Explain why it is important to take a balanced approach to risk management All activities a child does involves and element of risk. Ensure it is well planned and organised with thought given to the risk. If we responded to all the risks, the children would be unable to explore and experiment. Children need to explore and experiment, its part of their development, which allows them to learn. Children need to develop their skills, with little adult intervention. Ensure to balance the risk of an activity against the benefit to and safety of the child.
Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and young people and health and safety requirements Children learn from trying new experiences, they do not have the skills to make judgements about safety. Carers are there to ensure that children can experiment and undertake activities of their choice in a safe environment, through a risk assessment. Children learn from their mistakes and the choices they make. The practitioners ensure all children are protected from harm in a well controlled setting. Explain the partnership model of working with carers
The partnership between parents and practitioners working together is the best outcome for the children. This forms the basis of the model of partnership with parents and carers. Parents and carers work together to share ideas, information and thoughts about the best for the children. As part of the partnership with carers model, the parents are involved as much as they want to be. Parents should feel they can come into the setting to talk about their child at anytime, without an appointment. Parents can view and discuss the observations and assessments that take place in the setting about their child.
Parents are encouraged to share ideas on the planning and decision making. A lot of settings, have open mornings where the parents are invited into the setting to share experiences with their children in a different environment from home. Identify the dietary requirements of different cultural or religious groups Religious or cultural group Dietary requirements Islam Islamic dietary requirements specify that only Halal (lawful) Lamb, Beef and Chicken, fish and shellfish can be consumed. Pork is a forbidden food to the Islamic people, Haram (unlawful).
Cheese which has been certified Halal or cheese that does not contain rennet such as vegetarian cheese (rennet is extracted from the mucosa of a calf’s stomach, added to some cheeses). Eggs, tea, coffee and cocoa are permitted in the Islamic diet. Ramadan is a time of spiritual reflection and worship and is the Islamic month of fasting for in the 9th month of the Islamic calendar and lasts 29/30 days. Muslims adults refrain from eating and drinking in the daylight hours. Judaism Jewish dietary requirements specify that only kosher Lamb, Beef and chicken can be consumed.
Kosher is not a style of cooking, it is the way in which the food is prepared or the way the animal is killed, (in accordance with the Jewish law) Fish is to be eaten with the fins and scales. Cheese, milk and yoghurts are never eaten in the same meal even drinks containing milk are forbidden when eating meat dishes. Eggs are permitted providing they do not have any blood spots. Shellfish is forbidden to the Jewish people. Tea, coffee and cocoa are permitted. The saucepans, crockery and cutlery that have been used to cook non kosher food are then believed to be non-kosher utensils and are not to be used for kosher foods.
Yom Kippur is the holiest day of the Jewish people and is celebrated on the 9th day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei. The Jewish adults fast for 25 hours. Sikhism Due to the fact that there are vast grey areas on what Sikhs eat and refrain from eating, in our setting we require written confirmation from parents on what their child is/is not allowed to eat The general consensus is that Sikhs are free to choose whether to adopt a vegetarian or meat diet. Therefore Sikhism dietary requirements vary from one Sikh person to another however it does specify that Halal and Kosher meat is forbidden (Halal and
Kosher is meat that is ritually slaughtered). Some Sikhs will eat any meat, some will not eat beef. Some Sikhs will eat fish including shell fish where others will not. Again this principle is the same when it comes to eating eggs; it all depends on whether they have adopted a vegetarian or meat diet. Sikhs who have been initiated into the order of Khalsa by the Amrit ceremony are forbidden to eat any meat or meat products. (Khalsa by the Amrit is a baptism ceremony for sikhs). Sikhs are permitted to drink milk, tea coffee and cocoa. There is no fasting period for Sikhs. Rastafarianism
Due to the fact that there are vast grey areas on what Rastafarians eat and refrain from eating, in our setting we require written confirmation from parents on what their child is/is not allowed to eat Ital (derived from the English word vital) is the name of the Rastafarian diet. The Ital diet widely varies from Rasta to Rasta and there are few worldwide rules to Ital diet. They do not eat pork as they consider the pig a scavenger; some also refrain from eating shellfish for the same reason. Some Rasta’s follow a strict vegan diet, some Rasta’s are strict vegetarians and some will consume beef, chicken, lamb, fish, eggs and cheese.
However all Rastafarians believe that food should be natural, pure and from this earth, therefore they will avoid food that contains additives or food that is chemically modified. Depending on how a Rastafarian follows the Ital diet (strict or relaxed) they are allowed to drink tea, coffee and cocoa, however many avoid caffeinated beverages. There is no fasting period for the Rastafarians. Explain why social and emotional identity are important to the well being and resilience of children and young people It is important to instil resilience in children and young people because it gives them coping mechanisms.
It develops independence, empowers them, and gives them the skills to become autonomous, responsible, emphatic and altruistic. It gives them the tools to communicate with confidence, problem solve and handle negative thoughts, feelings and behaviours. It helps them face the world more optimistically – with hope, faith and trust in their own abilities. Resilience stops them feeling lonely, fearful and vulnerable. A childs is always changing, growing, and developing, this is a result of the child’s life experiences. Those experiences shape a child’s sense of who they are, where they belong and how society views them.
How a child is spoken to and treated impacts on their emotional identity. Negative interaction with a child or young person will result in a negative identity. If a child is ignored, not given high expectations, lacks support and encouragement they may view themselves as someone of little importance or worth. The environment in which they live can impact on their social identity. If they come from an area that is run down or known for its social problems they will be viewed as being part of the culture of the area.
They will be given a negative social identity and may adopt one because it is the norm in the area or they have a desire to fit in. This could negatively impact on their well being and resilience. Explain how to support children and young people to identify with their own self image and identity Identity and self image are key to a child or young person’s well being. A lack of identity leads to a sense of not belonging, of being an ‘outsider’. A poor self image leads to negative feeling about who they are and what they can achieve, resulting in poor self esteem.
It is therefore important that children and young people are encouraged and supported to understand, not only their own self image and identity, but those of the people around them. Identity and self image are about a sense of belonging. By showing children and young people that we are all different and that this is acceptable you are giving them the confidence to be themselves. By being understanding and adaptable you are showing them that they can develop and change their sense of who they are with each new experience and become the person they want to be.
Explain the importance of informing relevant people when there are concerns about a child or young persons health or well being You have a duty, under your settings Child Protection and Welfare Policies to report any concerns you may have regarding a child’s health and well being. Failure to report it means you are failing the child. You are not trained, equipped, have the resources or access to the resources needed to help that child and will just be prolonging the problems. Early intervention means rapid and early access to support, thus preventing a cumulative effect.
The later the intervention the harder it becomes to reverse the negative impacts. Identify the different relationships children and young people may have Whether the relationship is between friends, family members, partners, a teacher and a pupil, work colleagues, etc. there are four key elements of any good relationship: Trusting each other Effective communication Mutual respect and mutual benefit Valuing differences. Some relationships are formal and professional, some informal. Some relationships will be through choice of the child e. making friends but other relationships may need more work to bond e. g professional body such as health visitor. Describe the circumstances that would result in a relationship causing concern and the actions that should follow Circumstances that would result in a relationship causing concern would be any type of abuse.
For example- Physical abuse – Signs and symptoms • If a child has unexplained recurring injuries or burns. • Bruising in unusual places. E. g. inner arms and thighs. • If a child wears long sleeved clothes for example, to cover injuries – even in hot weather. If the child refuses to get undressed for p. e at school • Patches of hair missing • If the child continues to run away from home, time after time. • Fear of being examined at the doctors. • If they are aggressive towards themselves and other people. • Have a fear of physical contact – shrinking back if touched Sexual abuse - Signs and symptoms • Knowledge or behaviour that is not appropriate to the child’s age. • Medical problems. E. g. Severe itching or pain in the genitals. • The child may be depressed, attempt suicide, run away from home or self-harm. Personality may change. E. g. become insecure or clingy. • May have difficulty in walking or sitting.
• Change in behaviour. E. g. Regression • Loss of appetite or compulsive eating • Becoming isolated or withdrawn • Unable to concentrate • Have a fear of someone they know well. Emotional abuse – Signs and symptoms • Delayed development. • Sudden speech problems. E. g. stammering • Low self-esteem • Fear of new situations • Becoming withdrawn or aggressive. • Neurotic behaviour. E. g. Hair twisting or self-harm. Neglect – Signs and symptoms • Constantly hungry Poor personal hygiene • Constantly tired • Poor state of clothing. E. g. dirty/smelly or wearing the same clothes for several days. • Unusual thinness or loss of weight. • Medical problems that are left untreated. • The child may have no social relationships. As a setting, the actions we would take if we were concerned about a relationship would be: The child’s key person would make a dated record of the details of the concern and then discuss this with the designated safeguarding officer in the setting. The information would then be stored on the child’s personal file.
If the child makes a disclosure then we would listen to the child and give reassurance that we will take action, The member of staff would make a signed and dated record of the child’s name, address, age of the child, date and time of the observation or disclosure, an objective record of the observation or disclosure, the exact word spoken by the child and the names of any other people present at the time. Parents would be informed first, unless the allegation was made against them. The appropriate authorities would then be informed/contacted. E. g. Customer first.
Explain how to support children or young people to recognise and take action when they are involved in abusive or exploitative relationships If a child had a relationship that was making them unhappy, I would support them to end the relationship by listening to what they had to say. I would praise them for coming to me for help. Support, advice and reassurance, which in turn, would help boost their self-esteem and self-confidence and hopefully help them feel ‘stronger’ in communicating with the other person and making the other person aware of how they felt. I would keep confidentiality, where appropriate – so they felt they could trust me.
I would talk through with them, the good and bad points in the relationship, so they could look at it from both angles. I would then encourage them to try and leave the relationship in a respectful way, as further down the line; they may want to be friends again. If the other person was making them unhappy because they were asking them to do things that were against the law or things that made them feel unsafe, then I would also talk about what sort of trouble they could get into and the consequences that could arise from this if they continued with the relationship.
I would also remind the child/young person that it was ok to end the relationship for a while if they were not happy with the direction in which it was going, in order to give themselves space to think about what they wanted to do about the relationship problem, however big or small. Identify the potential benefits of different types of creative activity Creative movement allows children to express themselves through dance, music and even by how they move around, it helps their balance , co-ordination and gross motor skills.
Musical instruments can help them with their fine motor skills and they can express themselves individually. Creative activity through modelling helps children gain confidence and helps with fine motor skills. It gives them the decision making role and they can decide how to make their model. With a wide choice of resources they have lots of choice to explore, this gives children confidence and motivation. Children also learn to sort and categorise through exploration and choice. Small world play is also good and the children are very creative as they take on the role of dinosaurs and farm animals etc.
Creative role play, the children can be very creative in the role play and they will take on the roles of a dog for example, and a friend may be the dog owner, who feeds the dog, puts them to bed etc, this builds up confidence, friendships and imagination. Art, mark making, drawing and painting can benefit a child’s fine motor and pincer skills, we use many different materials including paint, crayons, chalk, stickers, pencils and they can draw, paint, finger paint and much more and they feel a sense of achievement when they have finished their work and they are always given praise.
There is no wrong way for a child to be creative through art its allows them to show their individuality and creative side. Explain evidence, approaches and theories about the benefits of creativity for the well being of children and young people The ‘Creative Partnerships’ programme was set up in 2002 by the government in response to the influential report ‘all our futures’. They use the term ‘creative learning’ to try and sum up their education programme. They believe creative partnerships can help liberate the creativity of everyone involved by engaging them in fresh approaches to learning through collaboration.
They feel collaborative working has these key characteristics: • Motivation for learning • Bringing the curriculum to life • Greater involvement in decision making • New ways for learners to engage in a subject. The QCA (creativity, find it and promote it 2005), promotes creativity as an integral part of all national curriculum subjects and identifies characteristics of creative learning as • Questioning and challenging conventions and assumptions. • Making inventive connections and associating things that aren’t usually related. • Envisaging what might be: imagining seeing things in mind’s eye. Trying alternative and fresh approaches, keeping options open. • Reflecting critically on ideas, action and outcomes. These characteristics and abilities have shown to lead to a sense of purpose, achievement of strengths, talents and interests, self-respect and a sense of belonging. The psychologist Donald Winnicott suggests that creativity belongs to the feeling of ‘being alive’. In order to be creative, children need to feel emotionally safe enough to make new connections, new directions and new insights. Children may be natural explorers, but they need to be in the right environment to be creative.
Daring to do something different, or in a new way, is at the heart of creativity. This means that children need positive experiences of having personal space to be alone with themselves, while at the same time feeling connected to other people, especially those who are important to them emotionally. In 1999 Gopnik, Meltzoff and Kuhl described how brain research has revolutionised ideas about childhood, the human mind and the brain. For example, babies’ brains are designed to enable them to make sense of the world around them.
More synapses (connections) are made in the first years of life than at any other time of life. Children are born with a strong desire to explore the world around them, and creativity develops from this innate curiosity. Explain the importance of encouraging carers to support children and young peoples creative activities Effective and appropriate staff development and training can have a huge, positive impact on workplace performance, which in turn can greatly enhance the learning experiences of the children using the setting.
To be effective, staff development should take into account the needs of individual staff members and the needs of the setting as a whole. Each member of staff should have a Personal Development Plan or Continuing Professional Development Plan which includes training and personal development goals, and how these relate to the aims of the setting. Being able to draw, paint or dance is not as important as providing young children with positive role models for participating in creative processes, for example by having a go, taking risks, and using trial and error to investigate possible outcomes.
Some practitioners may feel uncomfortable with the idea of promoting creativity and creative learning. They may prefer to avoid risks and/or may use very structured approaches to children’s play and learning. Encourage your colleagues to be more tolerant of messy activities and untidiness; remind them that allowing children to explore the environment and experiment with materials in different ways is an important part of children’s development and learning.
Reassure your colleagues that creative approaches will not result in a decline in children’s behaviour – rather there are many positive benefits, such as improvements in children’s attitudes and behaviour due to greater participation and engagement in learning. Explain the importance of spending creative time with children and young people and the benefits that can result Be a creative role model. Be creative in the way you think about things and do things. This means being open-minded and not being afraid of trying new ways of doing things.
It also means being spontaneous and not always sticking to the same routines. Although it's generally important to have a routine, it is also important to show you can be flexible. ow children what you are interested in or enthusiastic about and do it with them, for example, if you love painting, paint with them; if you love cooking, cook with them. Focus on the fun of the activity, rather than on the result. By doing this you will encourage them to develop their own creative interests and passions.
Some children may need help and encouragement to develop their skills in creative activity. For example, one child may not engage in creative thinking because they lack self-confidence. Or another child may be anxious when given an open-ended task because it has several possible solutions. Through observation and conversation, we can try to find out what is causing the child’s difficulty and encourage them to work through it. For example, you could explain that there are no right answers and that sometimes it is useful to make mistakes to learn how to come up with better ideas.