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Multigrade Teaching and Learning

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Multigrade classes are established to improve access to education for all Filipinos in the most economic way. In some private schools and overseas schools, multigrade classes are established for academic reasons also. Why do we need multigrade classes?

  • Economic Reasons
  • Educational Reasons
  • Access
  • Academic

Why do we need multigrade classes?
“What I hear, I forget,
What I hear, and see, I remember a little.
What I hear, see and ask questions about or discuss with someone else, I begin to understand.

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What I hear, see, discuss, and do, I acquire knowledge and skill. What I teach to another, I master.”

  1. Subject Staggering Option
  2. Subject Integration Option
  3. Common Time Table
  4. Integrated Day Option
  5. Subject Grouping
  6. Modified Curriculum and Instruction

Subject Staggering Option

Grade I – MAKABAYAN
Edukasyon sa Kagandahang Asal at Wastong Pag-uugali: Napananatiling malinis ang paligid Edukasyon sa Pagpapalakas ng Katawan: Naisasagawa ng iba’t
ibang bahagi ng katawan ang iba’t ibang hugis Sining: Nakabubuo ng disenyo na binubuo ng iba’t ibang hugis sa pamamagitan ng finger painting Musika: Nakaaawit nang may tamang tono – tungkol sa magandang tanawin/ kapaligiran Magagandang Tanawin at Pook Pasyalan

Nakikilala ang magagandang tanawin sa pook-pasyalan ng sariling pook/bansa Subject Integration Option
Common Time Table

Integrated Day Option
 No fixed timetable
 Pupils are free to choose what subject to study and when (Children are allowed to choose an activity based from the week’s theme) Subject Grouping Option

Community Participation

Community life and school activities lend more easily to mutual integration since multigrade schools are located in communities with small population.

The more parents are involved in their children’s education, the more they would likely to succeed in school. MG schools have less resources, thus, the need to involve the community as sources of information and in providing for services and materials to improve the school. Policy/Issuance DECS Order No. 38, s. 1993 – “Improving Access to Elementary Education By Providing Complete Grade Levels in all Public Elementary Schools Through Combination and/or Multigrade Class” 2. DECS Order No. 96, 1997 – “Policies and Guidelines in the Organization and Operation of Multigrade Classes” 3. DECS Order No. 91, s. 1997 – “Special Hardship Allowance for Multigrade Teachers” 4. DECS Order No. 27, s. 2000 – “Institutionalization of Community Support Scheme (CSS) as one of the Best Practices of the MPPE” 5. DepEd Memo No. 404 s. 2004 – “Dissemination of the Training Video on Multigrade Instruction” 6. DepEd Memo No. 245 s. 2007 – “2007 Search for Multigrade Teacher Achiever” 7. DepEd Memo No. 155, s. 2008 – “Awarding Ceremony for the 2007 Search for Multigrade Teacher Achiever” 8. DepEd Memo No. 289 s. 2008 – “National Training-Workshop for Trainers on Multigrade Instruction” What are the benefits of multigrade teaching and learning?

Benefits for children

• A multiaged class brings together children of different ages and stages of development in a learning environment, which prepares them for real-life situations. A multiaged classroom is a more natural learning situation: for example, older children naturally helping younger ones. • The children often develop healthier social relationships and more positive attitudes. They get on better with others, both children and adults. • The children will learn to be resourceful and more independent, self-directed learners and gain the skills and attitudes of learning how to learn • The children can learn social skills when working together in small groups, for example, leadership skills, organizational skills, listening, sharing, taking turns, mentoring, negotiating skills • The children can progress at their own pace of learning with the opportunities to join a faster or slower group. Younger children benefit from the positive models of older children Benefits for teachers

• Good multigrade teachers do not use the ‘chalk and talk’ style of teaching (or lecturing).They have to be flexible and use other excellent teaching and learning methods and strategies, for example – – cooperative group work, individualized instruction, activity-centered approaches, group project work, cross-age peer-tutoring etc. They become better all-round teachers, capable of tackling a wide variety of situations. • Teachers can make the most of the inter-age multi-level situation to facilitate the learning processes. The older children can be responsible and given opportunities to use their expertise with the younger children. • The teacher gets to know the children better as individuals when teaching them for 2 or 3 years and is thus able to give them the right kind of help and guidance to suit the children’s individual needs. • Teachers learn to work with different age groups and deal with curriculum content across subject areas in an integrated approach • Teachers can share the responsibility of teaching learning with the students, parents and other community members What does a successful multigrade teacher do?

Successful multigrade teachers, just like all good teachers, are well prepared and well organized. They have an open mind and like to try out new ideas and be flexible and creative in their practice. They believe in the importance of creating a co-operative, family-type atmosphere in the classroom. They will also have the ability to build solid, close relationships iw the community so that, in time, parents will come to believe more strongly in the benefits for their child in a multigrade class. Good practices of a successful mutigrade teachers

• A good knowledge of their students
• A collection of good co-operative learning games, activities and strategies • A good understanding of curriculum (BEC)
• Time-efficient planning techniques
• Flexible time management
• A variety of teaching and learning strategies
Indicator of a successful multigrade teacher
To have a good knowledge and understanding of each of the individual students in their class Session 3: Principles of Learning
How can multigrade classes promote these seven principles of learning The graded school, in the Philippines, traditionally separates students on the basis of the number of years in school. The multigrade classroom however, is similar to the home or workplace learning situation. The focus in a multigrade class is about –

What the individual learners can do and what they need to learn next. In the multigrade classroom the students can learn from each other and with each other. Principles of Learning
• A supportive learning environment
• Opportunity to learn
• Connection and challenge
• Action and reflection
• Motivation and purpose
• Inclusivity and difference
• Independence and collaboration
Session 4: Reflective Journal
Reflective thinking and writing is an important part of the learning process. It involves deeper thinking about something, which often raises questions and creates problems to solve. For example, “I really enjoyed doing………….activity today because……… but how can I do that in my classroom?” • Reflective thinking also involves analyzing something and making judgments. For example, “that learning strategy would work well with older students because……….. but I think I would need to change ……………….. to work well in my young class because……….” Reflective Journal Reflective thinking Session 5: Creating a Cooperative Learning Environment

The Role of the Teacher
The role of the teacher is very important for the success of cooperative learning groups in the classroom. As the student are learning the cooperative learning skills they need to be – – • Modeled

• Clearly taught and
• Reinforced as the students are learning and using them
Teaching these skills can be done by the following methods:
• Explaining the co-operative skill
• Practicing the skills in co-operative
• Giving feedback and reflection
• Creating posters or charts for the classroom
Creating a Cooperative Learning Environment
The first Principle of Learning (listed in Session 3) is to establish a supportive learning environment where students feel valued and challenged and are able to work together collaboratively. We learn when our emotions are positive. What is cooperative learning?

• Cooperative learning involves students working together in small teams or groups on a shared task to achieve a common objective. Each student may be responsible for a specific part of the group task and the group will only be successful if everyone does their work. • For students to work together in a cooperative team or group, they will need to be taught specific cooperative learning skills. Teach one or two of these skills at a time as the students need to improve different ways to work together.

Cooperative Learning Skills
• Active listening
• Taking turns
• Asking good questions
• Respecting others
• Negotiating
• Sharing
• Helping and encouraging others
• Problem solving
• Decision making
• Conflict resolution
• Eye contact
• Assertive speaking – “I…” and they do not blame others or expect them to give up their rights. For example, “ I feel uncomfortable when you say/do that… …” or “I think that is unfair because… … … …” Why is cooperative learning a useful strategy for multigrade classes? • In the multigrade class, there will be a wide range of abilities. In mixed cooperative learning groups all students can contribute to the group task according to their level of skills and maturity.

• The students learn from each other by actively participating, hearing and seeing what others can do. They are more motivated to work and usually learn more. Students are more likely to develop respect for each other and their efforts as well as more tolerance of other’s differences. Cooperative learning helps build a positive supportive classroom environment. Cooperative learning groups can be used across the curriculum for many different purposes such as: • Makabayan projects

• Organizing
• Team games
• Clarifying ideas
• Peer teaching
• Topic related discussions or projects
• Speaking and listening tasks
• Science projects
• Discussing class/school issues
• Solving Math problems
• Writing group stories and plays
• Reading and analyzing texts
• Art projects
Co-operative Games
Co-operative games are fun ways for students to learn and practice their co-operative skills together. These skills are necessary for effective group work in a multigrade (and single-grade) class. These co-operative activities can be integrated into the program or may be useful between lessons, before a break time or when a particular skill needs to be practiced. They can also be used for the following purposes: • Making decisions

• To practice sharing and taking turns
• To practice helping others
• For talking positively and encouraging each other
• Active listening and asking good questions
Selecting cooperative games and activities: Competitive or cooperative? Many competitive games can be modified (or changed a little) so that there are no losers to become cooperative games. For example: • ‘Chasey’ – a competitive game when two or three ‘catchers’ chase and touch others to eliminate them. Those students who are ‘out’ have to sit out until the game is over. However, instead of eliminating children from the game, the game could be changed to cooperative game such as – • ‘Stuck in the mud’ – when someone has been touched (caught) she/he has to stand still with their arms stretched out. They can be ‘freed’ and join in the game again, when they are touched on the hand by someone who is still free to run around. Playing this game means that no-one is eliminated (‘out’) and the students are encouraged to help each other. Session 6:

Same but different: Organizing the Physical Learning Environment Organizing the Physical Learning Environment in a multigrade class In a multigrade classroom, there is a wide ramge of ages, abilities, maturity and interest among the students. To meet these different learning needs, a variety of materials will be required, so it is important for both the teacher and the students to have a well organized classroom. Then everyone will understand – • Where to find things,

• How to store things
• Where to sit for different activities
• Where to put completed work and
• Where to find some extra work (e.g. in a learning center) Organizing the physical space
A well organized classroom will contain:
• space
• a variety of different learning center spaces
• floor space
• spaces for small group work
• places for students to work independently
• display area
• flexible desk/chair combinations
• a reading area
• storage area
• a roster

Session 7: Learning center
Learning center are an important teaching and learning tool in a multigrade class because students can work independently or in groups with minimal supervision from the teacher. It is an area of a classroom where students go to learn new knowledge and practice skills independently. Importantly, they will include self-instructional materials, which may range from – • Lists of things to do (or choose from)

• Activity cards or task cards,
• Self-checking work cards,
• Games
• Special activities related to a class theme or topic

Catering different grades
• In a multigrade class there needs to be a variety of tasks for different students needing different level of work. • A learning center could include task cards requiring different levels of thinking. For example, – * Easier level task cards

* Second level of thinking
* Third level of thinking
• The task cards could be color coded in some way to show the different levels of difficulty. Some task cards could have open-ended activities for all students to complete at their own level – e.g. one problem with many different solutions. Managing Learning Centers in the classroom

■ A Group Task Board is a useful management tool that shows which group they are working in and which activities they can choose from. ■ To make a Group Taskboard you will need –
• A display board
• A task label
• Name labels
• Two T cards
Group Task Board
■Divide the Group Task Board into 4 sections (horizontally) or if the class numbers are over 28, then 5 or 6 sections may be necessary for 5 or 6 working groups. ■ Then divide the board into 2 sections (vertically) – a smaller column on the left for the students’ names and a wider column on the right for the tasks. When the students’ names are written on separate labels then they can be easily grouped in the same ability groups sometimes or in mixed ability groups. This will depend on the activity and the students’ needs fro the application. Ideas for Learning Center activities and tasks can be collected by: • Adapting activities in the Teacher’s Manual

• Changing your own lesson plan activities – write them on task cards for the student to read and practice what they did last week • Talking to other teachers to share ideas
• Asking the students to design task cards, activities or games related to a topic for others to complete • Inviting the Materials Development Center to come to your Division for a workshop to make self-instruction activities

Cite this Multigrade Teaching and Learning

Multigrade Teaching and Learning. (2016, Jul 17). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/multigrade-teaching-and-learning/

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