To achieve D1 I am going to evaluate how nature and nurture can affect the PIES development at infancy and adolescence. Firstly nature (when inheritance of genes and characteristics are involved) and nurture (when environmental influences and how people are brought up) can both affect a person’s development. In this evaluation I am going to evaluate how the nature affects the PIES at infancy and what theories are behind them.
Secondly how the nurture can affect the PIES in infancy. Then I will go on to evaluate how the nature can affect the PIES in adolescence and then how the nurture can affect the PIES in adolescence. How Nature and Nurture affect the PIES development at infancy. Physical-Nature The genetics that an infant can inherit from the parents can decide the height and weight of that person. Also if there are any physical disabilities or abnormalities these can also be inherited from the parents to the infant. This can affect the child physically because it can affect their development, growth and motor skills.
Children have to build their muscle mass in order to be able to have the strength to develop as a person their age should. Disabilities or abnormalities can affect this. Also if the mother has exposed her baby to alcohol when she is pregnant then the baby could be born with Fetal alcohol syndrome. This can really affect an infant’s physical development. If the mother of the child is stressed whilst pregnant, this can also put pressure on the baby and could cause abnormalities.
This means that when they are at the infant stage, the physical development could suffer. This can also be an outcome of smoking whilst pregnant and malnutrition. If the parents have passed on certain genes through the child’s DNA then this can lead to developmental disabilities that start at infancy. For example Cerebral Palsy and cystic fibrosis. When a child is born they eventually learn to crawl, walk, talk etc. This is because of the genes they have inherited from their parents.
There may be a delay in this development due to inherited conditions/diseases this means that it may take longer for them to develop physically but usually they will eventually develop these milestones unless they have a condition or disease that disables them from being able to do physical things. Physical-Nurture Nurture affects an infant physically because the things around them can influence what they do. For example sport, if a child has been brought up to enjoy sport as they grow older through infancy and childhood the child will probably be very active and love to exercise.
As an infant this would mean that they may be starting pre-school, nursery or day facilities. This means that the teachers and other children will influence them to be physical by playing and also doing certain exercise. Also whilst going through infancy, pre-schools, nurseries or day centres usually provide healthy snacks and drinks for the child to ensure they are having the right food and vitamins the child needs to have a healthy body. At the infancy stage a routine of a child’s day can affect the child physically this is because change could maybe mean less exercise, or a different routine of eating patterns or how physical they are.
An infant’s physical development can be influenced through the environment in many ways. For example at a later stage of infancy when the child is beginning to try and walk, they use items around them to support them. Usually people around the child will also help them learn to walk by holding their arms but letting them move their feet and legs themselves. If an infant’s parents are not very active, for example if one of them had a mobility disability, then this could influence the child’s physical development because that parent may not be able to be very active with the child. This could mean that while the infant’s physical development is progressing, they may be less active than others. Intellectual-Nature
Whilst the mother is pregnant if the baby is exposed to toxic chemicals, foods of a certain kind, or also stress from the mother then this can permanently change the cognitive development. Infancy is one of the main times when the child begins to develop their intellectuality so this means that if any of the above have been exposed to much to the baby, when they are going through infancy they may struggle with their cognitive development. Those mothers that smoke, eat unhealthy foods or go through stress or trauma whilst they are pregnant usually notice a risk of delayed cognitive development when the child is an infant.
On the other hand if the mother doesn’t smoke, eats healthy and remains stress and trauma free whilst going through the pregnancy, the infants cognitive development is usually normal. Genetic health problems can limit a child’s interest or access to an environment that consists of activity. When a child is born they are already born with certain capabilities of being able to learn.
An infant has many different milestones for their intellectual development which they learn as they develop. The only reason why they wouldn’t develop, or are slower at developing could be because of concentration, they may have certain conditions such as dyslexia or more. Intellectual-Nurture At the beginning of infancy, so when the child is still a baby. When the mother or father makes noises or talks to them, the baby will respond in some kind of way whether it’s making noise, or sometimes even saying simple words like ‘yeah’. They begin to understand certain meaningful words such as yes, no and bye.
As the infant grows older they start to understand certain meaningful phrases rather than just words. This is when they are being told to do something. The intellectual development usually depends on how the child has learnt and the environment they have been around rather than being born with it.
Some parents of a child may not use certain activities to help the child learn such as asking them questions and trying to teach him/her words. This can affect the bond between the parents and infant which could affect the intellectual and emotional development. If an infant is being neglected or abused, this has a major effect on the intellectual development of the child. As the child grows older if he or she hasn’t had enough interaction with the parents then this causes hormonal changes that are not good for the brain development.
If a child’s parents show interest in schooling and achievements, then the child will naturally grow older to thrive to please the parents. This can be proved with the behaviourist approach which will be explained later on. Emotional-Nature Genetic abnormalities or disabilities can affect a child’s emotional development. This is because having certain disabilities and abnormalities can be hard to cope with. For example if a child had downs syndrome, this will affect them emotionally because although people who have downs syndrome are usually quite happy, there is also a huge amount of stubbornness.
This means that if the infant is knocked out of their normal routine it can really effect their emotional development because they are still developing, so dealing with different emotions would be hard for a person at such a young age. Perinatal Maternal Depression can actually be inherited through past family, this suggests that if a baby had inherited this from the mother then it is possible that the child may grow to have a slight case of this depression which could grow in severity as they develop.
If this happens through infancy then it is likely the infant is going to show the signs of depression but not to the extent that an adolescence or an adult would. Post natal depression that has been inherited by a child from the mother can affect an infant’s emotional development in a big way. It has been proven that mothers that suffered with post natal depression actually found that their infants didn’t like to share, they had low rate of interactive behaviour, they had less concentration than other infants and also didn’t like meeting strangers at all.
This shows that nature can affect an infant’s emotional development because those children that shown the less common symptoms above had inherited this from their mothers. Because the infants were going through this there development was not the same as other infants. When a child is born, they have a natural attachment to the mother. This is why it is important that the mother and baby bond so that as they develop emotionally they are usually quite happy and also have a happy infancy.
If this bond is not made, then the emotional development by the time the child Is an infant could struggle and could cause problems as the child grows older. The emotional development in infants is one of the most important developments they can go through. When it comes to how nurture affects the emotional development of the infant there are many ways of how it does. Firstly the attachment between the mother and child is a huge factor. When the mother and child have a good attachment the emotional needs are met.
The child will feel loved, safe and protected. An infant’s development can be affected by the littlest things such as hugs, kisses, smiles and how the mother/ father talks to the child. When you are around a mother and their child you will notice that a mother and child that have a good attachment will get along better. For example the mother may make noises to the child whilst smiling and also talking to them in a very simple language with a different tone of voice. The child will then most likely reply in some kind of way.
Whereas if a mother and child didn’t have such a good attachment the mother may talk to her child in a different way, the infant may then not understand this and may not give a reaction. If a parent pays enough attention to their infant, as the child grows older they will most likely have a trusting relationship with them and open up to them. Research has shown that infants grow to have a healthier development if parents provide the affection and attention required.
If the relationship between the infant and a parent has enough consistency, this can actually lead to the child as they have grown older to dealing with stress better. If an infant has down syndrome then although it can be difficult to deal with that individual would still behave in a socially accepted manner, also that infant would be able to be situated in a mainstream classroom.
Infants that have downs syndrome are also outgoing, engaging and affectionate towards others. If a child has inherited sickle-cell anaemia then as they develop they will continue to need a lot of hospital treatment. This could mean that it will affect the infant’s social development because life for them will not be the same as the other children. If a child has inherited brittle bone disease from the parents then this causes the child a lot of fractures as they are growing up.
Although this affects them physically this also affects them emotionally socially and intellectually. It affects them socially because they have to be really careful with what they do. As they have brittle bone disease they can suffer from a large amount of fractures, this is because they could do any little thing and a bone could be fractured. This means that they may have to have a lot of time of school, they probably would have to be careful with how they socialise with others and also they would probably need a lot of hospital treatment. Social-Nurture
If an infant’s parents are happy, jolly and outgoing with them and if they try and make the child’s lifestyle as fun as possible, then as the child grows older this will become one of their qualities. If you are around a certain child for a long period of time you can tell whether they are a happy child who has a good relationship with their parents or whether they have a worse relationship with their parents and they are not very happy. If parent’s have the correct ratio of discipline and rewards comparing with the child’s behaviour they are most likely to be well behaved and not rebel against their parents.
Whereas if the child is rewarded and praised even when they should not be, this can cause the child to be confused and not realise right from wrong. And also if the child is not disciplined for the things he/she should be, then this may lead them to think they are doing nothing wrong. This also links to the behaviourist theory. If a child has siblings that he or she gets along well with, this could mean that when the child progresses socially for example being at school or playgroups then they are most likely to be able to have good relationships with other children and people around them.
On the other hand if a child has siblings that he or she does not get along with or that are older and overpower him or her then this could mean that they will be insecure when it comes to having friendships with others around them. Bullying can have a huge impact on a child’s life, although bullying doesn’t usually occur until a later stage in childhood, there can be little examples of it in infancy which usually occurs within a nursery setting. For example the simple things such as biting, kicking, poking.
There are to impacts this could have, as the infant grows older they could either follow this or do to other children what he or she had done to them. Or it could make them not want to have relationships with other people. A diet that an infant has can actually impact the social development of that child in terms of energy. Usually when a child is energetic they will often play and run about with other children whereas if they are not energetic and quite tired they may be unsettled and want to do a quiet activity on their own.
This can be linked to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs because of the need of an appropriate diet. http://www. netdoctor. co. uk/diseases/facts/brittlebones. htm Theory that shows the effects of nature on the PIES in infancy The Maturational Theory The maturational theory comes from the biological approach in psychology. The theory states that the development of an individual is down to the aging process rather than what the person learns for example injury, illness or life experience. The creator of this theory was Arnold Gesell. After creating this theory he then added to it by saying that the DNA, Genes and
Characteristics that a child inherits will determine that child’s development as they grow older. This theory is actually now used clinically to observe children’s development. Then scroll down to Psychology and click on the biological perspective. Theory that shows the effects of nurture at Infancy The behaviourist approach The theory of the behaviourist approach is that all behaviour is learnt. One of the main phrases of the theory is ‘You are born as a blank slate’.
It also says that Everyone has the potential to become anything. The behaviourist approach can be linked to the development of PIES at infancy because of the use of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning in this theory is basically rewarding and punishing. For example if a child had done well at school then they would get rewarded for doing so with sticker charts or sweets or even praise. On the other hand if a child has been naughty and done something wrong then they should be punished with maybe a naughty corner etc. This theoretically teaches the child right and wrong.
This links to the development of PIES at the infancy stage because of the intellectual, social and emotional development. Intellectually the children are discovering what is right and wrong and they are being taught this by operant conditioning. Emotionally they are developing what it feels like to be rewarded, so probably happy and joyful and then punished, probably upset and distressed. Socially this can help with an infant’s relationships with parents, friends and also can help at pre-school, nurseries or day centres or even schools.
This is because if a mother and father manages to teach their child right from wrong this could mean that because the parents have put a lot of time and attention to the child the child will then grow older to have a trusted relationship with them. At schools this is a brilliant way that the teachers can teach the children right from wrong, it may take some time to get the hang of, but usually will eventually work. How Nature and Nurture affect the PIES development at Adolescence Physical-Nature An adolescent, male or female go through a lot of physical changes at their ge that are down to biological factors.
These changes are due to sexual characteristics that both males and females inherit from their parents. The Males testicles and scrotum may be beginning to develop by the age of 9. Usually by 16 or 17 years old, the male’s genitals will be adult size. At around 13 years old all hair starts to grow, including pubic, armpit, legs, chest and face. Usually males start puberty later than girls and mature a lot later than girls. Females might start to develop breasts at 8 years old.
Usually if a mother to that female has quite big breasts, this can sometimes mean that the female will to. The beginning of a females menstrual cycle can start from the age 10. But it varies with different females as to whether they start early or late. The hair on girls including pubic, armpit and legs usually begins to grow at around 13-14 years. These characteristics for both male and females vary depending on the DNA, genes and characteristics that the adolescent has inherited from his/her parents.
When an adolescent is at a certain age, hormones are released by the brain. These hormones which can be different for males and females, causes changes to the body of that person. Females start to produce oestrogen in the ovaries and males begin to produce testosterone. All of the different changes that males and females go through are due to nature because of one of the most important factors in adolescence’s life Puberty. Physical-Nurture In schools, colleges or maybe youth clubs, adolescence’s are encouraged to do exercise and eat healthily.
Having a well- balanced diet and an adequate amount of exercise is one of the most important things that those in the adolescence should do. The healthy eating may be through the meals that are provided at a cost in schools. The exercise may be Physical Education lessons or even taking part in sport such as football teams, rugby teams, netball teams etc. Another physical affect that nurture can have on an adolescent is pregnancy. If an adolescent gets pregnant then her body will make the changes that are suitable for the foetus to develop to a baby over the nine month period.
This is to do with keeping healthy and eating appropriate things. This is due to nurture because a girl isn’t born to definitely have a baby, this is a lifestyle choice. Life experiences or trauma could have an effect on an adolescences sleep pattern. If that person is not getting enough sleep then this can affect the physical ability of that person in the way that they may not have the energy that they need to carry out their day to day lives especially if they take part in sport.
Lack of sleep and poor diet can lead a person to have low immune systems which could cause an adolescent to become run down, exhausted or even ill easily. This would have an negative affect on their day to day lives. Intellectual-Nature If an adolescent had inherited dyslexia from his or her parents then this could make any learning difficult, during adolescence it is one of the most important learning times of the life because of important exams and also maybe progressing into a career.
When a child is born they have already inherited certain characteristics that can decide on that person’s intellectual ability as they develop and grow older. Intellectual-Nurture At the adolescence stage, this one of the times that that individuals intellectuality is developing the most. They are learning different things about knowledge, skills, the society they live in, the world and most importantly themselves. The environment around an adolescent can determine how well they will develop intellectually.
For example if an adolescent has a loving family, a good home and the right support they need from those around them then they are probably going to better in their studies and exams than those people who struggle with home life and haven’t got much support around them. This is because if there is less worry, then there is more chance of further commitment and concentration on the things that are seriously important in this stage of life. Also at this stage in the life adolescents are making the most important decisions about what they want to pursue as their career as they grow older.
Role models can come in to this which can be linked with the social learning theory. This stage of the life also involves the conscious mind of adolescents it’s when they self-actualise if their needs are met and also its when they determine whether they are comfortable with themselves and whether there are any changes they want to make for a more positive opinion on themselves and others around them. Certain programmes on the television can actually help