Normative theories describe an ideal manner for a media system to be structured and operated. Most normative theories develop over clip. Normative theories differ in two ways from scientific theories: ( 1 ) they are less concerned with specific anticipations. and ( 2 ) they are less straight tied to systematic. empirical. direct observation. First two normative theories are dictatorship and libertarianism. Authoritarianism calls for direct ordinance of media and media content by the authorities. An illustration would be Lasswell and Lippman reasoning that the menace of propaganda is such that authorities technocrats are needed to see that media have good content. Historically the other extreme was in U. S — extremist libertarianism or First Amendment tyranny. i. e. free imperativeness. no authorities ordinance. Libertarianism: a. Chemical reaction to autocratic theory ( divinely ordained societal order. therefore licensing and censoring ) . B. Justified by belief in “natural” inclination of people to be guided by scruples. to acknowledge truth. to acknowledge and prosecute their ain best involvement. c. Combined with belief that persons prosecuting ain opportunism will make a good society.
Milton’s “self-righting principle” that good statements win in just argument and rectify the societal order. Libertarian attack is the foundation of the U. S. construct of democracy and freedom. In pattern. there has ever been acknowledgment of bounds on freedom of address necessary to protect other rights. to protect people and society. etc. E. g. libel Torahs. joke orders. false advertisement. kid erotica. shouting. “fire” in a crowded theater. A discrepancy on libertarianism is application of Adam Smith’s thoughts of individualistic capitalist economy. In an unregulated market place there will be competition that. through the Torahs of supply and demand ( monetary value theory ) will take to an optimum consequence. Normative theories of the twentieth centuryCommunist theoretical account: The party represents the people. Party determines the national ends. The function of media is to proactively back up the party in conveying about the Communist revolution. Party has the power to ban media content. punish those who violate the criterions set by the party.
Social duty theory
This emerged out of the libertarian theoretical account. which was found to be impractical. A pure economic theoretical account was unrealistic. Peoples are non ever so intelligent to defy media uses. Government ordinance in public public-service corporations provided a theoretical account that was applied to media in the FRC ( subsequently FCC ) in 1927. Stations and the populace supported this position of media. Further. airwaves belong to the populace. Broadcasting is non like any other industry. Broadcasters have the duty to utilize their licence in public’s involvement. convenience and necessity. Professionalism for media workers was stressed. and professional schools played a larger function. But this does non ever work because professionals are loath to reprimand each other. There are no criterions for preparation and licensing. Media professionals lack independent control over their work.
Misdemeanors do non normally have immediate and obvious effects. ( E. g. in Janet Cooke and GM pickup instances no evident injury was done. ) It is possible to hold uncertainty about how good societal duty theory truly maps to run into its ends. There has been comparatively small research on how good intelligence production patterns. for case. truly serve social ends. Development media theory: This theoretical account is similar to dictatorship and communist theoretical accounts. It advocates media support for an existing authorities in its efforts to make economic development. Democratic-participant theory: Advocates grass-roots media support for cultural pluralism. As developed in Europe this theory argues that minorities. etc. should be given entree to media and allowed to resuscitate their traditional civilizations. This. the writers say. might be advantageous in the U. S.