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The feasibility of Cayenne pepper and Pandan extract as larvicide

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    CATEGORY
    1. As part of this research project the researcher directly handled, manipulated or interact with (check all that apply) Human subjectPathogenic agentrecombinant DNA
    Nonhuman vertebrate animal Controlled subject’shuman/animal tissues 2. Researcher independently performed all procedures as outline in this abstract YesNo
    3. This project was conducted at a registered research institutionYesNo 4. Is this project a continuation? YesNo
    5. I/We hereby certify that the above statements are correct and the information provided in the abstract is the result of one year research. I/We also attested that the above property reflects our own work.

    Date Signed
    Research Plan

    Title: The feasibility of Cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius ) extract as Larvicide

    A. Question or problem being address
    1. Are Cayenne pepper and Pandan extract will be possible source of larvicide? 2. What concentration of Cayenne pepper and Pandan extract is effective larvicide. B. Goals
    Expected Outcome
    The extract of Cayenne pepper and pandan leaves feasible to use as larvicide to control the populations of mosquito’s which are the primary source of diseases.

    C. Description in detail procedure
    First gather all the materials needed. After the gathering of cayenne pepper and pandan, they were now pounded and extracted. The extract of cayenne pepper and pandan will be measured in different concentration. The first container has a 75% extract of cayenne pepper and 25% extract of pandan. The second one contains 50% extract of cayenne pepper and 50% extract of pandan And the last container has 25% extract of cayenne pepper and 75% extract of pandan. Then the three cups that contain 10 pcs. of wriggler each will be sprayed of the different concentration for about 5 ml. And record the no. of organism that survive and died. The study will use the chi-square test. D. Disposal of testing organism

    After the experiment, the testing organism will be properly disposed. The water will remove from the survive organism and throw to the trashcans.

    Introduction

    Mosquitoes can transmit more diseases than any other groups of arthropods and affect millions of people throughout the world. WHO has declared mosquitoes as ‘Public enemy number one’ .Mosquito are burn disease are prevalent in more than 100 countries across the world and infecting over 1 000 00 000 people every year globally. They act as a vector for most of the life threatening disease like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunua fever, filariasis, west vile virus infection, etc. in almost tropical and subtropical countries and many other parts of the world.(

    There are different types of larvicide in the country in able to prevent the spread of mosquitoes. But this kind of larvicide has a chemical substance that can affect the health of the people and the environment. Even though it is useful to our life it can be also a reason for another health problem.

    Using the natural product from our environment like the extract of cayenne pepper and Pandan leaves are more economical than any other chemical larvicide. It does not contain hazardous substances that may be a caused an effect to our health and environment. It is safer to use and less expensive.

    Back ground of the study

    Now a day, the mosquitoes bites are the cause of many in every year, it transmit serious human disease, its acts as a vector for most of the like threatening diseases.

    There are different applications of alternative strategies in mosquito control. Mosquito has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects. The continuous application of synthetic insecticide causes development of in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and non target organism including human health in addition to high operational cost.

    This research entitled ‘The feasibility of cayenne pepper and pandan extract as larvicide was conducted to find a less expensive and more alternative way to control the populations of mosquito. It is safer for each individual to use.

    There are several insecticide were currently out in the market but not all people can afford it. The use f this natural larvicide is more economical than any other types of chemical larvicide. It does not contain any substances that may harm the balance of nature.

    This study focuses on the use of cayenne pepper and lemon grass extract as alternative larvicide.

    Statement of the Problem

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Cayenne pepper and Pandan extract as larvicide.

    Objectives;
    Specifically, it sought to answer the following question;

    1. Are Cayenne pepper and Pandan extract will be possible source of larvicide? 2. What concentration of Cayenne pepper and Pandan extract is effective larvicide.
    Hypotheses

    Null Hypotheses (HO)
    1. There is no significant difference on the mortality rate of larvae using cayenne pepper and pandan extract.
    Alternative Hypotheses (Ha)
    2. There is significant difference on the mortality rate of larvae using
    cayenne pepper and pandan extract.

    Significance of the Study

    This study will benefit the following:

    Parents: will help them protect the health of their children from the diseases caused by the bites of mosquitoes.

    Department of Health; it will help them to lessen the expenses regarding the health problem of the community and the spread or transmission of disease caused by mosquito.

    Pesticide Manufacturer; it will help them because it will be a source of natural pesticide than other chemical pesticide.

    The community; it will help them to take care of the health of individual regarding from the bites of mosquito.

    The future researcher of our country; they may use this as a basis for conducting other research study that will contribute to the invention of new natural insecticide.

    Scope and Limitations The researcher study was conducted from to At North Poblacion Jose Panganiban, Camarines Norte to test the feasibility of cayenne pepper and pandan extract as larvicide. The experimentation, data analysis and interpretation will be done at Jose Panganiban National High School. The study was limited only to the use of cayenne pepper and pandan extract as larvicide. Only cayenne pepper, pandan extract and its capability to decrease the mortality rate of wrigglers are studied and no other variable are involved.

    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

    The cayenne pepper—also known as the Guinea spice, cow-horn pepper, aleva, bird pepper, or, especially in its powdered form, red pepper—is a hot chili pepper used to flavour dishes. It is red colored when ripened to maturity, but also eaten while still green. Named for the city of Cayenne in French Guiana, it is a cultivar of Capsicum annuum related to bell peppers, jalapeños, and others. The Capsicum genus is in the nightshade family (Solanaceae). The fruits are generally dried and ground, or pulped and baked into cakes, which are then ground and sifted to make the powdered spice of the same name. Cayenne is used in cooking spicy dishes, as a powder or in its whole form (such as in Korean, Sichuan and other Asian cuisine), or in a thin, vinegar-based sauce. It is generally rated at 30,000 to 50,000 Scoville units. It is also used as an herbal supplement, and was mentioned by Nicholas Culpeper in his Complete Herbal, 1653, as “guinea pepper” a misnomer for “guiana pepper” Cultivation

    Most cultivated varieties of cayenne, Capsicum annuum, can be grown in a variety of locations and need approximately 100 days to mature. Peppers prefer warm, moist, nutrient-rich soil in a warm climate. The plants grow to about 2–4 feet (0.6–1 metre) in height and should be spaced 3 ft (1 m) apart.[4] Chilis are mostly perennial in sub-tropical and tropical regions; however, they are usually grown as annuals in temperate climates. They can be overwintered if protected from frost, and require some pruning.[5] Nutrition

    Cayenne pepper, by weight, is relatively high in vitamin A. It also contains vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, riboflavin, potassium andmanganese.[6] However, given the very small amount of cayenne pepper typically consumed in a serving, it makes a negligible contribution to overall dietary intake of these nutrients. Cayenne pepper is also claimed to be a male aphrodisiac because it containscapsaicin which can increase blood flow to all parts of the human body. Many questions persist about the thermal value of cayenne. Canadian natives have used cayenne in their boots as a guard against sub-zero temperatures. “The present study has shown an increase in the dermal blood flow induced by topical application capsaicin on the human forearm using laser”.[7][8] In cuisine

    Cayenne is a popular spice in a variety of cuisines. It is employed variously in its fresh form, dried and powdered, and as dried flakes. It is also a key ingredient in a variety of hot sauces, particularly those employing vinegar as a preservative. Cayenne pepper is often spread on sandwiches or similar items to add a spicy flavor. Buffalo-wing sauce contains Cayenne pepper. In beverages

    Beverage products are emerging with cayenne-pepper extract, capsaicin, as an active ingredient http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cayenne_pepper
    Pandan
    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a tropical plant in the Pandanus (screw pine) genus, which is commonly known as pandan leaves and is used widely in Southeast Asian cooking as a flavoring. The characteristic aroma of pandan is caused by the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, which also gives white bread, jasmine rice and basmati rice (as well as bread flowers Vallaris glabra) their typical smell.] The plant is rare in the wild, but is widely cultivated. It is an upright, green plant with fan-shaped sprays of long, narrow, blade-like leaves and woody aerial roots. The plant is sterile, flowers only very rarely, and is propagated by cuttings Culinary use

    In Bangladesh it is called ketaki, along with the other variety of pandan there (Pandanus fascicularis), and is used to enhance the flavor of pulao, biryani and sweet coconut rice pudding, payesh. It is called pandan wangi in Indonesian, soon-mhway in Burmese, bai tooey in Thai, rampe in Sinhala, sleuk toi in Khmer, Daun Pandan in Nonya cooking [2] lá dứa in Vietnamese and “Basmatiyaa tree” in Magahi and Bhojpuri (BIHAR,U.P.) due to its fragrance. The leaves are used either fresh or dried, and are commercially available in frozen form in Asian grocery stores in nations where the plant does not grow. They have a nutty, botanical fragrance which enhances the flavor of Indonesian, Singaporean, Filipino, Malaysian, Thai,Bangladeshi, Vietnamese, Chinese, Sri Lankan, Khmer and Burmese foods, especially rice dishes and cakes. The leaves are sometimes steeped in coconut milk, which is then added to the dish. They may be tied in a bunch and cooked with the food. They may also be woven into a basket which is used as a pot for cooking rice. Pandan chicken, or gai ob bai toey, is a Thai dish with chicken wrapped in pandan leaves and fried. The leaves are also used as a flavoring for desserts such as pandan cake and sweet beverages. Also, Filipinos use pandan as a flavoring in buko pandansalad. Pandan a fourth class municipality in the province of Antique, Philippines. At the 2010 census, it had a population of 32,494 people.[3] Pandan is also one of the Antique’s industrialized towns and known for its natural beauty, its cold spring, the Bugang River and white beaches along the Pandan Bay from Barangay Mag-aba to Barangay Duyng http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandanus_amaryllifolius.

    Pandanus is a genus of monocots of about 600 known species, varying in size from small shrubs less than a meter to medium-sized trees of about 20 meters.

    In the Philippines there are 48 species of Pandanus, many of them are endemic, growing in various habitats, from sandy beaches, mangroves and primary forests. The fruit of some species are edible, eaten by bats, rats, crabs, elephants and lizards. The majority of species are dispersed primarily by water. Botany

    Pandan is an erect, branched small tree, growing 3 to 5 meters high; the trunk bearing many prop roots. Leaves are spirally crowded toward the ends of the branches, glaucous, linear lanceolate, slenderly long-acuminate, up to 1.5 meters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, the margins and midrib beneath towards the apex, armed with sharp spiny teeth that point toward the apex of the leaf. Male inflorescence is fragrant, pendulous, up to 0.5 meter long. Fruit is solitary, pendulous, ellipsoid to globose-ellipsoid, about 20 centimeters long, each composed of 50 to 75 or more, obovoid, angular, fibrous and fleshy drupes, 4 to 6 centimeters long, narrow below and truncate at the apex; the stone 4- to 10-celled, slightly sulcate between
    the cells of the apex, becoming yellow-red to bright red-orange at maturity.

    Distribution
    -In thickets along seashores throughout the Philippines.
    – Also occurs in Indo-Malayan and Polynesian regions, extending to southern China and tropical Australia. Constituents
    Essential oil, alkaloids, glycosides, isoprene esters, and tannin. Blossoms yield an essential oil.
    Keora oil contains diterpene, d-linalool, phenylethyl acetate, citral, phenylethyl alcohol ester, ester of phthalic acid, fatty acids and steroptene. Pandanus fruits contain significant amounts of vitamin C.

    Also contains significant amounts of provitamin A carotenoids. http://www.stuartxchange.com/Pandan.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandanus_amaryllifolius.
    Pandanus amaryllifolius shrub, also known as the dwarf or fragrant screw pine. This sprawling perennial plant is native to Southeast Asia and has beenintroduced in other tropical regions. It produces spirally arranged leaves about 1 to 1 1/2 incheswide and up to 18 inches in length. This shrubby perennial plant has fan shaped clusters of long,narrow leaves. Pandan leaves also contain compounds that repel some species of cockroachesand are a traditional insect repellent.Pandan leaves contain a number of essential oils and chemicals that cockroaches findunpleasant. Terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons make up between 6 and 42 percent of theoils in these leaves, according to the National University of Singapore researchers. Pandan leavescontain substances repellent to vermins, they actually discourage these insects at a lower rate than other plants from the same geographical regon.Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, though also by some insects such as termites or swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeterium. They are often strong smelling and thusmay have had a protective function. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers.Pandan leaves also contain volatile oil, an essential oil found in plants, whisch helps torepel vermins.One of the reasons why we did this study is to reduce the use of deet. DEET as we allknows a very effective mosquito repellent but this is what we are trying to avoid. It is highlyconcentrated toxic that could make us hard to breath, have cough, minimal alertness, seizures,trouble stomach and vomiting. If you accidentally sprayed DEET into your eyes, mouth andnose, you can feel burning sensation and irritation. But if you burnt your eye, you must go for medication. DEET is very hazardous for children. Proper care should be taken once you areusing DEET. It is advisable to use a natural based mosquito repellent than coming from syntheticchemicals.Many people’s response to fears about West Nile Virus (WNV) and the normalannoyance of mosquito bites is to slather on the insect repellent, especially on their children.The most common choice is a DEET based repellent. A study released last summer showed somedeet based products to be the most effective, in that they lasted longer than other products. Butdeet based repellents aren’t just hazardous to mosquitoes. From a human health point of view,when mosquito bites are more of a nuisance than a serious health threat, choosing a botanical based repellent makes more sense.DEET is a registered pesticide. DEET is short for N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (also knownas N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide). It is a member of the toluene chemical family. Toluene isan organic solvent used in rubber and plastic cements and paint removers. DEET is absorbedthrough the skin and passes into the blood. The Medical Sciences Bulletin, published by http://www.scribd.com/doc/79572294/Review-of-Related-Literature Larvicide

    Larvicide CULINEX Tab plus, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis A larvicide (alternatively larvacide) is an insecticide that is specifically targeted against the larval life stage of an insect. Their most common use is against mosquitoes. Larvacides may be contact poisons, stomach poisons, growth regulators, or (increasingly) biological control agents. ]Biological agents

    Larva of Aedes aegypti
    The biological control agent Bacillus thuringiensis, also known as Bt, is a bacterial disease specific to Lepidopteran caterpillars.Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, also known as Bti, and Bacillus sphaericus, which affect larval mosquitoes and some midges, have come into increasing use in recent times. Bti and B. sphaericus are both naturally occurring soil bacterium registered as larvicides under the names Aquabac, Teknar, Vectobac, LarvX, and VectoLex CG. Typically in granular form, pellets are distributed on the surface of stagnant water locations. When the mosquito larvae ingest the bacteria, crystallized toxins are produced which destroy the digestion tract,, resulting in death. These larvicides will last only a few weeks in water and pose no danger to humans, non-targeted animal species, or the environment when used according to directions. Methoprene is another biological agent that interrupts the growth cycle of insect larvae, preventing them from development beyond the pupa stage. Altosid is the trade name for methoprene, which is usually applied to larger bodies of water in the form of time-release briquets which can last from one to five months. Use of this larvicide does not pose an unreasonable health risks to humans or other wildlife and it will not leach into the ground water supply. There is a small acute and chronic risk to some fish and freshwater invertebrate species. Temephos, marketed as Abate and ProVect, is an organophosphate which prevents mosquito larvae from developing resistance to bacterial larvicides. Due to the small amount needed and the fast rate that temephos breaks down in water, this type of larvicide does not pose an unreasonable health risk to humans, but at large doses it can cause nausea or dizziness. Similarly, there is not a large risk to terrestrial species, but there is a toxic concern for non-targeted aquatic species. Therefore, temephos should be limited only to sites where less hazardous larvicides are ineffective and with intervals between applications. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larvicide

    REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES Four Clinical Studies Prove Cayenne Pepper Kills Cancer Cells Did you know cayenne pepper has been documented as capable of destroying cancer cells? Who has reported this? None other than the American Association of Cancer Research. This should be reported in the American media but endless celebrity stories about Paris Hilton or the Conan O’Brien/NBC feud are judged more important. With the stranglehold that Big Pharma and the government have on health information and services in this country, it’s not a surprise. It is, therefore, left to the truth seeker to discover alternative options. Capsaicin, the secondary metabolite in cayenne pepper that makes peppers (and cayenne) hot to the taste, kills androgen-independent prostate cancer cells within the male body. Aside from its numerous and varied health benefits, cayenne pepper’s anticancer properties should be enough to warrant a closer look but when one considers cayenne’s heart health benefits not to mention its affects upon every organ in the body, it rightly qualifies as nothing short of miraculous. In an article entitled, “Hot Pepper Kills Prostate Cancer Cells in Study” as published in Reuters on March 16, 2006, Dr. Soren Lehmann of the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine said the following, “Capsaicin had a profound anti-proliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells in culture.” It caused 80 percent of the prostate cancer cells growing in mice to “commit suicide in a process known as apoptosis.” Additionally, researchers said this in Cayenne Pepper “dramatically slowed the development of prostate tumors formed by those human cell lines grown in mouse models.” Researchers say that while there is not that much difference in prostate cancer cells from other cancerous cells so this study is quite interesting to say the least. So, how do you take cayenne pepper? You can take it in a capsule form, but its greatest benefits are taken by drinking it? “Drinking it”? Yes, taking it orally. By doing so, it has a literal immediate effect. You simply mix 1/4th of a teaspoon of cayenne pepper powder in an eight ounce glass of water (distilled or purified water is best), mix it up and drink it. Don’t worry, it won’t hurt you but is highly beneficial. In time, you’ll want to move up to a full teaspoon or more, but start slow. The body will adapt. The first few times you take it, it will come out of your eliminative organs with some heat. Don’t be alarmed. It’s perfectly natural. By the third time I drank it, my body had acclimated.

    April 27, 2010 — Red cayenne pepper may help burn calories and curb appetite, especially in people who aren’t used to eating it, says a new study that was partly supported by the National Institutes of Health and the McCormick Spice Company. The study found that about half a teaspoon of cayenne pepper either mixed in food or swallowed in a capsule helped normal-weight young adults burn about 10 more calories over a four-hour period, compared to eating the same meal but without the red pepper. Pepper also decreased appetite, especially in people who said they didn’t already eat spicy foods. Study researcher Richard Mattes, PhD, RD, distinguished professor of foods and nutrition at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind., thinks that the pepper is stimulating the trigeminal nerve, one of the main nerves in the head and neck. “Chemesthesis is the term for chemical irritation, and that’s the sense that this work focused on,” Mattes says. “What we were interested in is, does activation of that system lead to increases in energy expenditure, alterations in appetite and food intake, and so on.” “The appetite responses were different between those who liked red pepper and those who did not, suggesting that when the stimulus is unfamiliar it has a greater effect,” Mattes says in a news release. Based on his study, Mattes says it appears that once a person gets used to the spicy foods, their effects start to wear off. “So the question is, how long does the phenomenon last once you start using red pepper. And if it starts to diminish, how long do you have to wait to obtain the same benefits?” Mattes says. “Those are future studies. This was just our observation that the effect was bigger in people who were not regular users.” The study is published in Physiology & Behavior.

    Previous studies had tested the thermogenic, or calorie-burning, effects of red pepper but had used quantities that were too large to be practical for most people. http://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20110427/cayenne-pepper-may-burn-calories-curb-appetite Pandan

    Traditional Use
    business owners use bunches of pandan leaves to repel cockroaches. For instances, according to a 2009 study by researchers at the National University of Singapore, taxi drivers in Malaysia and Singapore hang these leaves in their vehicles to keep pest insects from colonizing the warm, dark interior of the car. Fresh pandan leaves are preferred, since dried leaves quickly lose their aromatic qualities. Wintergreen oil may be added to cut pandan leaves to enhance their smell and assumed repellent activity, according to “Plant Resources of South-East Asia.” Essential Oils

    Pandan leaves contain a number of essential oils and chemicals that cockroaches find unpleasant. Terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons make up between 6 and 42 percent of the oils in these leaves, according to the National University of Singapore researchers. Pandan also contains 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, or 2AP, a substance that repels both American and German cockroach species in test studies.

    Studies
    • Anti-Inflammatory: Fresh juice of the aerial root of Pandanus tectorius produced i34.5 % inhibition of carrageenin-induced edema. • Intestinal Motility / Uterine Stimulant: Study in rats suggest stimulant property on gastrointestinal motility and uterine stimulant action. • Antibacterial: Study results indicate that Pandanus tectorium have antibacterial effects on B subtilis but not on E coli, P aeruginosa, C albicans or S aureus. • Antitubercular / Triterpenes and Phytosterols: Study of a chloroform extract of leaves yielded a new tirucallane-type triterpene, 24,24-dimethyl-5β-tirucall-9(11),25-dien-3-one (1), squalene and a mixture of the phytosterols stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv with a MIC of 64 μg/mL, while squalene and the sterol mixture have MICs of 100 and 128 μg/mL, respectively. • Fruits /Phenolic Compounds and Flavonoids: Study isolated 15 compounds (ten phenolics and five flavonoids) from the fruits of P. tectorius. Of the compounds, trans-ethyl Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to screen cytotoxic activities of commonly used culinary acetate was the highest one with about 0.1% of the dry material. Most of the compounds possessed anti-oxidative activities, with some anti-inflammatory activities. http://www.stuartxchange.com/Pandan.html

    plants in Malaysia, Pandanus amaryllifolius (daun pandan), Curcuma longa (turmeric leaves) and Etlingera elatior (kantan flower) against selected cancer cell lines. Design/methodology/approach – Plant samples were extracted exhaustively with ethanol and concentrated under rotary evaporator. Cytotoxic evaluation was carried out with plant extracts (0-100?µg/ml) using 72-h MTT assay. Findings – Exposure of plant extracts reduced cell viability of HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), HT-29 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-231 (non-hormone-dependent breast cancer), MCF-7 (hormone-dependent breast cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer); 50 percent inhibitory values (IC50) were obtained for MDA-MB-231, HepG2, HT-29. Extracts within the concentrations of 10-100?µg/ml were found not to be effective against proliferation of MCF-7 and HeLa. Originality/value – The paper shows how culinary plants – daun pandan, turmeric leaves and kantan flower displayed selective cytotoxic effects towards liver, colon and breast cancer in vitro.http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1941563

    Research has shown that Cayenne is responsible for a decrease in appetite and in a similar study an increase in metabolism or thermogenic effect in a Japanese women, Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Drapeau V, et al. Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake. Br J Nutr 1999;82:115–23., Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women. Br J Nutr 1998;80:503–10.

    In addition, there have been numerous studies involving the analgesic effect of the capsaicin component of Cayenne pepper. Clinical studies have shown that capsaicin is effective in blocking Substance P, thus, blocking some of the pain associate with fibromylagia, herpatc pain, rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, diabetic foot pain,and toothaches. Lynn B. Capsaicin. Actions on nociceptive C-fibers and therapeutic potential. Pain 1990;41:61-9., Capsaicin study group. Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy with topical capsaicin. A multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. The capaicin study group. Arch Int Med 1991;151:2225-9. http://www.physiciansselect.co.uk/cayenne-pepper-capsicum-frutescens-information.htm Cayenne pepper has amazing curative and healing powers and is fantastic for the entire system. Its effects upon the venous structure and heart are nothing short of miraculous. Famed homeopathic herbalist Dr. John Christopher testified repeatedly that by getting his patients to take cayenne pepper, it could immediately stop a heart attack. It is enormously nourishing to the heart but that is not its only health benefit. It is now a scientifically proven catalyst to destroying cancer cells as well as stopping their growth — and that’s something every cancer sufferer should know. Conclusion

    In 1971, then president Richard Nixon declared a war on cancer. Almost 40 years later, with the War on Cancer proceeding like the War in Iraq, you now have another scientifically proven tool to help eliminate cancer in your body. This humble yet miraculous medicinal spice will benefit you in many ways. Don’t take my word for it. Check it out for yourself and you’ll soon be convinced as to the incredible efficacy of this king of the herbal kingdom. http://www.zimbio.com/Prostate+Cancer/articles/LVYoiSVinbQ/Four+Clinical+Studies+Prove+Cayenne+Pepper

    Definition of terms
    Extract
    Product obtain from extaction. Liquid substance form from extraction. Larvicide
    (alternatively larvacide) is an insecticide that is specifically targeted against the larval life stage of an insect. Their most common use is against mosquitoes. Larvacides may be contact poisons, stomach poisons, growth regulators, or (increasingly) biological control agents. Vector

    Chapter II
    Methodology

    Materials
    The materials needed to conduct of this whole study are the following:

    * Half Kilo cayenne pepper
    * ¼ kilo of pandan
    * Three empty cup
    * 30 pcs. Of wriggler
    * three empty spray container
    Procedure
    A. Source of materials
    Freshly harvested pandan was gathered from Barangay North Poblacion Jose Panganiban, Camarines Norte. And the cayenne pepper which was brought from Jose Panganiban market. The cayenne pepper and pandan used in the experiment was about a half kilo. B. Preparation of materials

    After the gathering of cayenne pepper and pandan, they were now pounded and extracted. The extract of cayenne pepper and pandan will be measured in different concentration. The first container has a 75% extract of cayenne pepper and 25% extract of pandan. The second one contains 50% extract of cayenne pepper and 50% extract of pandan And the last container has 25% extract of cayenne pepper and 75% extract of pandan. C. Application of Treatment

    On the other hand, the three cups that contain 10 pcs. of wriggler each will be sprayed of the different concentration for about 5 ml.

    Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

    Figure 1.0 conceptual Framework of the conducted study

    Flowchart of Methodology

    Figure 1.1 Flowchart of Methodology including the processes that was performed

    CHAPTER III
    RESULT AND DISCUSSION

    RESULT
    TABLE 1.
    Concentration of Plant Extract
    No. Of Wrigglers

    Survive
    Killed
    Total
    A
    6
    4
    10
    B
    4
    6
    10
    C
    9
    1
    10
    Total
    19
    11
    30
    The table 1 shows the data of the experiment. There are three treatments. The treatment A contains the concentration of 50% extract of cayenne pepper and 50%extract of pandan.the treatment B contains 75% extract of cayenne and 25% of pandan and the last treatment contains 25% extract of cayenne pepper and 75% extract of pandan. The table shows that in treatment B have a greatest number of died wrigglers. And in treatment C have the least number of died wrigglers

    Statistical treatment
    Hypotheses
    1. HO: There is no significant difference on the mortality rate of larvae using cayenne pepper and pandan extract. Ha: There is significant difference on the mortality rate of larvae using cayenne pepper and pandan extract. 2. Level of Significance

    3. Data are as follows: Table 2.
    Treatment
    Observed Frequency (O)
    Expected Frequency (E)

    A.Survived
    6
    6.33
    0.172
    Killed
    4
    3.67
    0.0296
    B.Survived
    4
    6.33
    0.8576
    Killed
    6
    3.67
    0.0673
    C.Survived
    9
    6.33
    1.1262
    Killed
    1
    3.67
    4.8199
    Total

    6.85
    The table show the statistical computation of the chi-square test that is use in the study.

    4. E=
    = 6.85
    5. df= (column-1)(row-1) = 5.99
    = (2-1) (3-1)
    = 2

    Since, we reject Ho and Ha. Therefore, there is significant difference on the mortality rate of larvae using cayenne pepper and pandan extract.

    Chapter V Conclusion

    Based on the treatment done and the data gathered the result of the computation using the chi-square test shows that the this indicate that the Null Hypotheses is rejected and the Alternative hypotheses is accepted. . There is significant difference on the mortality rate of larvae using cayenne pepper and pandan extract. And the effective concentration of larvicide is the concentration A. 75% extract of cayenne pepper and 25%% extract of pandan.

    Chapter V Recommendations

    For further improvement of this study, the researcher recommend the following:
    1. Provide a longer time frame for the conduct of this study especially in treatment process. 2. Make different treatments for a better result.
    3. Find other ways to eradicate wriggler e.g. spraying process. 4. Find other materials for the treatment other than the extract of cayenne pepper and pandan. 5. Lessen the amount of water in the cup where the wrigglers are living.

    Acknowledgement

    The researcher would like to acknowledgement and give her deepest appreciation and sincerest thank you to the following people who had helped, supported, and became a part of the conduct of this whole study. To her Research adviser, Mrs. Marife Cereno, who gave the support, trust, motivation and encouragement to perform the study. To her parents who gave the financial support and encouragement in conducting this study. To her friends and classmates who helped the researcher in thinking an idea about this research and for the motivation to pursue this study. My deepest appreciations and sincerest thank you are beyond no compare. And above all, to our Almighty God, who gave us the knowledge and ability to do this research study, including the strength, hard work, patient and guidance .We owe it all to you.

    Bibliography

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larvicide
    http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1941563 http://www.physiciansselect.co.uk/cayenne-pepper-capsicum-frutescens-information.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cayenne_pepper

    http://www.zimbio.com/Prostate+Cancer/articles/LVYoiSVinbQ/Four+Clinical+Studies+Prove+Cayenne+Pepp http://www.zimbio.com/Prostate+Cancer/articles/LVYoiSVinbQ/Four+Clinical+Studies+Prove+Cayenne+Pepper http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cayenne_pepper

    http://www.stuartxchange.com/Pandan.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandanus_amaryllifolius.

    Appendices

    .

    pandan Cayenne pepper broht in the

    Cost Analysis
    Here are the following expenses used in doing the research:

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