Chapter 1 Problem and It’s Background Introduction Teachers use different teaching strategies for their students. They work on those strategies for the betterment of the learning of their students. But, there are times that teacher forgetting that their strategy cannot be effective at all times. It’s because of the differences of each student. Nowadays, the problems of teachers are the students who are not improving academically. It can be caused by poor study habit or poor teaching strategy used by the teacher.
It’s because each student can be visual learner, auditory learners or kinaesthetic learners. Students are classified also as slow learners, average learners and fast learners. Each student has their own way of learning and for each student there is an appropriate teaching strategy that would best suit them to learn effectively. Individual differences have a very big impact on how students learn. Here, the researchers aimed to help professors to have information on the teaching styles, abilities and teaching aids that students thinks best for the improvement of their learning.
This study focused on the teaching styles, abilities, and teaching aids perceived by the students their teachers will use, as for them to understand the concepts, develop particular skills and determine appropriate teaching aids which suit to their levels, desires and readiness/maturity. Data for this study were based on the observation, interview and techniques in the classroom and how such teaching styles affect the learning style preferences of the learners. Theoretical Framework This study stemmed from the different theories of learning particularly:
The Theory of Identical Elements which was formulated by Thorndike explains that the amount of transfer of learning is largely dependent upon the teaching method used. The more clearly the common element in a situation is brought to the attention of the students by the teacher, the more readily the same element may be identified in another situation. Transfer of Learning happened when classroom instruction would be very time-consuming and expensive if materials learned in one aspect or area could not be transferred to another.
In spite of controversies on this point, education is based on the assumption that learning can be transferred. This means that the learning of one task has an effect on the learning of another. Two kinds of learning transfer are possible. Positive transfer occurs when the learning of one task facilitates the learning of another. This is so when learning mathematics enhances the learning of physics. Negative transfer occurs when prior learning detracts from subsequent learning. For example, learning to play the piano may make learning to play the organ more difficult as each instrument has is own finger dexterity qualities.
Likewise, prior learning of English may pose a real problem in learning Pilipino. Because of importance of transfer of learning, investigators have been interested in finding out the factors that make transfer possible. These factors are as follow: A. ) learning to learn. Experiments with verbal learning show that subjects increase their speed in learning word lists over a period of days. This is seen when the words are not similar, an indication that during the learning tasks, the subjects develop a technique that facilitates subsequent learning.
Learning to learn is emphasized in present-day schools and is considered just as important as the acquisition of facts. To some, it is even more important than learning of facts, for facts today may be fiction tomorrow, but one’s ability to learn will enable him to keep on learning in various situations. B. ) Mastery of principles. When principles are mastered, it will be easier to apply them to new situations. The principles learned in radio repairing if mastered, may easily facilitate the learning of other tasks.
The conceptual framework for this study was based on the teaching strategy and good practice literature exemplified by Weinstein and Mayer that learning is viewed as an active process and that the outcome of learning is supposed to depend on how the information is presented and on how the learner process that information. The elements involved in the teaching-learning process are: (a) teacher characteristics such as length of teaching experience, subject taught, educational attainment, including the teacher’s existing knowledge concerning the subject matter and how to each that may be required for the teaching strategy selected (b) teaching methods and teaching strategies including the teacher’s performance during teaching such as what is presented, when it is presented, and how it is presented (c) learner characteristics such as sex and age taken, including the learner’s existing knowledge concerning facts, procedures and strategies, that may be required for the learning strategy selected (d) learning strategies, including behaviour that the learner engages in during learning that are intended to influence affective and cognitive processing during encoding.
Instruction can affect learning by making appropriate teaching methods available to the learner. The teacher’s use of teaching methods and the learner’s use of learning strategies can affect the encoding process, which in turn affects the learning outcome and performance. The academic performance as indicated by the students’ grade in a professional subject is hypothesized to be related to the teaching styles used by the teachers and the teaching methods which the students prefer.
The students’ academic performance can be attributed to how a student profits from the teaching styles employed by the teacher and their preference of the teaching methods which their teachers use which may vary because of individual differences as in gender and course enrolled in. Input Process Output Conceptual Framework Figure I Input, Process and Output Schematic Diagram Figure I which showed that the teacher’s use of teaching styles may vary because of the length of teaching experience, age, highest educational attainment and the subject which they teach.
Teaching styles which students prefer their teachers to use may also vary depending upon their gender and the age. The teaching methods which college teachers prefer to use and the teaching methods which students prefer their teachers to use may be related to the students’ academic performance. Statement of the Problem This study was conducted to find out the teaching styles prepared by the student their teachers to use in order to increase learning, to determine appropriate teaching aids and the ability that teachers should possess.
Specifically this study aimed to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the students-respondent, in terms of: a. Age b. Gender c. Year and Section 2. How do the BBTE 3rd Year Students Perceived the importance of COED Professors Teaching Styles, Ability and Teaching Aids in Teaching and Learning process? 3. Is there a significant relationship that exists between the Teaching Styles, Ability and Teaching Aids when the students profile when they were group according to age and gender? Hypothesis 1.
There is no significant relationship between the COED Professors Teaching Styles when the BBTE 3rd Year Students Profile was grouped according to age and gender. Scope and limitations This study was undertaken to determine the Teaching Styles, Ability and Teaching Aids of COED Professors as Perceived by the BBTE 3rd Year Students. This study was conducted at Polytechnic University of the Philippines during the first semester of the school year 2011-2012. The student respondents were the students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education.
Therefore the findings from this study as well as the conclusions drawn are true and applicable only to the college students who participated in this study. A checklist of the teaching styles used in college teaching was prepared by the researcher in order to obtain data regarding the ranks of the Teaching Styles of COED Professors which is Perceived by the BBTE 3rd Year Students. The descriptive method of research describes what is. It involves the description, recording, analysis and interpretation of the present nature, composition or processes of phenomena.
Significance of the study The results of this study recommended various effective-teaching styles that would directly benefit the school administrators, the teachers, the students, the researchers, and other individuals who are concerned with the quality of education. Academic Administrators: Academic Administrators who are responsible for faculty development activities of college and universities may utilize the finding from this as a basis for planning and conducting seminars, workshops and group discussion that will improve teaching effectives.
Teacher: The college professors will be provided with information regarding teaching styles that were found by the students effective in their studies. So that they may incorporate these teaching styles into their classroom practices in order to improve student’s academic performance and will also be informed of the factors which may influence the students’ academic performance. It will also help the teacher prepare an instructional material which is desire by the students, in terms of their maturity and the compatibility in the subject matter.
This will also determine the ability that teacher/s should possess, in order to satisfy the learners eagerness in learning. Students: This study will provide students with information regarding teaching styles that may help them learn effectively, as well as the factors which may influence their academic performances. Researchers: Information from this study will encourage educational researches to conduct studies regarding teaching styles not covered in this study that may be related to students’ academic performance.
Authors and writers: The findings of this study will give authors and writers information which they can use for book revisions and for literature review. Definition of Terms The following terms are defined for clarification of their use. Ability In this study, this refers to the traits, experiences and achievement of that the teacher should have. BBTE 3rd Year These are the respondents of the study, which is enrolled in the School Year 2011-2012, first (1st) semester. Student A student is a person who is developed to learning as one enrolled in a class or course in a school, college, or university.
In this study student refers to a college student enrolled at Polytechnic University of the Philippines who is taking a professional subject under the course of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education in the school year 2011-2012. Teacher A teacher is a person employed in the school whose job is to provide learner information based on the facts. It is also the evaluator of the students. In this study teacher refers to the college teacher/professor who is teaching a professional subject and this subject is taken by the college students who are graduating by the first semester of the school year 2011-2012.
Teaching Aids In this study Teaching Aids refers to the materials used by the teacher/s to supplement the teaching and learning process. Teaching methods Teaching method refers to organized, orderly, systematic and well-planned procedures aimed at facilitating and enhancing students’ learning. In this study Teaching Method refers to the teaching procedures used by the COED professors at PUP which are the Inductive, Deductive, Lecture, Discussion, Reporting, Investigatory, Activity, Demonstration, Self-Pacing and Integrated methods.
Teaching styles In this study teaching styles refers to the different approaches and strategies employed by the teachers to improve the teaching-learning process of the students. It is also used to stimulate students’ interest on the subject. Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature This chapter presents the literature which is correlated with the study of Teaching Styles; Ability of the teachers should posses and the effective Teaching Aids that will affect the learning process of a learner. Foreign Literature
According to Farrel and Kotrlik (2003), educators can become more effective teachers by assessing their students preferred learning styles. This assessment can help in planning curriculum and in selecting appropriate instructional methods. Thus, research is needed to determine if there is a link between students learning styles and their cognitive abilities. According to Wilson (2003), auditory learners learn through listening. They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say.
Auditory learners interpret listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder (http:// www. lapride. net/learning styles. MI. htm# Visual Learners) learners who prefer auditory style learn through hearing or listening to things. The learner best when they can hear themselves express an idea. According to O’Neill (2009), auditory learners by hearing information and spoken out loud. They are usually very well-spoken and articulate, with an extensive vocabulary.
In general, auditory learners excel in English or Social Studies, as well as foreign language courses. Because of their strong auditory skills, they are often musically talented. According to Gregory (2005), to enhance the learning of these learners, the following instructional strategies such as structure and details in directions: hands-on approaches; how-to projects; computer learning; realistic and practical situations should be taught to them. They like sorting, labelling, listing, collecting, charting, making, constructing, classifying, measuring, preparing and building.
According Vaughn and Baker (2001), suggest that using a variety of methods and styles is an important tool that prepares teachers to a variety of learners. According to Grasha (2002), observed that styles are reflected in how teachers present themselves to students, convey information, interact with learners, and manage tasks. Supervise works in process, and socialize learners to the field. According to Wilson (2003) as the name suggests, visual styles refers to a preference for learning through vision, and usual learners rely on their sigh to take information.
They organize knowledge in terms of spatial interrelationships among ideas and store it graphically. According to Stanford (2003) as cited by scriber and Anderson (2005), visual learners prefer that information be presented visually in pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines, films and demonstrations rather than in spoken or written words. Doug Eikermann (2009) once said, “Good teachers are rare, and few people, including school administrators who hire teachers, know what it takes to be one.
Although some of the qualities of good teachers are subtle, many of them are identifiable. Here are the sixteen traits that a teacher must have; (1) Knowledge of the subject matter, (2) Patience, (3) Intellectual curiosity, (4) Confidence, (5) Compassion, (6) Achievement, (7) Planning, (8) Awareness, (9) Mentorship, (10) Maturity, (11) Community involvement, (12) Organization, (13) Vision, (14) Context,(15) Mission and (16) Enthusiasm. Excellent teachers never lose enthusiasm for their profession.
They might become temporarily burdened by administrative hassles or isolated problems but their underlying engagement with their work is unwavering. Students feel this energy, and teachers who project it are much more successful than those who do not. Foreign Studies In order to move from a “pedagogy of poverty” to a “pedagogy of plenty” (Tomlinson, 2005) and to cater to the increasing diversity of student learning needs, effective teachers need to be aware of and use a variety of teaching styles (Kulinna & Cothran, 2003).
Researchers have attempted to isolate variables that determine teachers’ preferred teaching style, but to date “little is known about teachers’ use and perception of various teaching styles” (Kulinna & Cothran, 2003, p. 1), or the stability of such teaching styles (Evans, 2004). Teaching styles focus on teachers and their distinct approach to teaching. As Brookfield (1990) stressed, teaching style can be the expression of how teachers gain a better understanding of how best to implement their vision of teaching while responding to the contextual aspects of teaching. Through n awareness of their preferred teaching style, teachers may gain a better understanding of themselves and how their teaching style can be changed, modified, or supported to improve their interactions with students (Kulinna, Cothran, & Zhu, 2000; Lacey et al. , 1998). Differences in teaching styles may also impact on areas such as classroom arrangements, the organization and assessment of activities, teacher interactions with students and pedagogical approaches, such as the use of questioning (Evans, 2004). However, there is limited research on Canadian teachers’ teaching styles.
Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the teaching styles of Canadian public school teachers and then to examine the relationship, if any, between their teaching styles and their cognitive styles. Initially the literature on teaching styles is reviewed. Teachers play a critical role in the teaching/learning process. Teachers’ classroom behaviors has impact on many different areas of this process, such as teacher preparation, classroom presentation, learning activities and approaches to the assessment of learning (Lacey et al. 1998; Masse & Popovich, 2006). The term “teaching style” refers to “a teacher’s personal behaviors and media used to transmit data to or receive it from the learner” (Kaplan & Kies, 1995, p. 29), and involves the implementation of the teacher’s philosophy about teaching (Conti, 2004). Heimlich (1990) indicated that the underpinnings of teachers’ teaching philosophies may be their values, beliefs, attitudes, aspirations, personal biographies, social identities, cultural background and teaching experiences.
Researchers have also identified other areas that influence teachers’ teaching style, such as the nature of the subject area (Evans, 2004; Genc & Ogan-Bekiroglu, 2004; Lawrence, 1997); the impact of government curriculum initiatives (Hargreaves, 2003; Richards, 1998); preservice teacher preparation and schooling socialization (Britzman, 2003; Evans, 2004; Harkins, 1997); job satisfaction (Opdenakker & Van Damme, 2006); as well as socio-cultural backgrounds and attitudes (Finn, 1999; Villegas & Lucas, 2002).
Other researchers have also examined the relationship between teaching style and student achievement of learning outcomes (Adey, Fairbrother, William, Johnson & Jones, 1999; Aitkin & Zuzovsky, 1994; Conti, 1985; Zinn, 2004). Within this area, research has painted a far from clear picture with recent studies suggesting that although students may prefer to be taught in their own favored style, they are open to teaching styles that are completely different from their own preferred learning styles (Zhang & Sternberg, 2004).
Although some research indicates that teaching styles are important with respect to student outcomes, Opdenakker and Van Damme (2006) questioned the degree to which effective classroom practices are dependent on teaching characteristics and styles. Researchers have identified different teaching behaviors, which have demonstrated that teachers do have a preferred or dominant teaching style (Conti, 1985; Cothran, Kulinna & Garrahy, 2003; Ladd, 1995). However, researchers who have investigated teaching styles have tended to work independently and to have developed their own set of indicators for identifying different teaching styles.
This has led to a variety of definitions of teaching style and to the development of a number of different dimensions for measuring teaching styles (for example, Allen, 1988; Dunn & Dunn, 1979; Grasha, 2003; Henson & Borthwick, 1984). The nature and scope of teaching styles have been characterized by identifiable descriptors such as proactive or reactive behavior (Lenz, 1982); highly content centered or highly people centered teaching (Robinson, 1979); teacher-centered to learner-centered (Conti, 1985; Opdenakker & Van Damme, 2006); or guided learning, exposition, or inquiry approaches (May Oi & Stimpson, 1994).
Jarvis (1985) used three classifications to identify teaching styles: (a) a didactic style which was teacher-controlled through lectures and student note taking; (b) a Socratic style which was teacher directed through the use of questions to which the students responded; and (c) a facilitative style in which the teacher prepared the learning environment and the students were responsible for their own learning. More recently, studies have also focused on teacher beliefs as either facilitative, a belief that all students can learn, or pathognomonic, the learner is blamed for his ‘illness’, (Rosenfeld & Rosenfeld, 2007).
In the field of physical education, teachers’ teaching styles have been explored using Mosston’s Spectrum Teaching Styles (Cothran, et al. , 2005; Doherty, 2003; Kulinna, Cothran & Zhu, 2000). The Spectrum provides a way to study the various approaches to teaching on a continuum of decision-making from a direct, teacher-led approach to a more open-ended and student-centered approach. Three aspects of teaching were examined: pre-impact (preparation stage), the impact (performance and delivery) and post-impact (evaluation and feedback).
There were 11 different teaching styles that related to reproducing knowledge and the involvement of the students in the learning process. These styles included: (a) command, (b) practice, (c) reciprocal, (d) self check, (e) inclusion, (f) guided discovery, (g) convergent discovery, (h) divergent production, (i) learner’s individual designed program, (j) learner initiated, and (k) self teaching (Kulinna, Cothran & Zhu, 2000).
Styles A-E are identified by Kulinna & Cothran (2003) as reproducing styles and styles F-K as productive styles responsible for the generation of new knowledge, both of which have benefits in the classroom, although the benefits for particular types of children have been shown to be variable and in need of validation from larger studies (Byra, 2000; Kulinna & Cothran, 2003).
More recently, Opdenakker and Van Damme (2006) have examined the impact of a student-centered/learner teaching style versus a content-centered and management teaching style on learner outcomes and found a learner-centered style was associated with higher opportunities to learn. To what extent such styles correlate with cognitive styles is an area of great interest and relevance, and contributes to the debate on what teacher characteristics/behaviors are most effective in the classroom.
Based on the work of researchers such as Messick (1976), Riding (1991, 2002), and Witkin (1976), Evans (2004) designed a Teaching Style Questionnaire (TSQ) to measure the Wholistic-Analytic teaching styles of teacher trainees enrolled in one-year Post Graduate Certificate in Education in the United Kingdom. In the TSQ, lower scores indicated a more Wholistic teaching style and higher scores indicated a more analytical style in teaching. Overall, teachers tended to be more Analytical than Wholistic in style.
Wholistics were characterized as being more informal, flexible, interactive with students, spontaneous and attentive to individuals. They tended to be more concerned with the global aspects of learning, learning process, and working as team members. Analytics were more formal, controlling, directive, structured, sequential, and attentive to details than were Wholistics. They also preferred to work on their own and in their interactions with students they were more impersonal, inflexible and provided more detailed feedback than did Wholistics.
Research reveals that the teachers teaching experiences have different dominant teaching styles. Teachers with 1-10 years of teaching experiences have generally active teaching style together with those teachers who are already teaching for 31 – 40 years while global is the dominant teaching style of the teachers who have been teaching for 11-20 years. This means that teachers with 1-10 years and 31-40 years of teaching experience emphasize active learner participation through discussions, role playing, and other communicative activities.
These teachers also present their lessons such that small group activities are given priority to help learners to develop critical thinking; engage himself in providing individual and group activities; provide time intervals for learners to form small group and discuss the material; provide team self-assessment to promote collaboration, and ask and invite questions at certain intervals to ensure learners’ participation. Teachers with 11-20 years of teaching experience give learners the freedom to devise their own methods of solving problems or presenting their outputs.
Thus, these teachers always aim to provide learners with conceptual sequence for completing the tasks; Allow learners to develop their own problem-solving process; relate the subject to other similar subjects; provide an overview of the content to be taught; show connections between the concepts and other concepts; pay attention to the whole diagram and the details later; develop skills of breaking the whole to smaller parts; think possible ways that can be used to solve the problem; and provide overall feedback (Felder and Silverman, 1988).
Statistically, the teaching styles of the teachers differ significantly in terms of their teaching experiences. Hence, the hypothesis that there is a significant difference in the teaching styles of teachers according to teaching experience is accepted. The significance of teaching experience in terms of teaching styles is supported by the study of Lubrica (1996) who affirmed that the longer teachers teach the more experiences they gain because of their exposure to different situations. Local Literature Two factors distinguish a profession once it has evolved into one.
Once is the pursuit of excellence and the second is a code of ethics. Indeed, teachers are but a dichotomy of intellectual and physical aspects of development. (National Council for Teacher Education) The demands on the teaching profession are not restricted to possessing adequate knowledge of the subject matter, but they also are expected to epitomize personality development . In other words, growth as regards profession and personality must be sought by anyone who is in the business of teaching (Ramamurthy, 1990). Professionalism is more than mere occupation. It is pride in one’s occupation.
It entails a sense of addressing the need to enhance skills such as communication skills and professional integrity necessary to command respect of the entire student population and the society as a whole. As for personality development, a teacher must have the willingness to venture to evaluate him and be ready to transform or restructure if only to arrive at reasonable and desirable effects on his teaching profession in general. High quality of teachers of great moral stature and uprightness of character will surely inspire pupils to grow with a very high regard for excellence and values — moral and ethical.
A professional teacher works his way to encompassing cognitive, affective and psychomotor growth of children entrusted to his tutelage. A professional teacher has to showcase mastery over the discipline and winsome personality that enables him to climb up the ladder of excellent teaching and learning scenarios. More than 190,000 teaching personnel in 2007-2008 were sent by the Department of Education to upgrade their teaching competencies and improve student performance. Local Studies
Pamela Yu Plata (2006) in their book entitled “Keys to Confidence and Competence said: Purposive learning encompasses situation and learning encompasses situation and learner. Learning situation is the environment created when a teacher is confident, focused, organized, creative, open- minded, among others. But, to be truly successful, teaching must be made founded on learning. Hence, the learning principle; Indeed, when the students manifest learning, the teachers confidence is bolstered the teachers interest is far from being dampened without an ounce of doubt, mastery of the subject matter is imperative to ensure effective teaching.
More over confidence of the teachers is directly or indirectly influenced by venue, Sterling in his study a great deal of emphasis on the School itself. Being an academic center, a school must be a cradle of excellence and character surely, these two qualities help bring out confidence from the teacher, himself. Indeed a confident teacher is capable of tackling any academic endeavours. In effect, the teachers confidence is related to the mastery of the subject matter (competence) and personality (character) having the entire school (environment /venue) as the solid ground and learners (Audience) as the beneficiaries.
As it is very clearly and logically presented a teacher’s competence is rather complex yet not beyond comprehension. As it is competence is that intangible quality of being able to stand and deliver. It can be developed through experience. Solid experience may take place through the years of actual classroom teaching. According to Bael (2000), his findings revealed that the quality of tools as well as the characteristics of equipment plays a significant role in the implementation of any curricular program.
When the tools, equipment, and machines are inadequate to meet the required number, the achievement desired becomes too difficult. Competence in teaching how to teach throughout one’s life in this changing world entails the secure attainment of functional literacy, which includes essential abilities such as linguistic fluency, scientific numerical competence and technical knowledge. “It is the capability of the people that make our nation and other nation grows “as Roco (2002) highlighted. Synthesis of the Related Literature and Studies Many studies and articles have been written about teaching styles and earning styles of the student. Most of the studies centered between the relationship of students and teachers, implementing effective teaching styles, strategies and considering individual differences so that he/she can teach the students which they can study and learn most and also for to have the competent ability for the teacher. The future is what we make it but we have to think hard about what we want to make and a teacher is the maker of the future. Education of the highest quality requires teachers of the highest quality (Common Wealth, 2004).
A highly skilled and professional teaching force does, and will continue to make a difference. All the cited literature and study in connection with the teaching styles. The researchers believe that all the cited literature and study on this matter will help in answering the entire stated problem Hence, all the cited readings are highly acknowledged by the researchers. Chapter 3 Research Methodology This chapter presents the locale of the study, research design, sampling technique, sample research instrument, data gathering and statistical treatment of data. Methodology
This research made use of descriptive research method which is designed for the researchers to gather information about the teaching styles, ability of the teacher and teaching aids that are needed in the chosen field of the study. This method was used to gather, describe, measure, analyze and interpret the findings developed for further studies. Descriptive research is also known us statistical research that describes data and characteristics about the population and phenomenon being study. The study collects in order to test the hypothesis. This type of research describes what exists and may help to uncover new facts and meaning.
The purpose of descriptive research is to observe, and describe document aspects of a situation as it naturally occurs (Polit & Hungler 1999). According Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph. D. it is to collects data in order to answer questions about the current status of the subject or topic of study. It is also used as a formal instrument to study preferences, attitudes, practices, concerns, or interests of a sample. Locale of the study This study was conducted in the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, College of Education under the course Bachelor in Business Teacher Education.
Research Design Since this study aimed to describe the teaching styles of COED Professors in Polytechnic University of the Philippines, it employed the descriptive method of investigation. It made use of a checklist which served as the quantitative data for the teaching style/s perceived by the students their Professors used in the class. This study also determined the ability should the teacher possess and the Instructional Aids that the teacher should used in presenting the topic. The researcher administered a questionnaire composed of 153 BBTE 3rd year students.
The data taken from the survey served as the quantitative data. Population and Sampling This study was conducted in the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, College of Education. The respondents of the study were composed of randomly selected students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education (BBTE) third year students were made up of 153 students representing their population. The sampling technique used in this study was Random Sampling because the researchers randomly selected the respondent for each section of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education, 3rd year level.
Instrumentation A questionnaire was used in this study to gather useful and meaningful data which support the effort to achieve the goal of the research. The questionnaire presented by the researcher was referred to the questionnaire developed by Grasha Reichman (2002). The questionnaire was been modified by the researchers, and only the relevant question to the topic were retained and other question were been replaced. Thus, the researchers design questionnaire in right and proper. The researcher made sure that the face of he instrument was validated and evaluated by the research adviser, The questionnaire composed of four categories. The first category was all about the profile of the respondents. The second category dealt with the teaching styles perceived by the students. The third category was all about the ability that the teacher should possess. The fourth category was all about the instructional aids that teacher should used in presenting the topic. A checklist on different teaching styles was provided for observation. These are Teaching Styles which has eleven items, Ability which has five items, and Teaching Aids which has six items.
The columns of the frequency of the perceived teaching style are assigned numbers as scores: for five (5) –Highly Important, four (4) – Very Important, three (3) – Important, two (2) – Slightly Important and one (1) Unimportant. Data gathering procedure The data for this study were gathered by the researcher from the respondents in the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, College of Education, third year BBTE students. Here are the specific procedures: 1. The researchers secured a formal letter request from the Dean of the College of Education to conduct the main study in the stated locale ; 2.
After permission was secured, the researchers gather the population of all the BBTE third year students. 3. The survey started during the first week of September until the third week of September 2012. School Year 2012-2013 during the first semester only. The students were given ample time to answer the questions. 4. After the researchers gathered the entire survey questionnaire, the results were all tallied and tabulated using the Microsoft Excel according to the frequency of the items checked by the respondents. 5. Lastly, the data tabulation results were interpreted using various statistical tools and formula.
The results of the techniques used in the data gathering were analyze in order for the researcher to arrive at interpretation of the study, Statistical Treatment of Data To answer the problem posed on the study and to find whether the stated hypothesis is to be accepted or rejected the researcher sought to use the following statistical formula: 1. Frequency and Percentage was used to classify the respondents according to personal background such as age and gender. P= fn x 100 Where: p = percentage f = frequency N = total number of population 2. Ranking was used to describe numerical data in addition to percentage.
Ranking was used in the study for comparative purposes and for sharing the importance of items selected. 3. Mean was used in the interpretation of data and the testing of the null hypothesis. It was also used to determine whether the determinants and sub-determinants are Highly Important, Very Important, Important, Slightly Important and Unimportant. µ=? fXN Where: ?= summation notation F= frequency X= scale N= total number of scores 4. Likert Scale Likert Scale Interpretation 5| Highly Important| 4. 50-5. 00| 4| Very Important| 3. 50-4. 49| 3| Important| 2. 5-3. 49| | Slightly Important| 1. 5-2. 49| 1| Unimportant| 0. 5-1. 49| 4. Sloven’s Formula: n = ___N__ 1 + Ne2 Where: n=sample size N=population sizee= desired margin of error (0. 05) Data Analysis 1. The Sloven’s Formula is used to determine the number of sampling population. 2. Likert Scale is used for Verbal Interpretation. 3. Weighted mean is used to determine the weighted average of frequency over the total sample population. 4. Percentage is used to determine the numbers of students who answer the survey questionnaire and the percentage of the respondents according to gender. . Ranking is used to determine the highest and the lowest score. Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data This chapter contains analysis and interpretations of the data. The Presentation and discussions are presented according to the sequence of the specific questions to be answered in this study. Presentation TABLE 1 Frequency, Percentage and Rank Distribution of Respondents According to their Age Age| Frequency| Percentage| Ranking| 17 yrs. Old| 15| 9. 80%| 3| 18 yrs. Old| 72| 47. 06%| 1| 19 yrs. Old| 52| 33. 99%| 2| 20 yrs. Old| 14| 9. 15%| 4|
Table 1 illustrates the ranking of respondents according to their age. Out of 153 students, 47. 06% are 18 years old which has the biggest number of respondents and ranks first; 33. 99% are 19 years old which ranks second on having the biggest number of respondents; respondents who ages 17 years old has a percentage of 9. 8% ranks third; and 9. 15% of the respondents ages 20 years old and ranks least. TABLE 2 Frequency, Percentage and Rank Distribution of Respondents According to their Gender Sex| Frequency| Percentage| Rank| Female| 108| 70. 59| 1| Male| 45| 29. 41| 2| Total| 153| 100%| |
Table 2 shows the classification of respondents according to their gender. 70. 59% of the respondents are female which has a frequency of 108 students and ranks first, and 29. 41% of the respondents are male and has a frequency of 45 student’s ranks second. The total respondents are 153 students. TABLE 3 Mean Distribution of the Respondents’ Evaluation of Teachers Teaching Styles Teaching Styles | Weighted Mean| Verbal Interpretation| 1. Provides concepts and principles| 4. 22| Very Important| 2. Gives activities to students| 4. 36| Very Important| 3. Divide the class into small groups| 2. 4| Important| 4. Sharing personal experience to illustrate points| 2. 29| Important| 5. Supervise students while doing activities| 3. 99| Very Important| 6. Asking ideas in relation to the topic. | 4. 39| Very Important| 7. Showing to students how and what to do to master the contents| 4. 37| Very Important| 8. Develop ability students to work independently| 4. 32| Very Important| 9. Shares expertise and achievement to encourage students| 4. 39| Very Important| 10. Set standards and expectation to class. | 4. 15| Very Important| 11. Let students work independently. | 4. 24| Very Important|
As shown in Table 3, the respondents agreed that providing facts, concepts and principles through discussion (4. 22 WM), giving activities that would engage the student in the learning process (4. 36 WM), supervising the students while doing the activity (3. 99 WM), asking ideas/thoughts in relation to the topic (4. 39 WM), showing students how and what to do in order to master the content (4. 37 WM), developing the ability of students to think and work independently (4. 32 WM), sharing knowledge, expertise and achievement to encourage the student (4. 39 WM), setting standards and expectations in class (4. 5 WM), and letting the students study independent or self-directed (4. 15 WM) are very important to use as teaching styles. It is proven and supported by the data gathered by getting the weighted mean and based from the Likert Scale. They also agreed that dividing the class in small groups to develop the ability of critical thinking (2. 24 WAM) and giving his/her personal experience to illustrate points (2. 29WAM) are all slightly important. TABLE 4 Mean Distribution of the Respondents’ Evaluation of Teachers’ Ability Teachers’ Ability| Weighted Mean| Verbal Interpretation| 1. Good communication skills. | 4. 2| Highly Important| 2. Intra-personal skills. | 3. 97| Very Important| 3. Mastery of the subject to be taught. | 4. 67| Highly Important| 4. Classroom Management. | 4. 53| Highly Important| 5. Evaluate performance and give immediate feedback. | 4. 28| Very Important| In table 4, the respondents agreed that good communication skills (4. 72 WM), mastery of the subject to be taught (4. 67 WM), and Classroom Management (4. 53 WM) are all highly important and essential in teacher’s abilities. They also agreed that intra-personal skills (3. 97 WM) and evaluating performance and giving immediate feedback to students (4. 8 WM) are all very important in teacher’s abilities. TABLE 5 Mean Distribution of the Respondents’ Evaluation of teaching aids Teaching Aids| Weighted Mean| Verbal Interpretation| 1. Providing Handouts| 4. 37| Very Important| 2. Visual Aids. | 4. 13| Very Important| 3. Illustration of charts and graphs. | 4. 16| Very Important| 4. Textbook. | 4. 29| Very Important| 5. PowerPoint presentation| 4. 32| Very Important| 6. Video clips| 4. 24| Very Important| In table 5, the respondents agreed that providing hand outs (4. 37 WM), visual aids (4. 13 WM), illustration of charts and graphs (4. 6 WM), textbook (4. 29 WM), PowerPoint presentation (4. 32 WM), and video clips (4. 24 WM) are all very important to use as teaching aids. TABLE 6 Factors Affecting Student Learning| Average Weighted Mean| Verbal Interpretation| Teaching Styles| 3. 91| Very Important| Ability| 4. 43| Very Important| Teaching Aids| 4. 25| Very Important| Overall Weighted Mean of Teachers’ Ways of Handling Students Table 6, shows the overall weighted mean of the three determinants. Ability has an Average Weighted Mean of 4. 43 with a Verbal Interpretation of Very Important, and Rank as first (1st).
Teaching Aids has 4. 25 Average Weighted Mean with Verbal Interpretation of Very Important and Rank as second (2nd). Teaching Styles has 3. 91 Average Weighted Mean with Verbal Interpretation of Very Important and Rank as third (3rd). Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation This chapter presents the summary, conclusions, and recommendations Statement of the Problem This study was conducted to find out the teaching styles prepared by the student their teachers to use in order to increase learning, to determine appropriate teaching aids and the ability that teachers should possess.
Specifically this study aimed to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the students-respondent, in terms of: a. Age b. Gender c. Year and Section 2. How do the BBTE 3rd Year Students Perceived the importance of COED Professors Teaching Styles, Ability and Teaching Aids in Teaching and Learning process? 3. Is there a significant relationship that exists between the Teaching Styles, Ability and Teaching Aids when the students profile when they were group according to age and gender? Summary of findings
After the data have been statistically treated, analysed and interpreted, the study arrived at the following findings: 1. Age of the Respondents The total respondents of this study are 153. The respondents are mostly females which have the scores of 70. 59 or 108 of the total population compared to the 29. 42 or 45 male respondents. 2. Gender of the Respondents The most common age is 18 years old which is 47. 06%, rank first. The second most common age is 19 years old which is 33. 99% and second rank. The third common age is 17 years old which is 9. 0% of the respondents. And the least age of respondents is 20 years old which is only 9. 15% or 14. 3. Teaching Styles Perceived by the Respondents The respondents agreed that providing facts, concepts and principles through discussion was Very Important and verified by the weighted mean of 4. 22, giving activities that would engage the student in the learning process was Very Important verified by the weighted mean of 4. 36, supervising the students while doing the activity was Very Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 3. 9, asking ideas/thoughts in relation to the topic was Very Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 4. 39 , showing students how and what to do in order to master the content was Very Important and verified by weighted mean equivalent to 4. 37 , developing the ability of students to think and work independently was Very Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 4. 32 , sharing knowledge, expertise and achievement to encourage the student was Very Important which has a weighted mean equivalent to 4. 39 , setting standards and expectations in class was Very Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 4. 5 WM, and letting the students study independent or self-directed was Very Important verified by the weighted mean equivalent to 4. 15 are very important to use as teaching styles. It is proven and supported by the data gathered by getting the weighted mean and based from the Likert Scale. They also agreed that dividing the class in small groups to develop the ability of critical thinking was considered as Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 2. 24 and giving his/her personal experience to illustrate points was Very Important equivalent to 2. 29 are all slightly important. 4.
Teachers’ Ability Perceived by the Respondents The respondents agreed that good communication skills was Highly Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 4. 72, mastery of the subject to be taught was Highly Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 4. 67 , and Classroom Management was Highly Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 4. 53. They also agreed that intra-personal skills was Very Important verified by weighted mean equivalent to 3. 97, evaluating performance and giving immediate feedback to students was Very Important in teachers abilities verified by weighted mean equivalent to 4. 8. 5. Teaching Aids Perceived by Respondents The respondents agreed that providing hand outs (4. 37 WM), visual aids (4. 13 WM), illustration of charts and graphs (4. 16 WM), textbook (4. 29 WM), PowerPoint presentation (4. 32 WM), and video clips (4. 24 WM) are all very important to use as teaching aids. Conclusions Based from the findings, the researchers came up with these conclusions: 1. The third year students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education of Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Mabini Campus, Sta. Mesa, Manila had a total population of 249 students.
With this, we used the Sloven’s formula to determine the sampling population, and we get the total sampling population of 153 respondents. Majority of them is 18 years old or 47. 06% and the least is 20 years old or 9. 15%. 2. The nine (9) sub-determinants of teaching styles had weighted mean ranges from 3. 5-4. 29 and these are Very Important according to Likert scale. On the other hand, the two (2) sub-determinants of teachings had weighted mean ranges from 1. 5-2. 49, which has a Verbal Interpretation of Slightly Important according to the Likert scale. 3.
The three (3) sub-determinants of teacher’s ability had weighted mean ranges from 4. 5-5. 0, which has a verbal description of Highly Important according to the Likert scale. The two (2) other determinants of teachers’ ability had a weighted mean ranging from 3. 5-4. 49, which has a Verbal Interpretation of Very Important according to Likert scale. 4. All the six (6) sub-determinants under Teaching Aids had weighted mean ranging 3. 5-4. 49, which has the Verbal Interpretation of Very Important according to Likert Scale. Recommendation Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are posed: 1.
Teacher should incorporate different teaching styles into their classroom practices in providing the student to obtain the quality education and to improve student’s participation and academic performance. Use multi-sensory material in teaching to facilitate and enhance higher performance. They should also give their pupils manipulative materials so that learner will have a direct experience towards the materials used. They should not be satisfied in just saying lectures to students but give them more exercises to be solved and visual materials to see and in solving problems. 2.
Responding was the least of teachers’ functions. In this context, activities/tasks given to the students should be more challenging to encourage students to ask questions that develop their critical thinking and to enhance interaction with the teacher. 3. Teachers should make use of the different teaching styles in their teaching strategies to develop and cater to the learning styles of students in the development of communicative competence. 4. Teachers should avoid putting answers directly on students’ errors, but adopt more implicit error identification techniques for students to reflect on and repair their own errors. . Students should identify their own learning style so that they can help themselves find ways and do specific action to improve their understandings of the lesson easily not only depending on the teacher ability, teaching styles and the instructional materials used. 6. It is recommended that the study must be replicated using a larger population on different educational systems such as public and private schools using the same or other teaching styles to further verify the findings which the student’s learns best. BIBLIOGRAPHY Boiser, D. C. , Teaching made easy: Strategies and Styles. Phoenix Publishing
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