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Negative Reinforcement on Consumer Behavior

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Smoke is one of the most unsafe wonts that give rise to many diseases and everyone is cognizant of its terminal consequences. It is a slow toxicant that keeps on impacting the wellness and in the terminal it finally decreases the life. Even so it is going so common among childs. To make a negative image in the eyes of consumers, authorities took austere stairss by presenting anti smoke runs and banned the commercials that motivate the tobacco users to smoke.

On initial stage authorities placed the disclaimers on the fume packs that say smoke is deleterious for wellness and minor merchandising of coffin nails was banned.

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Further to hold a greater impact images of cancerous oral cavity were introduced on the battalions to make a negative image and on the other manus increase the revenue enhancements so consumer should believe before purchasing as it is non a compulsory demand to be fulfilled. And imposed heavy revenue enhancements on the international trade names of coffin nails as the negative image making images are non present on them.

These all anti smoke runs are effectual merely on those who have late started smoke. At the initial phase of smoke, it is easier for recent tobacco users to halt smoke as comparison to the regular tobacco users.

In this research the expected findings were to happen out the consequence of anti smoke runs on the recent tobacco users in Lahore, largely the immature 1s. General impression before the survey was graphical impact is more effectual on consumer behavior as comparison to the consequence of enforcing heavy revenue enhancements on coffin nails. The concluding consequences were varied from the initial outlooks. High revenue enhancements played a critical function in de-motivating the immature recent tobacco users to smoke as comparison to the cancerous oral cavity images consequence on them. And it proves that anti smoke runs are more effectual on recent immature tobacco users. Subsequently in the survey consequences are discussed in following.

Introduction

Cigarette smoke contains more than 4,000 harmful chemicals including over 40 that are known causes of malignant neoplastic disease. Smoking is a premier factor in bosom onslaughts and causes malignant neoplastic disease of the lungs, oral cavity and vesica. Passive smoke is the term used for exposure to tobacco fume, or the chemicals in baccy fume, without really smoking. That is even more unsafe for non-smokers. Harmonizing to tobacco users, smoke is habit-forming, enjoyable, helps in cut downing tenseness and gives relaxation to mind. These factors are merely for clip being but in the long tally it is deleterious to wellness.

Harmonizing to the planetary smoke statistic for 2002 “ Among immature teens ( aged 13 to 15 ), approximately one in five fumes worldwide ”, which shows that among all tobacco users, this wont is largely acquired by the immature age kids even though it is banned to sell anyone who is under the age of 18. Around the universe, legislators are difficult at work to do it more hard for people to bask their worst wont of smoke. By puting heavy responsibilities and revenue enhancements on coffin nails and with the aid of other anti smoke runs, they are seeking to degrade tobacco users to purchase coffin nails. Still the major companies such as Pakistan Tobacco Company and Phillip Morris International are still bring forthing their net incomes by selling coffin nails. And people are still attracted towards smoking.

Background Information:

Harmonizing to archeologists, the first known hints of baccy came from around 6000 BC. Smoking is a pattern in which a substance, baccy is burned and so the fume is inhaled. Earlier in 1950s smoke was counted as a symbol of attractive force and becomes a native civilization. There was a clip when the smoke advertizements became a viral run. Billboards were seen on every street. Baseball clubs were filled with the fume of coffin nails. Smoking became a position symbol. Till early 60 ‘s the advertizements were on their extremum, where smoke was appreciated. Ads played a major function in act uponing the grownups to smoke. In 1960 ‘s for the first clip in the history physicians recognize the marks of smoking effects in edifice malignant neoplastic diseases.

Problem Development:

The ratio of tobacco users in the decease rates increases more than the decease with other agencies of diseases. Ads were banned on media. Billboard advertizements were shutdown. Increase the revenue enhancements on the monetary values of coffin nails. Topographic point notes on coffin nail packages against smoking from ministry of wellness so one can come across the negative impact of smoking whenever he/she takes out the package. To do this run more affected, authorities forced all baccy companies to hold images of cancerous diseases on the smoke packages to de-motivate the tobacco users and the kids who are at their early age of smoke. And besides increases the rates with the aid of enforcing heavy revenue enhancements on the purchase of coffin nails. This consequences in lessening in smoking ingestion on a lower degree. But on a long tally the consequence was negligible. Consumption of coffin nails is kept on lifting steeply. In my research I am traveling to happen out whether there is any effectual consequence of these negative supports on the tobacco users ( recent starting motors ) on their purchasing behavior. Does it truly impact the people who are come ining in smoking late? As everyone is cognizant of its terminal consequence, still smoking is so common.

Literature reappraisal

Smoke is the most widespread habit-forming behavior in the society. In late 80 ‘s around 400000 deceases took topographic point yearly in United States due to the inordinate ingestion of smoke. Chaloupka ( 1991 ) used the theoretical theoretical account ( Becker-Murphy theoretical account, 1988 ) to understand the rational habit-forming behavior of the tobacco users by connoting the demand equation ensuing through the maximal use of coffin nails. And the smoke ingestion informations used for the demand equation was taken from the National Health and nutrition scrutiny Survey. To acquire the exact consequence existent monetary values were used in the theoretical theoretical account. The consequence concludes that there is no specific relation between the ingestion rate in yesteryear, current and what will be in future. But with the aid of this survey the current ingestion has been decreased due to the intensive addition in monetary values of coffin nails as compared to the monetary values of older times.

Popham J.W, Potter L.D, Bal D.G, Michael D, Johnson M.D, Duerr J.M and Quinn V. ( 1993 ) evaluates that do anti-smoking media runs help tobacco users to discontinue smoke. The run was carried out in California. These runs were financed by increasing 25 cents in every battalion of the coffin nail. The media run that took topographic point was aiming 60 per centum of the young person. Method that was used to garner the information was with the aid of telephone interviews from twelvemonth 1990 to twelvemonth 1991. They merely targeted the grownups that were at least age 18 and a tobacco user as selling underage is prohibited in California.

Entire sample was 47717 telephone Numberss, merely 12000 responded. Interviews were conducted with merely 417 regular tobacco users, those who quit smoking in that past one twelvemonth when the anti-smoking runs took topographic point. Different inquiries were asked sing the grounds for discontinuing. 69 per centum responded were those who were cognizant of the anti-smoking advertizements. Out of those 69 percent 143 people responded that the anti-campaigns drama a major function in their quitting determination. The major ground for quitting was that the anti-campaigns made people more witting of their wellness.

Hu T. , Sung H. and Keeler T. E. ( 1995 ) researched on the antismoking run and the baccy industry response consequence on the ingestion of coffin nails in California. Government increases the revenue enhancement on each bundle of coffin nails around 25 cents. During the period of twelvemonth 1990 to twelvemonth 1993 authorities spent around $ 26 million on wellness publicity runs. The coffin nail ingestion informations was gathered from the California State Board of Equalization and was based on the monthly gross revenues of the coffin nails. Information of anti-smoking media run in California was measured on the footing of monthly outgos that took topographic point on them. Gathering informations on the baccy industry publicity activities was hard to mensurate. So to hold a best consequence, how often the advertizements were at that place in the intelligence documents and magazines were measured. ARIMA theoretical account ( developed by G. Box and G. Tiao in 1975, Box and G. Jenkins in 1976 ) was used to analyze the consequence of anti-smoking runs, industrial counterbalancing response and the coffin nail revenue enhancement. The consequence shows that increasing the anti-campaigns and diminishing the advertizements on behalf of baccy industry plays an effectual function in diminishing the smoke ingestion. To get the better of this consequence the baccy industry introduces vouchers to pull the tobacco users but that does non hold any effectual response. On the other manus increase the monetary value of coffin nail bundle besides reduces the ingestion degree.

Edwards C. A, Harris W.C, Cook D. R, Bedford K. F and Zuo Y. ( 2004 ) used an experimental attack to measure the consequence of anti-smoking advertizement on immature adult females ‘s position of smoke in films and purpose to smoke. Entire sample was of 2205 females aged 12-17 old ages. 167 refused and the remainder of 2038 females were interviewed after go toing film in New South Wales, Australia. In the first hebdomad a controlled group was surveyed and for the following hebdomad experimental group was asked for inquiries. In the 2nd hebdomad a 30 2nd advertizement concentrating the anti-smoking run was shown to the group before seeing the film. The advertizement was shown to cut down the act uponing consequence of celebrated histrion who smokes in the film. 48.2 per centum among the non-smokers of the experimental group thought was that there celebrated histrion should non smoke in the film.

That histrion should non smoke, while harmonizing to the controlled group merely 28.3 per centum of non-smokers responded positively. However the ratio between the regular tobacco users among the both groups replying to this inquiry remain the same, around 22 per centum. But in current tobacco users of experimental group, ad plays a important function as they agreed on non to smoke ( 47.8 % ). For non-smokers the reply remained the same in both groups that they are non interested in smoke ( about 95 % ). This survey concludes that by puting anti-smoking advertizements before films that contain smoking scenes are helpful in forestalling immature adult females influenced by the movie star smoke.

Hrywna, Delnevo C. D and Staniewslca C. ( 2004 ) research about the prevalence and co-relation of buying coffin nail though cyberspace in New Jersey among the grownup tobacco users. The information was conducted with the aid of telephone study from twelvemonth 2000 to 2002. Sample size was about around 3500 in which 1000 were immature grownups lie between the ages of 18 to 24. The features that were examined in the research were age, sex, cigarettes smoke-cured per twenty-four hours, any effort of discontinuing smoke in the past twelvemonth and the degree of instruction. Cigarette rates were really less on cyberspace sites as comparison to the 1s that were sold out on the stores in New Jersey. Due to which authorities topographic point more revenue enhancements on the sale of coffin nails to de-motivate the immature 1s to halt smoke.

The consequence shows that from 2000 to 2002, the purchase of coffin nail through cyberspace was more common among the current tobacco users. The purchase increases from 1.1 % to 6.7 % during the study period. Internet as a beginning of buying among tobacco users additions from 0.8 % in twelvemonth 2000 to 3.1 % in 2002. Although the high addition in monetary value dramas an effectual function in cut downing the demand among consumers but have no important consequence on the regular tobacco users due to which the per centum of buying kept on increasing from twelvemonth 2000 to twelvemonth 2003.

Harris F, MacKintosh A. M, Anderson S, Hastings G, Borland R, Fong G.T, Hammond D. and Cummings K. M ( 2006 ) researched on the consequence of 2003 advertisement prohibition in UK on the consciousness of baccy selling. It was a comprehensive prohibition that prohibited baccy selling through any agencies of media. A sample size of 6762 grownup tobacco users who have smoked at least 100 coffin nails in their life clip and recent tobacco users who at least smoke-cured one time in a month ( 18 old ages of age and above ) was taken and telephone study was done in four states ( USA, UK, Australia and Canada ) as they besides implemented prohibition on baccy publicities. But those were non every bit comprehensive as UK policies were. There were two moving ridges of study. First moving ridge was conducted before the prohibition was implemented ( 2002 ) and the 2nd moving ridge took topographic point after the prohibition was implemented ( 2003 ).

To roll up needed day of the month inquiries were asked that what factors in the milieus promote them to smoke and so on. The daddy was analysed with the aid of SPSS package. The consequence shows that after implementing the advertisement prohibition there was a important diminution in the baccy publicity consciousness among the grownup tobacco users of UK. Decline in consciousness of baccy publicities was much greater in UK as comparison to rest of the three states. The United kingdom policy to implement a comprehensive prohibition has significantly reduced the baccy selling influence on the ypung tobacco users.

O’Hegarty M. and Pederson L ( 2006 ) analyze the reaction of immature tobacco users towards the warning labels. Overall to see the consequence of text every bit good as the in writing warning labels is more effectual or the text merely labels. Questionnaire was filled by a big figure of people with the aid of cyberspace based engineering where people were asked to merely hold a individual chink to the reply of their pick. Questionnaire was based on the warning labels on the coffin nail packages. The other method that was used was the qi square trial. Here the sample size was composed of around 750 people from whom 75 per centum were the current tobacco users and remainder were the regular 1s.

More than 60 per centum from the current tobacco users and around 50 per centum of the regular tobacco users believed that coffin nail warning labels were an of import beginning of wellness information and their wellness is affected by smoking. In the instance of warning labels, the usage of a minor message with a ocular image may be more affectional in deriving the audience attending for discontinuing smoke among tobacco users who are non interested in discontinuing. It might be easier for one to avoid reading a text message than to avoid seeing a image of cancerous lungs that covers half of the forepart of the coffin nail battalion.

Hammond D. and Fong G. T ( 2007 ) analyzed that as wellness warnings are made outstanding will make more consciousness and will be proved as more effectual. They used the sample size of around 15000 from four states. The sample size consists of all grownups and the states that were chosen were UK, Canada, United States and Australia. To hold the required information telephonic interviews were conducted from the twelvemonth 2002 boulder clay 2005. Questions that were asked based on the exposure to the wellness warnings and memory.

In the first study, packages had merely the texts warnings on them but with different ratios of covering the countries of the battalions. In Canada 50 per centum of the country was covered by the text every bit good as the visuals that reflect the negative consequence of smoke. In farther three studies rest were same but in UK the text size of the warnings were increased that covers the 50 per centum of the battalion ‘s forepart. Responses from the consumers increased strictly in UK but still were less as compared to the consequences in Canada, This all suggest that in writing warnings bring oning more of an wellness related response and motivates the tobacco users to discontinue smoke to a greater extent than text warnings entirely.

Karine, Patrick, Marine, Sophie, and Bertrand ( 2009 ) tried to happen out the usage of ocular warnings in the instance of smoke by a qualitative method that was used to place the effects and effects of the new graphical warnings on the ingestion rate. Six focal point group treatments were conducted in states such as Rennes, Paris and France with 50 people. 26 were the tobacco users and 24 were the non-smokers and the ratio of the work forces and adult females were equal. Each group consist of 7 to 9 persons. The intent of including the non-smokers was to do them cognizant of the dangers caused by smoke and do them non to get down smoke. The focal point groups were introduced with three Marlboro battalions with different warnings and visuals. In another activity focal point group was showed the battalions with lone texts. Their research concludes that pictural warnings are more effectual than the texts. Peoples were asked separately to compose down their feelings. 70 per centum of the consequence shows the positive consequence by degrading the smoke wont. The chief intent of these warnings is to develop a fright entreaty in the consumers mind to go forth smoke.

Richardson, Kalaydjian A, Green, Molly, Xiao, Haijun, Sokol, Natasha, Vallone and Donna ( 2010 ) tried to happen out the immature grownups response to a young person focused anti smoke run. Previously it was clearly studied that smoke was dependent on the consciousness of anti smoking run ‘s attitudes and beliefs among the ages of 12-17. But it was non certain that what would be the per centum of consciousness in anti smoke beliefs and attitudes among the ages of 18-24. Telephonic study was conducted from 2000 to 2004, combined and analysed in 2009. Respondents were between the ages of 18 to 24. The sample size was 2000 out of which 1570 responded. 80 % of the respondents confirm that they were cognizant of the anti smoke run. And the consequences clarifies that the anti smoke attitudes and beliefs are 50 per centum associated with the consciousness and remainder is dependent on the tobacco user itself. This whole survey was done to hold a positive attitudinal and behavioral alteration in the immature grownups to discontinue smoke or to halt them from originating and set uping the wont of smoking with the aid of truth run against smoke.

Methodology

The wont of smoke among childs has been increased from the past old ages. There are many grounds that come across the immature 1s to get down smoking. That includes the acquaintance ( household members use to smoke ) , seek attending of others to demo that they are adult ups and for experimentation and many others. That farther leads them to go concatenation tobacco users. Government implemented anti runs against smoking to cut down the smoke ingestion.

Population and sample size:

My entire population is all tobacco users in Lahore. The sample size includes the tobacco users that are late following smoking wont. The informations aggregation period is twelvemonth 2011. 40 questionnaires will be floated among recent tobacco users to get coveted consequences.

Primary Research:

To garner the information on consequence of these runs on those who have late started smoke, I will utilize the primary research where I float the questionnaire among those people who have late entered into this wont. I will chiefly concentrate on the pupils of universities and colleges of Lahore. This will be helpful to analyse their positions against these anti smoke runs, whether they are coercing them to discontinue smoke or non.

Secondary Research:

Secondary research will dwell of all the relevant articles and research documents available on Jstor, Emerald, and SSRN, which will assist in acquiring the relevant information on the reaction of recent tobacco users against all anti smoke runs implemented by the authorities. And to hold a basic cognition about the harmful effects that are caused by smoke.

Variables:

Consumption of coffin nails supports on increasing as clip base on ballss. One becomes more dependent on smoke as it contains nicotine that disturbs the homo ‘s immune system and causes upset in the natural organic structure maps. Further consumption of nicotine becomes a demand for a tobacco user to do the immune system work decently. As people get older they become more independent in doing determinations for themselves. One might go on this wont for his life clip. Due to which there is a chance that he might devour more coffin nails in future.

Monetary value has a negative relation with ingestion degree. As monetary value of coffin nail packages increases childs who are new to this wont are forced to discontinue smoke ( Hrywna M. , Delnevo C. D. , and Staniewska D. 2004 ) . Most of them have a limited pocket money and it becomes hard for them to pull off and de-motivates them in purchasing such expensive battalions of coffin nails.

Largely the childs are much aware of the side effects that are caused by smoking. Government introduced textual and pictorials anti smoking runs by puting images of diseases caused by smoking on the forepart of coffin nail battalions. It is the manner of pass oning visually with the consumers and reenforcing them to halt smoke by demoing them the terminal consequences of this bad wont. This consequences in doing them more concern about their heath and pushes them to discontinue smoke. This shows a negative relation between the pictural anti smoke runs and the ingestion rate of smoke. As people get more cognizant of these images and side-effects that are caused by smoke, the lupus erythematosus they will devour the coffin nails.

Consumption Rate

( Cigarettes )

Age

Different impact on different age groups

Monetary value

Enforcing taxTheoretical model:

Graphic impact

Anti runs through advertizements

Pictures of diseases

Hypothesis of variables:

H0: Addition in monetary value does non hold a important consequence on ingestion rate.

H1: Addition in monetary value has a important consequence on ingestion rate.

H0: Age has no important consequence on ingestion rate.

H1: Age has a important consequence on ingestion rate.

H0: Graphic warnings have no important consequence on ingestion rate.

H1: Ads, newspapers and cyberspace have a important consequence on ingestion rate

Consequences

The entire sample was 40 out of which 30 responded to the questionnaire. 25 ( 83.3 % ) were work forces and 5 ( 16.7 % ) were adult females. Three of them lie between the ages of 15 to 18 old ages. Sixteen lies between age of 19 to 22 and remainder between the ages of 23 to 26. All the 30 people were those who have late started smoke. Around 85 % of respondents agreed to halt smoke or alter the trade name to a cheaper one and remainder of 15 % respond in the favor to stay loyal with the trade names they consume in response to a high addition in monetary values. Merely 25 % of respondents agreed that there is a positive consequence of graphical anti smoking runs in cut downing the Numberss of coffin nails they consume per twenty-four hours. Harmonizing to the study 90 % of the respondents consume an norm of 3 to 15 coffin nails per twenty-four hours.

Stat graphic is the premier package used in the research to happen the relation between the dependant and independent variables. Regression equation is as follow:

Consumption Rate = 2.74514 + 0.543655*Age – 0.903853*Price -0.0844821*Graphical Impact

In Table.1 R-squared statics indicates the extent to which the independent variables affect the dependant variable and as fitted explains 65.6033 % of the variableness in ingestion rate. The adjusted R-squared statistic, which is more suited for comparing theoretical accounts with different Numberss of independent variables, is 61.6345 % . The standard mistake of the estimation shows the standard divergence of the remainders to be 0.601703. The average absolute mistake ( MAE ) of 0.448309 is the mean value of the remainders. The Durbin-Watson ( DW ) statistic tests the remainders to find if there is any important correlativity based on the order in which they occur in the informations file. In finding whether the theoretical account can be simplified, the highest P-value on the independent variables is 0.5196, belonging to graphical impact. The F-Ratio of the theoretical account is 16.53 % and p-Value is 0.0016 that is statistically important.

Age is the variable that indicates the direct relation with the ingestion rate ( dependent variable ) and its P-Value is 0.0047 and is statically important. It proves that as clip base on ballss and a individual keeps on smoke, he becomes more and more habit-forming towards smoking. It gives rise to the ingestion rate and makes it more hard to discontinue smoke. That is the chief ground to concentrate the recent immature tobacco users to de-motivate them from following this wont with the aid of anti smoking runs as they are the 1s who further in future portion in the ingestion rate. It becomes truly hard for them to pull off their monthly pocket money if they will purchase coffin nails at much higher monetary value.

On the other manus independent variables such as graphical impact and Price indicate the negative relation with the dependant variable and there P-Values are 0.5196 and 0.0047 severally. The recent tobacco users are non addicted to smoking at early phase and can be easy de-motivated by the high addition in monetary value on coffin nails and increase the opportunities of discontinuing. So as monetary value goes highier the opportunities of diminishing the ingestion rate additions. Lapp is in the instance of graphical impact. First there were merely disclaimers on the forepart of coffin nails pack to aware the consumers about the jeopardies of smoking. As clip passed everyone supports pretermiting the disclaimers and ingestion of coffin nails keep increasing.

Now there is an add-on of cancerous mouth image on the dorsum every bit good as on the forepart, covering the 20 % part of the whole package. The chief thought of presenting the images on the fume battalions was to derive attending of those who does non pay attending to the note written on the behalf of authorities that smoke is bad for wellness. The P-value of graphical impact is non statistically important ( & gt ; 0.1 ). The ground behind this hapless consequence is that many immature recent tobacco users do non purchase a full battalion of coffin nails. They merely go for 2 to 3 coffin nails. This hinders the consumer ‘s interaction with the image of cancerous oral cavity straight. On the other manus to sell their merchandises, smoking industries changes the form of coffin nails covering and made it more attractive. Due to these grounds most of the consumers ( recent tobacco users ) are unable to make a negative image of smoking in their heads which consequences in no response towards these images.

Restrictions:

As anti smoke runs are non effectual on the 1s who are regular tobacco users, so the research was conducted merely from those people who were recent tobacco users or those who had quit smoke in response to the anti smoke runs. It was really hard to happen the recent immature tobacco users from such a big population of Lahore. Largely people were uncomfortable in make fulling the questionnaire as they do n’t wanted to portion this information.

Decision

The research concludes that all anti runs against smoking are playing an optimistic function in de-motivating the recent grownup tobacco users to discontinue or at least cut down the figure of coffin nails they consume per twenty-four hours. But it is non up to the grade as overall smoke ingestion among the population of Lahore is increasing. The largest portion in the high ingestion rate is of the regular tobacco users, as they are addicted to smoking. Their dependence overcomes the consequence of anti smoke runs on them and they merely ignore the cancerous oral cavity and maintain on smoke. As the consequence shows that there is a positive relation between age ( independent variable ) and ingestion rate ( dependent variable ). While the other independent variables such as monetary value and graphical impact have a negative relation with the ingestion rate. So, Government targeted the immature recent tobacco users with the aid of anti smoke runs. It is true that by halting the immature 1s will hold a minor consequence on overall ingestion rate but in the long tally it will be truly effectual.

Harmonizing to my outlooks, monetary value and graphical impact should hold the same and equal impact on the consumer behavior of purchasing coffin nails. But the research consequences shows that enforcing high revenue enhancements will be more effectual as comparison to the graphical impact. To do certain those Pictures should hold the same impact on consumers; Government should increase the size of images on packages covering 80 % of the country. This might assist in a more effectual manner to reenforce consumers to discontinue smoke. And merchandising of twosomes of coffin nails should be degraded. If anyone wants to purchase a coffin nail, there should be merely one option, purchasing the whole battalion. This will do certain that the consumer should hold an interaction with the image on the packages that reflects the terminal consequences of smoke.

Mentions

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Chaloupka, ( 1991 ) . Rational Addictive Behaviour and Cigarette Smoking. The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 99, No. 4. pp. 722-742. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org/stable/2937778

Christine, Harris, Cook, Bedford and Zuo, ( 2004 ) . Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertizement affect immature adult females ‘s perceptual experience of smoking in films and their purpose to smoke? . Tobacco Control. Vol.13, pp. 277-282. doi:10.1136/tc.2003.005280

David, Geoffre, Ron, Michael, Ann and Pete, ( 2007 ) . Text and Graphic Warnings on Cigarette Packages Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 3. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2006.11.011

Duerr & A ; Valerie, ( 1993 ) . Make Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns Help Smokers Quit? . Public Health Reports, Vol. 108, No. 4, pp. 510-513. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org/stable/4597426

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Hrywna, Delnevo & A ; Staniewska, ( 2004 ) . Prevalence and Correlates of Internet Cigarette Purchasing among Adult Smokers in New Jersey. Tobacco Control, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 296-300. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org/stable/20208271

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Hu, Sung & A ; Keeler, ( 1995 ) . The State Antismoking Campaign and the Industry Response: The Effectss of Ad on Cigarette Consumption in California. The American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundredth and Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association Washington, DC, Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 85-90. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org/stable/2117897

Karine, Patrick, Marine, Sophie and Bertrand, ( 2009 ) . The usage of ocular warnings in societal selling: The instance of baccy. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 64, pp. 7-11. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.09.012

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Popham, Potter, Bal, Johnson, Duerr and Quinn, ( 1993 ) . Make Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns Help Smokers Quit? Public Health Reports. Vol. 108, No. 4, pp. 510-513. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org/stable/4597426

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Teh-Wei, Hai-Yen and Theodore, ( 1995 ) . The State Antismoking Campaign and the Industry Response: The Effectss of Advertising onCigarette Consumption in California. The American Economic Review, Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 85-90. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org/stable/2117897

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Cite this Negative Reinforcement on Consumer Behavior

Negative Reinforcement on Consumer Behavior. (2018, Apr 15). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/negative-reinforcement-on-consumer-behavior/

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