When you go to pick strawberries, you are easily able to separate the ripe red berries from the green foliage, the white blossoms and the green, still-forming berries. This has led to the suggestion that _____.
color vision may have evolved for the express purpose of detecting fruit
Uchikawa et al. demonstrated how _____ can explain why color constancy occurs.
Nora adapts to a yellow stimulus for about 30 seconds. She will then see an afterimage that appears to be _____.
A monochromat experiences _____
black, white, and grays
Ikya looks at a white surface under sunlight conditions and she perceives it to be white. When she looks at the white surface under a tungsten light, it looks _____ to her.
Physiological evidence shows that deuteranopes do not have the _____ wavelength cone pigment.
The neutral point for protonopes is approximately ___ nm.
Two stimuli that are physically different, but are perceptually identical, are called _____.
Hering’s support for opponent-process theory was _____ in nature.
If you cover the penumbra with a black marker, the perception of the border _____.
changes from an illumination edge to a reflectance edge
The reflectance curve for a purple piece of paper will reflect _____.
long and short wavelenths
Adding more white to a color changes the color’s _____.
The case of “Mr. I,” described in the beginning of the chapter, supports the idea that color is processed in _____.
a “color center” in the cortex
Which of the following statements is TRUE about dichromatism?
Males are more likely to be dichromats than females.
Cerebral achromatopsia is when a person _____.
has normal cone functioning, but cannot experience color due to a brain injury
The trichromatic theory of color vision states that color perception is due to _____.
the pattern of activity in three different receptor mechanisms
Opponent neurons found in _____ provide physiological support for the opponent-process theory.
both the retina and LGN
The reflectance curve is a plot of the light reflected off a surface as a function of _____.
Which statement below best describes the current consensus on the theories of color vision?
The physiology of the cone receptors and the discovery of opponent cells in the retina and LGN show that both theories are correct.
The maximum absorption for the long-wavelength cone pigment is at ____ nm.
A monkey with good color vision _____.
would have a better chance of surviving than a color-blind monkey
The wavelength distributions from an incandescent light bulb and from sunlight are _____.
different, with the incandescent light bulb distribution having much higher amounts of energy at long wavelengths
In order to distinguish between wavelengths independent of light intensity, one must have at least _____visual pigment(s).
Mark enters a supermarket that is lit by red lights. After fifteen minutes he enters the produce section and finds some red apples to purchase. Mark is able to see these apples as red because he has undergo
Which of the following is behavioral support for the “opponent-process theory”?
According to researcher Dorthea Jameson, “A blue bird would not be mistaken for a goldfinch if it were brought indoors.” This supports the concept of _____.
The principle of _____ helps explain why a person with only one visual pigment can see all wavelengths as the same color (i.e., shade of gray) if light intensity is adjusted appropriately.
The reflectance curve for a white piece of paper would reflect _____.
long, medium and short wavelengths equally
Color matching experiments show that if a person with full color vision is given at least ____ wavelengths to mix together, the person can match any single wavelength.
A unilateral dichromat _____.
has trichromatic vision in one eye and dichromatic vision in the other eye
Light that is mixed is referred to as a(n) _____.
additive color mixture
The pattern of firing of receptor activity in response to red would be _____.
little firing from the S receptor, a moderate firing from the M receptor, and large firing from the L receptor
The trichromatic theory of color vision is also known as the _____ theory.
According to the ratio principle, _____.
lightness constancy will occur as long as the ratio of light reflected from a white surface and a black surface remain constant
Which of the following is an opponent mechanism proposed by Hering?
Red (+); Green (-)
Which of the following is a finding that demonstrates the phenomenon of memory color?
Participants perceive a 620-nm pattern as being “redder” if that pattern has the shape of a stop sign rather than a mushroom shape.
Yellow and blue light is projected on a white screen. What color will the screen appear to be?
By changing _____, we can create about a million (or more) discriminable colors.
saturation, value, and hue
The edge between a dark shadow and an illuminated checkerboard is a(n) _____.
Dr. Lanzilotti wants to create a stimulus that will produce an afterimage of a red heart shape against a white background. He should make the heart _____ and the background _____.