Mathematical Common Parameters Essay
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(Time for processing update): Time which is needed by each node in order to import a new entry in the binding cache. (Binding cache is a storage area kept by the home agent containing associations between the home addresses and the care-of addresses for the mobile nodes it serves)
(Time for processing label packet): Time which is needed by each node in order to add a label to the packet which is used for the promotion/forwarding of packet.
(Time for processing update table): The time which is needed by each node in order to renew its table, for importing a new entry that represents LSP that has been established between the two nodes.
(Time for processing check): The time that is required by the MAP or the HA or any similar node in order to look at its table and connect its binding cache RCoA with the LCoA of MN.
(Time processing): This time is fixed as the biggest time that is required by a single node for the processing of some concrete activity.
(Time for propagation): The time that is required for the distribution/propagation of message until a particular message is sent to its final destination. This time is influenced to a large extent by the number of nodes that is found in the path of transport. The total time of distribution is calculated as follows: . is fixed as largest time that is required by a single node for transmission of message.
The time that is required for the establishment of LSP between the two nodes. This time is influenced to a large extent by the number of nodes that participates in the establishment of LSP. The total time of establishment of LSP between two nodes is fixed as follows: . is fixed as biggest time that is required by each node for the establishment of LSP.
(Total time of propagation): The total time of distribution that is required for the complete operation of a concrete activity.
(Total time for processing): The total time of processing that is required for the complete operation of a concrete activity.
1. The Mobile IPv6 standard relies fundamentally on core IPv6 protocol functions and in particular the base IPv6 specification. Dunmore and Pagztis (2005) give the signal and analytical analysis of the protocol’s handover
a. MN establishes contact with the old AR and the new AR with messages RtSol and receives acknowledgements RtAdv from both of them. The total time taken for this is
b. MN sends out binding updates to CN/HA/AR in time . Therefore,
c. MN stores the value of BU in the list
d. MN requests the receipt of the BU and HA/CN send BU acknowledgements in time
e. BU is then removed from the receiver’s cache in time
The total time for the signaling is
2. According to Howie, Sun, and Koivisto (n.d.) Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 builds over the basic MIPv6 protocol. model. It adds an intermediary HA called a Mobility Anchor Point (MAP) to the basic model. The MAP is fewer router-hops away from the MN than the basic HA. The exit point of the tunnel from the HA is now situated at the MAP. The MAP, in turn, has a bi-directional tunnel to the MN.
a. Initially all ARs advertise the address of the MAP to attached MNs and MN establishes contact with the old AR and the new AR with messages RtSol and receives acknowledgements RtAdv from both of them. The total time taken for this is
b. The MN sends BU messages taking
c. When the MN moves to a new subnet-prefix within the MAP domain, it just registers a new BU with the MAP taking a time of
d. The process for new CoA at the MN takes
e. The MN then receives BU Acknoledgement taking
The time taken for handover is as below
Packet Delivery Procedure
a. The original HA at the highest hierarchical level can now tunnel a packet to a new HA (MAP) one level lower in the hierarchy taking a time of
b. This in turn in turn, tunnels the packet to the MN and takes a time of
The time taken for packet delivery is as below
The total time for signaling would be
3. According to Dunmore and Pagztis (2005), the aim of FMIPv6 protocol is to allow MN to configure a new CoA before it moves and connects to a new network. It also allows the MN to use the new CoA immediately upon connecting to the new network. Furthermore, the FMIPv6 protocol seeks to eliminate the latency involved during the MN’s BU procedure by providing a bi-directional tunnel between the old and new networks while the BU procedures are being performed. Thus, compared to normal MIPv6 operation, the FMIPv6 protocol claims to be more efficient as it removes IPv6 configuration delay introduced by DAD, router discovery and address configuration. It also removes the delay introduced by the MN performing BU procedures with its HA and CNs
a. MN first sends a RtSol message to old AR and receives RtAdv message from it which takes a total time
b. When a HO-warning occurs, old AR acts as proxy to MN by calculating the new CoA taking a time of
c. Old AR uses this mapping to determine the address of the targeted new AR in the neighboring domain taking a time of
d. The newCoA is sent simultaneously to both the MN and newAR (PrRtAdv and HI messages, respectively) taking
e. Their responses (F-BU and HAck) verify the validity of the newCoA .
f. Old AR sends simultaneous binding acknowledgements (F-BAcks) to both MN and the new AR taking a time of
g. Before the packets addressed to the Old CoA are routed by old AR to MN taking a time
h. MN then sends a RtSol message to new AR and receives RtAdv message from it which takes a total time
Total time taken for the signaling is
Mobile MPLS (With HMIP architecture) (Integration of MPLS with MIP)
4. Um and Choi (2001) in their paper give the MPLS based Hierarchical Mobile IP architecture. Their paper proposes a way to reduce the LSP set up latency by integrating the MPLS with mobile IP. In this way the IP-IP tunnels are replaced by one or more LSP setups on the MPLS network. They have given the following figure for the registration and LSP set up. In the figures below GFA stands for Gateway Foreign Network and RFA stands for Regional Foreign Agent.
The above figure holds true when after the FA has advertised the addresses of hierarchical FA and MN determines that it is in a foreign network. The figure is divided into two parts for analysis: registration request and LSP set up. The packets are assumed to arrive, after which the LSP set up procedure takes place.
a. MN sends a registration request to the FA, the time it takes to do so is given by
b. FA needs some time for analyzing the registration request since it is an LER, this time is given by
c. FA then sends the registration request to the next RFA, the time it takes to do so is given by
d. The RFA which is an LSR receives the registration request and updates it in the node table. The time taken for this is given by
e. The RFA then sends the registration request to the GFA, time taken for this is given by
f. The GFA after receiving the request caches this information, the time taken for this is given by
g. The GFA then sends the registration request to the HA, and time for this is given by
h. The HA sends the registration reply to the GFA, the time for which can be given by
i. The GFA in turn sends the registration reply to the RFA, the time taken for this is given by
j. The RFA then sends the registration reply to the FA, and time for this is given by
k. The FA being the lowest in the hierarchy checks its cached information, the time for this is given by
l. The FA then send the registration reply to the HA, the time taken for this is given by
Hence the final equations can be given as below:
LSP Set up
Between HA and GFA
a. The HA receives the packet and sends the label acknowledgement with care-of-address as FEC. The time for this is given by
b. The time taken for LSP to establish between the GFA and HA is given by . Since GFA assigns label during this time frame there is no need to give additional time for the table update here.
c. After receiving the label mapping message, the HA updates the table, the time taken for this is given by
d. The HA then sends the user packets to GFA along the LSP from HA to GFA, the time for this is given by
Between GFA and RFA
a. When GFA receives the label, it writes the label value attached to the user packets on an incoming value of corresponding MN. The time for this is given by
b. The GFA sends the label request to the next RFA with the CoA as the FEC. The time for this is given by
c. The RFA updates the information in the table taking time of
d. The LSP is established when RFA responds back with the message i.e. the time is
e. The GFA then updates its table which takes a time of
f. Finally the GFA sends the user packets to the RFA through the LSP taking a time of
Between RFA and FA
The authors say that this above process is repeated in every FA till the lowest FA next to the MN, which takes an additional time of . In the figure there is only one such FA and hence the time for the LSP to set up would be
Total time for LSP set up
The total time taken for LSP set up is given as below:
a. MN sends a request for handover to the root RFA, the time for this is given by
b. The root RFA then sends message to MN to inform about the next BS that MN should be attached, the time for this is given by
c. When data arrives for the MN, the root RFA multicasts the data to all the members in the multicast group in time , where the #nodes gives the number of base stations that form a multicast LSP group.
The total time for handover is given by
The total time will be given by
Time for registration
Time for handover
Mobile MPLS (with MIP architecture) (Integration of MIP with MPLS)
5. Ren, Tham, Foo and Ko (n.d.) propose an architecture which uses MPLS in Mobile IP so that the Mobile IP has some benefits by MPLS in a heterogeneous network environment comprising IP, ATM and wireless networks.
a. MN receives the advertisement messages broadcast by the mobility agents and determines whether it is at home or the foreign network, the time taken for this is
b. If the MN is in a foreign network it acquires a temporary CoA from FA taking time , and sends the registration request to the FA taking time
c. The FA updates its routing table to add a host specific row with the value of MN home address taking a time of
d. The FA forwards the registration request to HA taking a time of
e. When HA gets the registration request, and learns the CoA, it searches its routing table to find the row with the MN home address as FEC, the time for this
f. HA then sends a label request to FA with CoA as FEC taking a time of
g. FA replies with a label mapping message and LSP is established between the FA and HA, this takes a time of
h. HA adds a new table which takes a time of , and maps the MN home address row in routing table to the label table row taking a time of
i. HA then sends a registration reply to FA which takes a time of , FA then forwards the registration reply to MN taking a time of and the registration ends
Total time for registration
Datagram delivery procedure
a. CN sends the packets to MN addressed to the MN home address taking a time of
b. HA looks up its table value using the label index value as the index, taking a time of
c. HA strips the label and sends the packet to the IP layer taking a time of +
d. HA searches the routing table to find the mapping in a time of and sends the packet back to the MPLS layer taking a time of
e. HA inserts the label value in the new row of the label value into the packet taking a time of and forwards it to the MN taking a time of
f. The packet is delivered from HA to FA along the LSP by label swapping with a time of
g. FA looks up its label table in a time and sends the packet to the IP layer with a time of
h. FA forwards the packet to MN in a time of
The total time taken for this process is
Total time for the signaling is
Time for registration
Time for handover
Hierarchical Mobile MPLS
6. According to Yang and Makrakis (2001) conventional mobile MPLS does not support mobility, and hence researchers look into ways to integrate Mobile IP with MPLS to support mobility in MPLS networks. However, the methods of the integration prove to be obsolete in the latest wireless networks which are implemented on micro-sized cells. For overcoming the limitations due to micro-cells, Yang and Makrakis have proposed a new scheme to support local mobility MPLS which they have named as hierarchical mobile MPLS. Hierarchical MPLS, as will be seen in the analysis below, handles the movement of the mobile host locally, that is to say in the same MPLS domain there is no need to send the location update messages to the remote home agent. In other words, in the Hierarchical Mobile MPLS, the movements of a mobile host moving within a domain are transparent to the home agent of the mobile host.
Mobile host registration in Hierarchical Mobile MPLS
a. The mobile host receives agent advertisement message and determines whether it is at home or in a foreign domain, the time for this is given by
b. If the mobile host is in a foreign domain, it acquires a temporary CoA from the FA
Why do we use tprocc again?
c. The MN then sends a registration request to FA taking a time of
d. The FA forwards the registration request to FDA using normal IP forwarding taking a time
e. In case the mobile host first moves in this domain, the FDA will forward this registration message to the HA taking a time of
Time for registration is given by
LSP set up
a. When HA gets the registration message, it sends a label request message using the LDP protocol to the FDA with the IP address of FDA as FEC. The time for this is given by
b. The FDA replies with the label mapping message to the HA and sends a label request message to the FA where the mobile is currently located. The total time for this is given by
c. When the label mapping message arrives at HA the LSP is established in time and is send from FA to FDA in time
d. Also FA replied with the LDP label mapping message back to the FDA in time and the LSP is established in time
e. The HA searches the label table to find the rows with the mobile host’s home address as FEC and changes the out going port and out label with the same values as the LSP from HA to FDA taking a time
f. Finally the HA sends the registration reply to the FDA along the LSP from HA to FDA taking time
g. FDA then forwards the registration reply to the FA along the LSP from FDA to FA taking time
h. When FDA receives this reply it updates its label table in time
i. The FDA receives registration reply from new FA, the new FA receives registration reply from old FA and the old FA in turn receives reply from MH, the time taken for this all is
Time of the LSP set up is give by
Mobile Host Handoff procedure
a. When MH handoffs from one sub-network to another sub-network within the foreign domain, it sends a registration request to the new FA taking time
b. MH also sends a binding update to the old FA which takes time
c. The FA forwards the registration request to FDA taking time
d. The FDA sends back the label request to the FA taking time
e. The FA responds back with a label swapping message taking time
f. A new LSP is then established between FDA to FA in time
g. FDA sends registration reply to new FA. New FA in turn sends registration reply to old FA and the old FA sends the registration reply to MH. The entire process takes time
Time for handover is given by
Total time for signaling is given by
Time for registration
Time for handover
Micro-Cell Mobile MPLS (incorporation of MPLS forwarding)
Yang, Dong, Zhang and Makrakis (n.d.), have described this protocol in their paper. It is an incorporation of MPLS forwarding, localized signaling, and soft-state location management.
a. When a mobile first moves into a foreign domain it sends a registration request message to the nearest FA in time
b. The FA relays this registration request message to the FDA of this MM-MPLS domain in time
c. FDA sets up an LSP between itself and the HA following the process in H-MPLS which takes a time of
d. FDA then sets up an LSP between the FDA and current FA in time using RSVP-TE, a soft-state signaling protocol.
e. FDA sends a label request object to FA with a time of
f. After receiving this message the FA responds back with a received message which takes time
g. Finally FDA relays the registration replay message to the LSP between FDA and current FA this takes time
Total time taken for registration is as below:
When the mobile host handoffs from one access network to another within the same foreign domain, it will send a registration request to the new FA. This takes time
The new FA relays the registration message to FDA of the domain which takes time
LSR checks its label table to see whether there is an entry for the mobile host which takes time
The LSR sets up a new LSP to the new FA using the mobile host’s home address as FEC which takes time
The LSR then updates its table which takes time
The LSR redirects the LSP back to the new FA which takes time
The LSR generates an RESV message which takes time and then sends this message to the FDA which takes time
The MH deletes the entries from their label table which takes time
Total time taken for handoff procedure is as below:
The total time taken for signaling is as below
Time for registration
Time for handover
Micro-Mobile MPLS (Integration of MIP & MPLS)
7. Langar, Bouabdallah and Tohme (2006) give the analysis of Micro-Mobile MPLS, which integrates Mobile IP and MPLS protocols using a two level hierarchy. Their proposal has two variants. In the first variant, called FH-Micro Mobile MPLS, we consider the fast handoff mechanism, which anticipates the LSP procedure setup with the neighboring subnets to reduce service disruption. In the second variant, called FC-Micro Mobile MPLS, the forwarding chain mechanism, which is a set of forwarding paths, is provided to track efficiently the host mobility within a domain. The forwarding chain can reduce registration update cost and provide low handoff latency.
Mobile Node Registration in Micro Mobile MPLS
a. MN sends solicitation message to LER/FA and receives Advertisement message from it which takes time
b. When an MN moves for the first time into a Micro-mobile MPLS foreign domain, it sends a IP registration request message to the nearest LER/FA taking a time
c. The LER/FA records this MN home address in its routing table taking a time of
d. It relays the registration message to the LERG of this domain taking a time of
e. When LERG gets the registration message it gets the RCoA taking a time of
f. The LERG sends a registration message to the HA of the MN taking a time of
g. The LERG uses the IP address as the CoA to perform the global registration for the inter-domain mobility taking a time
h. LERG establishes an LSP between it and the current LER/FA with the RCoA as the FEC taking a time
i. LERG then relays the registration reply message sent from the HA to the MN along the established LSPs taking a time
Total time for registration is given as below
Handoff Support procedure in Micro Mobile MPLS
There are two types of handoff in the scheme: Intra-LER and Inter-LER handoffs. An Intra-LER handoff occurs when the MN moves between two BSs managed by the same LER/FA. An Inter-LER handoff occurs when a new BS and the old BS are under different LER/FAs.
a. Once the association to the current BS is lost, the MN sends a Movement signaling message to the current LER/FA with a time of , which initiates the buffering mechanism and stores in-flight packets. The time taken for this is given by +
b. The MN issues a local interface-update message in the subnet to which the MN belongs, so that all stations in the same subnet, especially the current LER/FA, update their ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) cache, taking time .
c. The current LER/FA stops the buffering mechanism and forwards in-flight packets destined for the MN toward the new BS. This takes time
d. The LERG continues to use the old LSP between it and the current LER/FA to send packets to the MN taking a time of
Total handoff time in this case is given by
Inter-LER Hand off
a. When MN finds that it has entered a new IP subnet , it sends a registration request to the new LER/FA in time and performs steps which is same as in the registration procedure
b. MN sends a handoff notification to the old LER/FA with a time of and there is a handoff acknowledgement which takes a time of
c. When the old LER/FA receives his notification message it stops the buffering mechanism and forwards the in-flight packets to the new subnet. This takes a time +
d. LSP is then establish which takes a time of
e. After this the corresponding table is updated by the LER/FA which takes a time
The total time except the registration period time is
If registration is also added to this then the total time becomes
Handoff in FH (Fast Handoff) Micro Mobile MPLS
This is explained by Langar, Bouabdalaah, Tohme (2006) give the mechanism as below:
a. Once an MN enters an overlapped area of the boundary cells of two subnets, it receives a new beacon from the possible new AP in time
b. MN notifies the current LER/FA for the possible handoff by sending a handoff initiate signaling message in time
c. LER/FA looks into its neighbor mapping table to get the new LER/FA’s IP address in time
d. LER/FA then informs the LERG for the possible handoff operation in time
e. FH-Micro mobile MPLS will pre-establish an extra passive LSP between the LERG and the new subnet that the MN is likely to visit in time
f. The current LER/FA informs the MN for the new CoA by sending a neighbor advertisement message which takes time
g. FA forwards the mobile IP registration request message to the LERG in time
h. FA notifies the old LER/FA for the handoff event in time
i. As soon as LERG receives the mobile IP registration request it activates the pre-established passive LSP in time and the traffic is delivered through this
j. Once the old LER/FA is notified the in-flight packets are forwarded to the MN through the new FA in time
Total time for handover is given by
Handoff in FC (Forward Chain) Micro Mobile MPLS
This is explained by Langar, Bouabdalaah, Tohme (2006) give the mechanism as below:
a. When MN moves to a new subnet a new RCoA is registered at the old LER/FA
b. The existing LSP between the LERG and the old subnet will be extended from the old FA to the new one in time
c. MN has a buffer for storing IP address of the LER/FAs which is updated in time
d. Packets traveling towards the MN are intercepted by the first FA in the chain and are then forwarded along the chain of FAs. It takes time
e. To avoid delays a threshold on length is set. When this threshold is reached, the MN is reached and deletes all addresses in the buffer. This takes time
The total time for handover will be as given below:
Time for registration
Time for handover
Case- I Intra-LER Handoff
Case- II Inter-LER Handoff
Case III FH MM MPLS
Case IV FC MM MPLS
8. Nguyen, Li and Xie (2003) give a new approach for IP/MPLS for providing micro-mobility in an efficient way with QoS. They give a common framework of hierarchical IP/MPLS based for 3G-Radio Access Networks. An enhanced label edge router LER called local mobility agent LMA is introduced to setup two-stage label switched paths LSPs between radio network controller RNC and base station BS for reducing handover latency caused by local mobility.
Registration and LSP setup
a. When MT (mobile terminal) receives an advertisement message from a BS, it sends registration message to that BS with its home IP address, home agent IP address. This takes a time
b. The BS registers with its LMA via the pre-established LSP, taking a time of
c. When the corresponding LMA receives the request message from the lower level BS, it adds its record about that MT and attaching BS taking a time of
d. LMA then sends the registration message to all the RNCs in the network via the pre-established LSP taking a time of
e. When the RNC receives the request message from the lower-level LMA it adds its record about that MT and attaching BS taking a time of
f. RNC sends mobility binding message to MT home agent taking a time of
g. When the acknowledgement is received the RNC will send registration reply message back to the requesting LMA taking time of
h. The registration message is then sent back to BS taking a time of and finally back to the mobile terminal MT taking time of
Total time for handover
LSP is set up when any connection is initiated from or to the MT. Hence a set up time of is added every time a connection is initiated.
There are three types of handoff in the considered hierarchical radio access network: Intra-BS which is a link-layer handoff, Intra-LMA, Inter-LMA
In the intra LMA handoff both the old and new LMA are under the same LMA.
a. When the LMA receives the registration from BS, it checks its records taking a time of . It finds that the MT is already recorded with a different BS
b. The LMA then updates its record of MT taking a time of
c. It then sends a registration reply to the new BS taking a time of
d. LSP is established in the meantime with resource reservation with a time of
e. LMA then sends the registration reply to the old BS taking a time of
Total time taking for handoff is
In inter-LMA handover old and new BS are under different LMAs
a. When the new LMA receives the registration message from the new BS, it checks its records taking a time of . It finds that there is no record for that MT.
b. The LMA then adds its record for that MT taking a time of
c. The LMA sends a registration request message to all RNCS, taking a time of
d. When the RNC receives this request message it checks its record taking a time of , it finds that a different LMA is attached.
e. The RNS updates its record taking a time of
f. The RNC sends back a reply to the new LMA taking a time of
g. When the new LMA receives the reply message from RNS it sends reply message to the new BS with resource reservation taking time of
Total time for handover in this case is
Total time for the whole process in case of Intra-LER handoff is
Total time for the whole process in case of Inter-LER handoff is
Time for registration
Time for handover
Case- I Intra-LMA Handoff
Case- II Inter-LMA Handoff
Overlay MMPLS (HMIP over MPLS in overlay environment)
9. Vassiliou and Pitsillides (2007) analyze the mobility events, and particularly handovers in an overlay environment, where Hierarchical Mobile IP is operating over MPLS.
a. CoA and HA Discovery
This is represented in the figure below
MN acquires a new address to represent the new region which takes a time of
After this the MN sends a Discovery Request to the HA, which takes a time of
The HA would then respond with a reply message which takes time
b. Registration process
The MN sends a MA Registration BU in the MAP in time .
The MAP imports the new entry in binding cache in order to connect the MN with the new address which it has acquired, this takes time
MAP sends BU acknowledgement to the MN which takes time
MN sends Registration BU to the HAin time .
HA imports the new entry in binding cache in order to connect the MN with the new address which it has acquired in time
HA sends a BU acknowledgement to MN which takes time
The figure below shows the remaining sections which are analyzed below:
c. Establishment of LSP between the CN and the ΗΑ
a. The CN checks if an entry exists in binding cache taking time . If there is no such entry, then it sends the packet to the address of MN after an LSP is established between the CN and HA.
b. The CN sends a label request to the HA and HA responds with label mapping. The time for establishing an LSP is
c. HA and CN’s LERs renew their tables adding a new entry which represents the particular LSP established between them. The time for each renewal of table takes . Since there are two renewals the total time would be
d. LER adds a packet to the label taking a time of . The packet is then sent from CN to the HA taking a time of
d. Packet reception from the ΗΑ
a. When the HA receives a packet it checks its binding cache in order to find an entry with the CoA that represents the MN in the new region that has been moved. This takes a time of
e. LSP establishment between the ΗΑ and the MAP
a. An LSP is first established between HM and MAP in time
b. After this, the HA and the MAP renew their tables adding a new entry representing the particular LSP established between them. Time for processing each table is . Hence, time for renewing both the tables will be .
c. HA adds a packet to the label and takes a time of .
d. The packet is then sent form HA to the MAP which takes time of
f. Packet reception from the MAP
a. The MAP receives the packet from the HA and connects the RCoA with the LCoA of the MN which takes time .
b. MAP also needs to renew its table to import an entry representing the LSP for sending the packets to MN .
g. LSP establishment between the MAP and the MN’s LER
a. The MAP sends a label request to MN’s LER a label request which takes a time of .
b. After this, the MN’s LER and the MAP renew their tables adding a new entry representing the particular LSP established between them. Time for processing each table is . Hence, time for renewing both the tables will be .
c. MAP adds a packet to the label and takes a time of .
d. The packet is then sent form MAP to the MN’s LER which takes time of
h. Packet reception from MN’s LER
a. MN’s LER removes the label from the packet and sends in the IP Layer which takes a time of ..
b. Message IP Packet is delivered from MN’s LER to the MN. This time is fixed as
i. Briefing of CN from the MN on the new address that it has acquired
a. An LSP is established between CN and MN and the time for this is .
b. After this the MN sends a Binding Update in the CN which takes time .
c. Some time is required for the processing by the CN in order to renew its binding cache and connecting MN with the new address which it has acquired. This takes a time .
d. CN responds back with BU Ack which takes time .
j. LSP establishment between the CN’s LER and the MAP
a. CN’s LER sends in the MAP a label request and MAP corresponds with label mapping which takes time .
b. After completing the process of exchange of messages of establishment of LSP, MAP and CN’s LER should renew their tables by adding a new entry which will represent the particular LSP that has been established between them. Time of renewing each table is , and time taken for renewal by both would be
c. After this CN’s LER takes some time for processing i.e which will be used for adding a to the label and to promote via the recent LSP that has been established. The time that is required for the promotion of packet from CN’s LER to the MAP is fixed as .
k. LSP establishment between the MAP and the MN’s LER
a. The MAP sends in MN’s LER a label request and MN’s LER corresponds with label mapping. Time for this is .
b. After completing the process of exchange of messages of establishment of LSP, MAP and MN’s LER should renew their tables by adding a new entry which will represent the particular LSP that has been established between them. Time of renewing each table is , and time taken for renewal by both would be .
c. After this MN’s LER takes some time for processing i.e which will be used for adding a to the label and to promote via the recent LSP that has been established. The time that is required for the promotion of packet from MAP to MN is fixed as .
The total time required for the completion of above process is given below:
Time for registration
The following are the total time for all the mobility events
4. Mobile MPLS (with HMIP architecture)
5. Mobile MPLS (With MIP architecture)
6. Hierarchical Mobile MPLS
7. Hierarchical; MPLS
a. With Intra-LER Handoff
b. With Inter-LER Handoff
Howie D, Sun J, Koivisto A, (n.d.), A Hybrid Model for Wireless Mobility Management using IPv6, University of Oulu, Finland
Dunmore M, Pagztis T, (2005), Mobile IPv6 Handovers: Performance Analysis and Evaluation
Langar R, Bouabdallah N, Tohme S, (2006), On the Analysis of Mobility Mechanisms in Micro Mobile MPLS Access Networks, Journal of Communication
Langar R, Tohme S, Bouabdallah N, (2006), Mobility management support and performance analysis for wireless MPLS networks
Ren Z, Tham CK, Foo CC, Ko CC, Supporting Multi-protocol Label Switching In Mobile IP,
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