systems as well as using them in an environmentally sound manner Green disposal — refurbishing and reusing old computers and properly recycling unwanted computers and other electronic equipment Green design — designing energy-efficient and environmentally sound components, computers, servers, cooling equipment, and data centers Green manufacturing — manufacturing electronic components, computers, and other associated subsystems with minimal impact on the environment

Reducing Energy Consumption The following are some of the ways to make your Computer more environmentally friendly. Modern Computers are power hungry things. There are many things we can do to reduce the amount of power they use. As a General rule laptops use less than Desktops, and LCD (Flat screens) Screens use less than CRT (big fat screens). Suggestions for your current PC Switch your computer off when you’re not using it, Especially over night and if you will be out for the day.

If your going to be away from it for a short time then turn off the monitor. You can also adjust the power management using the control panel to turn off your hard drive and put your system into standby after a set amount of time. For more advanced users remove unnecessary fans and Drives. If you have a spare CD-ROM you use once in a blue moon unplug it. Also if your computer is only used for office work or checking your email unplug excess devices you do not use.

Install Power management Programs like Local Cooling or Snap CO2 Saver. These programs basically just adjust your Power management settings though so are pointless if you know how to do this. Print wisely – Only print what you really need to have a paper copy of and resist the urge to print ‘all pages’ when you only need what is on one particular page. There is software available that can help with this, or simply use the “print preview” to see which pages you really need and only print those pages.

Refill Ink-jet cartridges and laser toner; its cheaper and doesn’t add to landfill Switch off Cable Modems, Routers and Wifi Access Points when not in use / overnight Replace your internal hard drive with a low energy solution such as Western Digital’s Green Drive An exernal hard drive is also useful to backup your content, or to use as simple add-on storage capacity. Like the SimpleTech redrive, look for one that is energy efficient and Energy Star qualified, is made from sustainable materials such as bamboo and aluminum and is conscious about its packaging.

Use a Google alternative, such as Smallest Google, saving energy, time, and bandwidth. Suggestions for Buying a New PC Buy a Laptop! Laptops use less power than a desktop. Buy a computer according to your needs. If your only using it for simple tasks don’t buy the most powerful available. Choose the latest Intel or VIA processors over AMD as they use less power. VIA is the best for the environment although not as powerful. If you are going to build your own PC pick the parts carefully. Instead of getting two 1gb chips, buy one 2gb one.

Build the computer to your needs don’t install unnecessary parts if you will never use them. Also consider certified 80 plus energy efficient power supplies 80 PLUS Program If you are concerned about hazards chemicals used in pc components consult Greenpeace’s Green Electronics Ranking orThe Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) in electrical and electronic equipment. Choose Corded Keyboard and Mouse over wireless. As a general rule ink-jet printers use much less energy than laser ones however the inks in inkjet printers spoil clean paper recycling processes.

Overview of Procedure The increase in U-M consumption of electricity and paper causes an increase in air pollution, solid waste, and the burning of fossil fuels. Much of the paper used by PCs is wasted. National estimates indicate that most PCs are not being used most of the time they are on. In addition, 30 – 40 percent of all PCs are left on overnight and on weekends. On the U-M Ann Arbor campus, PC operation alone may account for at least $1. 8 million in energy costs each year.

This represents approximately 11 percent of the total amount spent by the U-M on electricity. It is estimated that a PC system can easily consume 300 watts of electricity per hour ‚ the same amount of energy needed to operate three 100 watt light bulbs. The following “green computing” habits can significantly reduce the amount of electricity and environmental waste for which PCs are responsible. Waste Minimization Procedure Electrical Conservation Tips: Turn the computer off overnight and on weekends; Wait until ready to use the PC before turning it on;

If the computer is going to be inactive for more than 16 minutes, consider turning it off. After this time, the energy needed to run the computer outweighs the start-up energy; Do not turn on the printer until ready to print, even an idle printer consumes energy; Try to schedule computer-related activities to do them all at once, keeping the computer off at other times; If spending a large amount of time at the computer, consider reducing the light level in your office. This may improve cathode ray tube screen visibility as well as save energy.

Paper Conservation Tips: Use “paperless” methods of communication such as electronic mail (e-mail) and fax modems. Also, do not print out copies of e-mail messages unless necessary; Use smaller font sizes and decrease the spacing between lines, or reformat to keep the document to as few pages as possible; Review documents on the screen instead of printing a draft. If you must print a draft, use the blank back side of used sheets; Use a printer that can print double-sided documents. When making copies, use double-sided copying; The

U-M buys and uses recycled-content paper when possible. Look for papers with 50 – 100 percent post-consumer waste and non-chlorine bleached. Also, recycle paper when done. Store information on diskettes rather than in “hard copy” format. A single high-density 3. 5 inch floppy disk can hold the equivalent of 750 sheets of paper, about one and a half reams. Also, be sure to reuse disks that contain outdated information. Purchasing and Use of Equipment: Printer toner cartridges can be refilled, rebuilt and reused.

Many manufacturers will take a spent cartridge, refurbish it, refill it, and return it for about half the price of buying a new one; Determine whether you can upgrade your existing equipment rather than purchasing new equipment; Donate an old computer to a school or charity; if it is permanently out of order, give it to a computer recycling facility instead of discarding in a landfill; Only buy a monitor as large as you really need; a 17 inch monitor uses 40 percent more energy than a 14-inch monitor. Also, the higher the resolution, the more energy it needs; Consider purchasing an ink jet printer instead of a laser printer.

Although they are a little slower, they use 80-90 percent less energy; Request recycled or recyclable packaging from your vendor; Buy soy or non-petroleum based inks. These printer inks are made from renewable resources, require fewer hazardous solvents, which translates to fewer air emissions, and in many cases produce brighter, cleaner colors; Try to buy energy efficient products such as those bearing the Energy Star Logo. The Energy Star Program was started by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to encourage the production and use of energy-efficient equipment.

In accordance with the EPA’s voluntary guidelines, leading computer manufacturers are now producing equipment that can automatically power down to a “sleep mode” to save energy when not in use. They also use up to 30 percent less energy when running than conventional equipment. These added capabilities do not increase price or decrease performance. Known Limitations None known. Safety & Health Precautions/Personal Protective Equipment Not applicable. Benefits The production of electricity is the largest single source of air pollution, due to the burning of fossil fuels.

A power plant used to generate electricity, burns oil, coal, or natural gas that emits gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These gases, in turn, cause acid rain, smog and global warming. Conserving energy reduces the amount of fuel that has to be consumed, thereby reducing the amount of pollution generated. Obviously, energy-efficiency is a positive step toward reducing air pollution. Some of the tips given above to reduce paper use and reuse of toner cartridge and diskettes will go a long way towards reducing the amount of solid waste that ultimately ends up in a landfill.

General Facts about Computer Energy Use Computer technology use accounts for 2% of anthropogenic CO2 Roughly equivalent to aviation industry IT energy usage will double next 4 years For every 12 consumers who keep power settings enabled for their on their monitors and PCs, CO2 emissions equivalent to removing one average automobile from the road will be avoided. A typical desktop PC with a 17-inch LCD monitor requires about 145 watts—110 watts for the computer and 35 watts for the monitor.

If left on 24×7 for one year, this same computer will consume 1,270 kilowatt hours of electricity—that’s enough to release 1,715 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and the equivalent of driving 1,886 miles in the average car! Datacenter energy use Power used by servers, cooling and ancillary infrastructure in 2005 accounted for about 1. 2 percent of the United States’ electrical usage—the equivalent in capacity terms of about five 1,000 MW power plants (Jonathan Koomey, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) U. S. energy consumption by data centers is expected to almost double in the next five years (U.

S. EPA, August 2007) U. S. commercial electrical costs increased by 10% from 2005 to 2006 (EPA Monthly Forecast, 2007) Data center power and cooling costs have increased 800% since 1996. (IBM/Consultant Studies) Over the next five years, it is expected that most U. S. data centers will spend as much on energy costs as on hardware, and twice as much as they currently do on server management and administration costs. (IBM/Consultant Studies) With annual energy costs per square foot that are 10 to 30 times that of a typical office building, data centers are an important target in energy-saving efforts.

The Green Touch initiative sets a five-year goal of making communications networks 1000 times more energy-efficient than they are today, the equivalent of being able to power the world’s communications networks for three years using the same amount of energy that it currently takes to run them for a single day. A global consortium organized by Alcatel-Lucent’s Bell Labs plans to “create the technologies needed to make communications networks 1000 times more energy-efficient than they are today,” the group said in a Jan. 11 news release.

The target comes from “Bell Labs’ analysis of the fundamental properties of ICT [Information and Communication Technology] networks and technologies (optical, wireless, electronics, processing, routing and architecture) and studying their physical limits by applying established formulas,” the release said. It continued: “A thousand-fold reduction is roughly equivalent to being able to power the world’s communications networks, including the Internet, for three years using the same amount of energy that it currently takes to run them for a single day. The consortium is called the Green Touch initiative and founding members include service providers AT&T, China Mobile, Portugal Telecom, Swisscom and Telefonica; research labs at MIT, Stanford University’s Wireless Systems Lab and the University of Melbourne’s Institute for a Broadband-Enabled Society; government and nonprofit research institutes such as the CEA-LETI Applied Research Institute for Microelectronics and the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control; and industrial labs at Bell, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology and Freescale Semiconductor. Truly global challenges have always been best addressed by bringing together the brightest minds in an unconstrained, creative environment. This was what we used when putting a man on the moon and is the same approach we need to implement to address the global climate crisis,” Secretary of Energy Steven Chu said in a statement. “With its launch, the consortium also has issued an open invitation to all members of the [ICT] community to join forces in reaching this ambitious target,” the group said.

According to Green Touch, the consortium “will deliver—within five years—a reference network architecture and demonstrations of the key components required to realize this improvement. This initiative also offers the potential to generate new technologies and new areas of industry. “The first meeting of the consortium will take place in February and will be dedicated to establishing the organization’s five-year plan, first-year deliverables, and member roles and responsibilities. “

Green computing, the study and practice of efficient and eco-friendly computing resources, is now under the attention of not only environmental organizations, but also businesses from other industries. In recent years, companies in the computer industry have come to realize that going green is in their best interest, both in terms of public relations and reduced costs. This article will take a look at several green initiatives currently under way in the computer industry, as well as issues that have been raised regarding these initiatives.

We will also have a talk with VIA to learn more about the future of green computing. The field of “green technology ” encompasses a broad range of subjects — from new energy-generation techniques to the study of advanced materials to be used in our daily life. Green technology focuses on reducing the environmental impact of industrial processes and innovative technologies caused by the Earth’s growing population. It has taken upon itself the goal to provide society’s needs in ways that do not damage or deplete natural resources.

Mainly this means creating fully recyclable products, reducing pollution, proposing alternative technologies in various fields, and creating a center of economic activity around technologies that benefit the environment. Perhaps the most talked about aspect of green technology is the promise of alternative energy sources. Sun, wind, water, sugar — we’ve heard about them all. However, scientists are working on other aspects of the problem as well, testing building materials and studying chemical processes to reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances.

Nanotechnology is also being used in an attempt to manipulate materials at the nanometer scale; scientists are hoping it can transform manufacturing on a global level, from government purchasing to a technological revolution. The huge amount of computing manufactured worldwide has a direct impact on environment issues, and scientists are conducting numerous studies in order to reduce the negative impact of computing technology on our natural resources.

Companies are addressing e-waste by offering take-back recycling programs and other solutions, with lower energy consumption and less wasted hardware. A central point of research is testing and applying alternative nonhazardous materials in the products’ manufacturing process. VIA Technologies Green Computing VIA Technologies, a Taiwanese company that manufactures motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and other computer hardware, introduced its initiative for “green computing” in 2001.

With this green vision, the company has been focusing on power efficiency throughout the design and manufacturing process of its products. Its environmentally friendly products are manufactured using a range of clean-computing strategies, and the company is striving to educate markets on the benefits of green computing for the sake of the environment, as well as productivity and overall user experience. Carbon-free computing One of the VIA Technologies’ ideas is to reduce the “carbon footprint” of users — the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO2).

Greenhouse gases naturally blanket the Earth and are responsible for its more or less stable temperature. An increase in the concentration of the main greenhouse gases — carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorocarbons — is believed to be responsible for Earth’s increasing temperature, which could lead to severe floods and droughts, rising sea levels, and other environmental effects, affecting both life and the world’s economy.

After the 1997 Kyoto Protocol for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the world has finally taken the first step in reducing emissions. The emissions are mainly a result of fossil-fuel-burning power plants. (In the United States, such electricity generation is responsible for 38 percent of the country’s carbon dioxide emissions. ) VIA aims to offer the world’s first PC products certified carbon free, taking responsibility for the amounts of CO2 they emit.

The company works with environmental experts to calculate the electricity used by the device over its lifetime, generally three years. From this data, one can conclude how much carbon dioxide the device will emit into the atmosphere during its operation. This estimate will serve as an indicator, and the company will pay regional organizations for the “sequestering,” or offsetting, of the emissions. Offsetting carbon dioxide can be achieved in different ways. One way is to plant trees that absorb CO2 as they grow, in the region in which the processors were purchased.

The necessary amount of trees per processor is represented by VIA’s TreeMark rating system. In addition, VIA promotes the use of such alternative energy sources as solar power, so power plants wouldn’t need to burn as much fossil fuels, reducing the amount of energy used. Wetlands also provide a great service in sequestering some of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. Although they make up only 4 to 6 percent of the Earth’s landmass, wetlands are capable of absorbing 20 to 25 percent of the atmospheric carbon dioxide.

VIA is working closely with organizations responsible for preserving wetlands and other natural habitats, and others who support extensive recycling programs for ICT equipment. The amount paid to these organizations will be represented by a proportion of the carbon-free product’s price. Carbon-emissions control has been a key issue for many companies who have expressed a firm commitment to sustainability. Dell is a good example of a company with a green image, known for its free worldwide product-recycling program.

Dell’s Plant a Tree for Me project allows customers to offset their carbon emissions by paying an extra $2 to $4, depending on the product purchased. AMD, a global microprocessor manufacturer, is also working toward reducing energy consumption in its products, cutting back on hazardous waste and reducing its eco-impact. The company’s use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology in its manufacturing, and strained silicon capping films on transistors (known as “dual stress liner” technology), have contributed to reduced power consumption in its products.

Cite this Green Computing: Environmentally Sustainable Computing

Green Computing: Environmentally Sustainable Computing. (2016, Sep 16). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/green-computing/

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