DNA fix is a mechanism harmonizing to which a cell is able to place and rectify harm to its DNA molecule that encodes its genome. In human metabolic activities every bit good as other factors such as chemicals, radiation can do DNA harm, ensuing in every bit many as 1 million single molecular lesions per cell per twenty-four hours. Many of these lesions cause structural harm to the DNA molecule and can change or extinguish the cell ‘s ability to transcribe the cistron that the affected DNA encodes. While some cause mutants in cell ‘s genome, which affects the consecutive coevalss of the cell. Overall we can state that DNA fix is an active procedure that invariably occurs as it responds to damage in Deoxyribonucleic acid construction.
The rate of DNA fix is dependent on many factors such as:
1 ) Cell type
2 ) Age of cell
3 ) Extracellular environment etc.
. A cell that has accumulated a big sum of DNA harm, or one that no longer efficaciously repairs harm incurred to its DNA, can come in one of three possible provinces:
1. An irreversible province of quiescence, known as aging.
2. Cell self-destruction, besides known as programmed cell death or programmed cell decease.
3. Unregulated cell division, which can take to the formation of a tumor that is cancerous.
The DNA fix ability of a cell is critical to the unity of its genome and therefore to its normal operation and that of the being. Many cistrons that were ab initio shown to act upon life span have turned out to be involved in DNA harm fix and protection. Failure to rectify molecular lesions in cells that signifier gametes can present mutants into the genomes of the progeny and therefore act upon the rate of development.
What is DNA harm?
Deoxyribonucleic acid harm is the province harmonizing to which environmental factors and some other causes consequence normal operation of the cell due to its affected Deoxyribonucleic acid construction. The huge bulk of DNA amendss affect the primary construction of the dual spiral ; that is, the bases themselves are chemically modified. These alterations can in bend disrupt the molecules ‘ regular coiling construction by presenting non-native chemical bonds or bulky adducts that do non suit in the criterion dual spiral. Unlike proteins and RNA, DNA normally lacks third construction and hence harm or perturbation does non happen at that degree. Deoxyribonucleic acid is, nevertheless, super coiled and injure around “ packaging ” proteins called histones ( in eucaryotes ) , and both superstructures are vulnerable to the effects of DNA harm.
Beginnings OF DNA DAMAGE
Deoxyribonucleic acid harm can be subdivided in to two types
1 ) ENDOGENOUS DAMAGE.
2 ) EXOGENOUS DAMAGE.
Damage such as onslaught by reactive species group produced from normal metabolic byproduct ( self-generated mutant ) , particularly the procedure of oxidative deaminization ;
1 ) besides includes reproduction mistakes
Damage caused by external agents such as:
1 ) UV beams from Sun
2 ) other beams: X raies, gamma beams
3 ) works toxins
4 ) chemotherapy, radiation therapy
5 ) homo made mutagenic chemicals, specially aromatic compounds.
6 ) Viruss.
DNA REPAIR MECHANISM
Basically it includes three types of mechanisms.
1 ) Base deletion mechanism.
2 ) Nuclear deletion mechanism.
3 ) Mis-match fix.
BASE EXCISION MECHANISM
Basically basal deletion fix mechanism is a cellular mechanism that repairs damaged Deoxyribonucleic acid throughout the cell rhythm. It is responsible for taking little, non spiral falsifying base lesions from genome.It is of import for taking damaged bases that could do mutant if non mended, by taking to mispairing or it can take to interrupt in DNA during reproduction.
BER is initiated by DNA glycolases, the map of DNA glycolases is to acknowledge and take specific damaged bases from AP sites. These are so cleaved by AP endonuclease. The ensuing individual strand interruption can so be processed by either short spot or long spot BER.
CHOICE BETWEEN LONG PATCH AND SHORT PATCH REPAIR
The pick between short and long spot fix is presently under probe. Assorted factors are thought to act upon this determination, including the type of lesion, the cell rhythm phase, and whether the cell is terminally differentiated or actively spliting. Some lesion, such as oxidised or decreased AP sites, are immune to pol ? lyase activity and therefore must be processed by long-patch BER.
Pathway penchant may differ between beings, every bit good. While human cells utilize both short- and long-patch BER, there are certain organisms which can merely utilize specified mechanism either long spot or short spot.
Proteins INVOLVED IN THE MECHANISM:
Deoxyribonucleic acid GLYCOLASES: responsible for initial acknowledgment of the lesion
AP ENDONUCLEASE: The AP endonucleases cleave an AP site to give a 3 ‘ hydroxyl adjacent to a 5 ‘ deoxyribosephosphate
End Processing Enzyme: In order for ligation to happen, a Deoxyribonucleic acid strand interruption must hold a hydroxyl on its 3 ‘ terminal and a phosphate on its 5’end. In worlds, polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase promotes formation of these terminals during BER. This protein has a kinase sphere, which phosphorylates 5 ‘ hydroxyl terminals, and a phosphatase sphere, which removes phosphates from 3 ‘ terminals. Together, these activities ready single-strand interruptions with damaged end point for ligation
Deoxyribonucleic acid POLLYMERASES: Pol ? is the chief human polymerase that catalyzes short-patch BER, with pol? able to counterbalance in its absence. These polymerases are members of the Pol X household and typically insert merely a individual base. In add-on to polymerase activity, these enzymes have a lyase sphere which removes the 5 ‘ dRP left behind by AP endonuclease cleavage. During long-patch BER, DNA synthesis is thought to be mediated by pol vitamin D and pol vitamin E along with the processivity factor PCNA, the same polymerases that carry out DNA reproduction.
Deoxyribonucleic acid LIGASE: Deoxyribonucleic acid ligase I ligates the interruption in long spot BER.
NUCLEOTIDE EXCISIONN REPAIR:
Nucleotide deletion fix mechanism is a DNA fix mechanism. As we know DNA invariably requires fix due to damage that can happen to bases from a huge assortment of beginnings such as chemicals but besides UV ( UV ) visible radiation from the Sun. Nucleotide deletion fix ( NER ) is a peculiarly of import mechanism by which the cell can forestall unwanted mutants by taking the huge bulk of UV-induced DNA harm ( largely in the signifier of thymine dimmer and 6-4-photoproducts ) . The importance of this fix mechanism is evidenced by the terrible human diseases that consequence from in-born familial mutants of NER proteins including Xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne ‘s syndrome.
The basal deletion fix machinery can acknowledge specific lesions in the Deoxyribonucleic acid it can rectify merely damaged bases that can be removed by a specific glycosylase, the nucleotide deletion fix enzymes recognize bulky deformations in the form of the DNA dual spiral. Recognition of these deformations leads to the remotion of a short single-stranded DNA section that includes the lesion, making a single-strand spread in the Deoxyribonucleic acid, which is later filled in by DNA polymerase, which uses the undamaged strand as a templet. NER can be divided into two subpathways that differ merely in their acknowledgment of helix-distorting DNA harm.
These sub tracts are as:
1 ) Globe genomic NER
2 ) Transcription coupled NER
In all beings, NER involves the undermentioned stairss:
1. Damage acknowledgment
2. Binding of a multi-protein composite at the damaged site
3. Double scratch of the damaged strand several bases off from the damaged site, on both the 5 ‘ and 3 ‘ sides
4. Removal of the damage-containing oligonucleotide from between the two dents
5. Filling in of the ensuing spread by a Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase
MIS MATCH REPAIR MECHANISM:
BEYOND THESE THREE MECHANISMS SOME OTHER METHODS: