Management and Leadership
What is Leadership?
Stogdill, (1950) defines leadership as the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in effort to words goal getting and goal achievement.
Leadership is an influence process, the dynamics of which are function of the personal characteristics of the leader and followers and the nature of the specific situation (Richards and Greenlaw, 1972).
The common thread running these definitions is that leadership is a process where by one individual exerts influence over others.
What is Management?
Management can be define as coordinating the works of people in an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain organization goal.
Note that a manager is not necessarily a leader, just as a leader does not connote a manager. A person could be a good manager-being effective and organized administrator but he/she may be lacking motivational skills of a leader.
Sherlekar (2001), note that leaders conquer the context, the volatile, turbulent, and ambiguous surroundings, which sometimes seen to conspire against us and will surely suffocate us if we let them; while managers surrender to it. Other roles and responsibilities of a leader as compared to a manager in creating healthy organizational culture noted by sherlekar are:
-The Manager Administers: The Leader Innovates.
-The Manager is a Copy: The Leader is Original.
-The Manager Maintains: The Leader develops.
-The Manager Focuses on System and Streeter: The Leader Focuses on people.
-The manager relives on Control: The Leader Inspire Trust.
-The Manager has Short Range View: The Leader has a Long Range Respective.
-The Manager has this eye on the bottom line: The leader has his eye on the horizon. He is visionary.
-The Manager accepts the status quo: The Leader challenges it.
-The Manager is efficient in doing things right: The Leader is effective in he does the right thing, and believes in holism or unity in diversity.
An effective leader will often consider the changing situational factors, changing interpersonal relations, and appropriate types of reward to be given to the followers. He also develops a style of leadership that will take into account the needs and expectations of his subordinate and recognize the fact of differences in motives between individuals. The recognition of human values by management is highly necessary and they constitute the focus of the theories of leadership. A leader who is self motivated and who can manage himself effectively is really qualified to manager and lead his followers.
It is sad to note that those in leadership position in most organizations in Africa do not by their action show that they understand what it takes to be an effective leader. This is so because in most cases the actions of these leaders contradict their words. They say one thing and practice an entirely different thing. It is therefore necessary that a deliberate policy of massive leadership development program be embarked upon at all levels, local, state and federal so as to develop in those that aspire for leadership position, or those that are already in leadership position, the appropriate disposition.
1. Richards, N.D. and Greenlaw P.S. (1972) Management Decision Making; Homewood ill; Rickard D. Irwin-Inc.
2. Stogdill, R. K. (1950) Leadership Membership and Organization, “Psychological Bulletin Vol. 52 p4.
3. Sherleka, S.A. (2001) Management: Value-Oriented Holistic Approach New Delhi: Himalaya Publishing House.