Kamias (Averrhoa Bilimbi) Extract as Browning Inhibitor Research Paper


Background of the Study Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi) is a small tree growing 5 to 12 meters high. Leaves are pinnate, 20-60 cm long, with hairy rachis and leaflets. Leaflets are opposite, 10 to 17 pairs, oblong, 5 to 10 cm in length. Flowers, about 1. 5 cm long, and slightly fragrant. Fruit, green and edible, about 4 cm long, subcylindric with 5 obscure, broad, rounded, longitudinal lobes. In our generation, many people are very problematic about the fruit’s / vegetable’s caramelization. In that case a lot of scientists invented chemicals that can be used for this problem, but the researchers noticed that, those invented chemicals are very expensive so this means that only rich people can use it.

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Now, the researchers want to produce a browning inhibitor that the poor people can afford. This product is not expensive actually we can find Kamias trees everywhere that’s why we can easily make this product. Generally kamias is not used as a browning inhibitor, it is known as the sour fruit that can grow anywhere. The researchers chose this fruit because it has the chemicals we need for curing the Enzymatic Browning of fruits / vegetables. Statement of the Problem

  • How to make Kamias Browning Inhibitor?
  • Is the Kamias Browning Inhibitor effective?
  • Are there any negative effects on the food?


  • Kamias extract can be used as a Browning inhibitor.
  • Kamias extract cannot be used as a Browning inhibitor.

Significance of the Study

This Browning inhibitor will help you to solve your problems on your fruits and vegetables especially when it comes to browning. This also can lessen your financial problem when it comes to these products. The researchers made this product to ensure total freshness on the fruits and vegetables. Scope and Limitation This study is limited only for the fruits and vegetables that are prone to Enzymatic Browning (Oxidation).

Nowadays, some Browning Inhibitors are expensive and it contains a lot chemicals that has bad effects on the food. This research is to determine that Kamias is also effective as a Browning inhibitor. This product can be handled by the adults and also children too. This study will only use freshly harvested Kamias fruit in order to keep its affectivity.

Definition of Terms

Acetic acid – CHCOOH, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic acid which gives vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. Oxalic acid – is the chemical compound with the formula HOOCCOOH.

This colorless solid is a relatively strong carboxylic acid, being about 3,000 times stronger than acetic acid. Sodium Metabisulfite – Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite (IUPAC spelling; Br. E. sodium metabisulphite or sodium pyrosulphite) is an inorganic compound of chemical formula Na2S2O5.

The substance is sometimes referred to as disodium (metabisulfite). It is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant and preservative agent. Oxidation (Browning) – Oxidation is defined as the interaction between oxygen molecules and all the different substances they may contact, from metal to living tissue.

Technically, however, with the discovery of electrons, oxidation came to be more precisely defined as the loss of at least one electron when two or more substances interact. Those substances may or may not include oxygen. (Incidentally, the opposite of oxidation is reduction — the addition of at least one electron when substances come into contact with each other. ) Sometimes oxidation is not such a bad thing, as in the formation of super-durable anodized aluminum. Other times, oxidation can be destructive, such as the rusting of an automobile or the spoiling of fresh fruit.


Kamias There are few cultivated varieties of bilimbi. However, there is a sweet variety in the Philippines – where the sour bilimbis are called “kamias”, while the sweet variety is called “balimbing”. In the Philippines, the leaves serve as a paste on itches, swelling, rheumatism, mumps or skin eruptions. Elsewhere, they are used for bites of poisonous creatures. A leaf infusion is used as an after-birth tonic, while the flower infusion is used for thrush, cold, and cough. Malaysians use fermented or fresh bilimbi leaves to treat venereal diseases.

In French Guiana, syrup made from the fruit is used to treat inflammatory conditions. To date there is no scientific evidence to confirm effectiveness for such uses. In some villages in the Thiruvananthapuram district of India, the fruit of the bilimbi was used in folk medicine to control obesity. This led to further studies on its antihyperlipidemic properties. Possibly originating on the Moluccas, Indonesia, the species is cultivated or found semi-wild throughout Indonesia, The Philippines, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma) and Malaysia. It is common in other Southeast Asian countries.

In India, where it is usually found in gardens, the bilimbi has gone wild in the warmest regions of the country. Outside of Asia, the tree is cultivated in Zanzibar. In 1793, the bilimbi was introduced to Jamaica from Timor and after several years, was cultivated throughout Central and South America where it is known as mimbro. Introduced to Queensland at the end of the 19th century, it has been grown commercially in the region since that time. This is essentially a tropical tree, less resistant to cold than the carambola, growing best in rich and well-drained soil (but also standslimestone and sand).

It prefers evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year, but with a 2- to 3-month dry season. Therefore the species is not found, for example, in the wettest part of Malaysia. In Florida, where it is an occasional curiosity, the tree needs protection from wind and cold. Browning Browning is the process of becoming brown, especially referring to food. Browning foods may be desirable, as in caramelization, or undesirable, as in an apple turning brown after being cut. Foods, including beverages, can turn brown through either enzymatic or non-enzymatic processes.

Browning has an important economic cost causing deterioration of the value of products in the market of food. Enzymatic browning Enzymatic Browning is a chemical process, involving polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase and other enzymes that create melanins and benzoquinone from natural phenols, resulting in a brown color. Enzymatic browning generally requires exposure to oxygen, thus the browning that occurs when an apple, for example, is cut. Inhibitor A stopping or checking of an already present action; a restraining of the function of an organ, or an agent, as a digestive fluid or ferment.


This provides presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data gathering from experiments and researchers. This study aims to use Malunggay leaves extract as a pesticide. Data gathered, results and interpretation were as follows:

  • Problem 1. Does Benz olive leaves (Malunggay Leaves) extract can be used as a cockroach killer? Yes, because it has constituents proven that can kill pests and the like materials also had been proven to kill pests, too. It has galactagogue, rubefacient, and antiscorbutic as its constituents.
  • Problem 2. Is it better to use Benz olive leaves (Malunggay Leaves) extract as a pesticide instead of using commercial ones? With the level of if it is safe to the user as well as to the environment, Yes. It has safe and natural compounds that are proven to kill pests.



The descriptive method of research was utilized and non- surveyed testing technique was used for data gathering. The product is tested by spraying on the specimen. The results are needed to be test is the mortality of the cockroaches against the product as well as its effectiveness and safeties.

  • Considered galactagogue, rubefacient, antiscorbutic, diuretic, stimulant, purgative, antibiotic, antifungal as constituents.
  • Diluted with Isopropyl Alcohol proven to have constituents proven harmful to insects.
  • The process in making the product was successful.

No side effect was encountered because no harmful chemicals that are added during the process. Better than commercial ones in line with the safety because the product is natural and environment- friendly.


Based from the following finding obtained from the study, the researchers therefore conclude that:

  • Malunggay leaves extract can be used as a raw material in making a pesticide. It can kill pests especially on cockroaches.
  • Malunggay leaves extract is better to use as a cockroach killer for as the constituents are natural and environment- friendly.

Constituents find are safe to the user and also to the environment.


Based on the findings obtained from the study, the following recommendations are formulated.

  • To the children- they should use the product with the guidance from older ones and enough knowledge on using it that it is for killing pests like cockroaches.
  • To the parents- they should assure their child with using the product. Guide them. They can use the product in being a solution for their pests’ problems at homes.
  • To the students- they should know the proper usage of the product. Let this project be an inspiration for your future investigatory projects.
  • To the teachers- they should assure their students with the use of the product and guide them.
  • To the school administrators- they should continue let the school environment clean and free from pests with the help of the product. This product should be taught on its usage and be an inspiration to their students for their future project needs.


  1. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/malunggay_(herbal)
  2. http://en.. google. com/malunggay http://en.. google. com/onpesticides
  3. http://en.. google. om/oncockroaches

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Kamias (Averrhoa Bilimbi) Extract as Browning Inhibitor Research Paper. (2016, Dec 17). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/kamias-averrhoa-bilimbi-extract-as-browning-inhibitor/