Initial Problems of Pakistan
Pakistan came into existence on 14th august 1947. Soon after its establishment Pakistan faced number of problems. Most of the problems of Pakistan were related with Pakistan dispute with India, such as the accession of the princely states, canal Water dispute, refugees’ problems and distribution of armed and military assets. Infect most of these problems were deliberately created by India itself so that Pakistan would not maintain its independent status and soon merged with India. (Nehru told General Sir Frank Messervy in 1945, “his deliberate plan would be to allow Jinnah to have hisPakistan, end gradually makes things so impossible economically and otherwise for Pakistan that they have to come on their banded knees and asked to be allowed back to India Uneven Boundary Distribution
The Indian Independence Act 1947 provided the formation of two boundary commissions for the division of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal between India and Pakistan. Each boundary commission consisted of representatives from India and Pakistan. Representatives of Punjab Boundary Commission
From Pakistan, Justice Din Muhammad and Justice Muhammad Munir. From india, Justice maherchad mahajan and justice tej singh. Representatives of Bengal boundary Comission
From Pakistan: Justice Abu Saleh, Justice Muhammad Ikram, Justice S.A. Rehman From india: justice b.k mukerjee and justice C.C. Biswas.
Sir Cyril Redcliff was appointed as the chairman of both the boundary commissions. Both India and Pakistan were agreed to accept the decision of Redcliff incase of deadlock. As expected the representatives of India and Pakistan were unable to reach on an agreement and Redcliff announced his own decisions on 16th August 1947.
Analysis of the Boundary Award
The award was partial, unjust and unfair to Pakistan as cliff handed over number of Muslim majority areas which were contiguous to the boundary of
Pakistan to India but none out the Hindu majority areas to Pakistan; Award also paved the way for the disputes between India and Pakistan over Kashmir and Canal Water.
Redcliff Award Handed over Some of the Muslim Majority Areas that were Contiguous to the Boundary of Pakistan to India: These areas included.
Sub-district of Ajnala in Amritsar district
Sub-district of Nakadar and Jullundur in Jullundur district
Sub-district of Ferozepur and Zira in Ferozepur district
Sub-district of Batala and Gurdaspur in Gurdaspur district
Redcliff award, allotted sixty-two percent of the area of undivided Punjab to India, with fifty-five percent of the population.
Accession Of Princely states
At the time of partition there were 462 princely states in subcontinent that cover 1/3 of Indian Territory and 1/4 of its population. Rulers of these princely states were given option by the British government either to join India, Pakistan or remain independent. However these states were advised to consider geographical location and religious trends of their respective states before accession to the either country. By 15th August most of these states announced their accession to either India or Pakistan except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh. Kashmir
At the time of partition Kashmir was state with 71.7% of Muslim population. Its ruler was maharaja hari singh. Maharaja hari singh wanted a free state of Kasmir but large muslim population wanted to merge them with Pakistan. This cause a great anarchy in Kashmir and Maharaja signed a secret document and give Kashmir accession to india and flew to England.
Hyderabad decan was the largest and richest state rule d by Muslim ruler Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to be applied by Indian army and Mount batten. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to india.
The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh, favored in acceding to Pakistan but Indian army occupied the state by force in November 1947.
Refugees and accommodation problems
Communal violence that had already started reached to its height after the announcement of Redcliff Award on 16tn August 1947. Hindus were angry over the division of the Subcontinent whereas Sikhs were unhappy over the loss of their religious places. Due to the communal violence millions of Indian Muslims leaving there property started migrating towards Pakistan. Apart from communal violence another reason for the migration of Muslims was their desire to live in a newly established Islamic state.
The arrival of refugees created problem for both the countries but the issue was more serious in the nascent state of Pakistan that was already facing no of problems. It was estimated that only West Pakistani received 5.5 million refugees and one sixth of the entire population of West Pakistan consisted of refugees. It caused economic and administrative problems, as Pakistan did not have sufficient resources to provide food, shelter and medical aid to the growing no of refugees. Even more serious fact was that offices and factories could not work properly because nearly all the Hindu and Sikh staff left Pakistan and majority of the refugees that arrived in Pakistan were peasant and unskilled and they were inexperience for the jobs that were waiting for them. It resulted serious dislocation for Pakistan in its economic life.
It had its origin in Redcliff Award which drew the boundary India and Pakistan in way that it cut across the rivers and canal making India the upper beneficiary and Pakistan the lower beneficiary, It also handed over the control over two important head works over river Ravi (Madhupure Head works) and Sutlej (Ferozpure Head works) to India. As being an agricultural county where rainfall is scanty and agriculture is greatly depending on irrigation by canal and rivers. Stopping the flow of water by India caused heavy economic loss for Pakistan. Some time even Pakistan forced to purchase water from India.
Dispute was finally settled when an agreement called Indus Basin treaty. The treaty was signed between Ayub Khan the president of Pakistan and Nehru the Indian Prime Minister on September 19, 1962. According to that agreement India was allocated the use of two Eastern Rivers namely Ravi and Sutlej whereas three western Rivers Indus, Jehlum and Chenab were given to Pakistan. To overcome the shortage of water World Bank, India and other friendly countries provided Pakistan financial assistance to construct two dams, five barrages and seven link canals Division of military and financial assets
In order to embarrass Pakistan financially, india did a lot of dishonesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. Pakistan was promised to get Rs. 750 million but the Indian govt. refused to give. Pakistan received only 200 million Rupees. Pakistan also didn’t receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties. Death of Quaid-e-Azam
Despite of all the problems, Pakistan continued to march under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. Nobody can deny that in the early year predominant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam was a source of strength for Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam died on 11th September 1948. After the death of Quaid-e-Azam though there were great leaders too, but unfortunately none of them was of the caliber of Quaid-e-Azam. Conclusion
Pakistan came into being as a free Muslim state in quite unfavorable circumstances .It had no resources, it had no resources, it had to build up its administrative machinery from a scratch. But Supreme efforts were made by the Quiad-e-Azam and his colleagues to grapple with the situation .His golden principles “Unity” “Faith” and “Discipline” gave way to Pakistan for a bright future of a strong and well developed country .In his last message to the nation on 14th August 1948, he told the nation:
“The foundation of your state has been laid and it is now for you to build and build as quickly and as you can.”