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Pharmacophore development for identification of anti-lung cancer drugs

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Lung malignant neoplastic disease is one peculiar type of malignant neoplastic disease that is more deathly and common than any other. Lung malignant neoplastic disease is treated with chemotherapy. radiation therapy and surgery depending on the type of lung malignant neoplastic disease and the phase of the disease. Concentrating on the drugs used for chemotherapy and their associated side effects. there is a demand to plan and develop new anti-lung malignant neoplastic disease drugs with lesser side effects and improved efficaciousness.

Pharmacophore theoretical account proves to be a really helpful tool functioning in the designing and development of new lead compounds. In this paper. pharmacophore of 10 fresh anti-lung malignant neoplastic disease compounds has been identified and validated for the first clip.

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Using LigandScout the pharmacophore characteristics were predicted and 3D pharmacophore have been extracted via VMD package. A preparation set information was collected from literature and the proposed theoretical account was applied to the preparation set whereby formalizing and verifying their similar activity as that of the most active compounds.

Therefore they could be recommended for farther surveies.

Cardinal words: Pharmacophore. anti-lung malignant neoplastic disease drugs. Computer aided drug designing. LigandScout. VMD INTRODUCTIONLung malignant neoplastic disease is known to hold a high human death rate among males and females and takes more lives each twelvemonth every bit compared to colon. prostate. ovarian and chest malignant neoplastic diseases ( 1 ) . Lung malignant neoplastic disease is classified into two chief types viz. Small Cell Lung Cancer ( SCLC ) and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer ( NSCLC ) of which NSCLC histories for approximately 80 % instances and SCLC histories for 10-15 % among all other types of lung malignant neoplastic diseases ( 2 ) .

Non-small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease ( NSCLC ) is a world-wide taking cause of decease ( 3 ) . The surgical resections are non applicable when foremost diagnosed as NSCLC is normally in an advanced phase. The patient may hold a possibility of protracting endurance with chemotherapy ( 4 ) . Chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC is frequently considered overly toxic. However. meta-analyses have demonstrated that as compared with supportive attention. chemotherapy consequences in a little betterment in endurance in patients with advanced NSCLC ( 5 ) .

*Corresponding writer. Electronic mail: [ electronic mail protected ]Abbreviations: HBA. hydrogen-bond acceptor.HBD. hydrogen-bond giver. NSCLC. Non-small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease. SCLC. Small Cell Lung Cancer. EGFR Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

Drugs developed for malignant neoplastic disease are individual agents although for the maximal advantage they need to be used in formula with other drugs or curative agents. Initial campaigner chemicals or “leads” . are frequently recognized and tested for individual agents that change cancer-cell proliferation or prolong endurance. This led to the designation of most of the clinically active malignant neoplastic disease drugs used today. Specific leads so must be farther optimized and assessed to qualify their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic belongingss and apparent toxic effects. Clinical rating is performed by trails in worlds to place a maximal tolerated dosage. specify terrible toxic effects. and estimate bioactivity. These trails are clip devouring and expensive ( 6 ) .

Pharmacophore is the initial measure towards understanding the interaction between a receptor and a ligand. Pharmacophore was frequently postulated as the “essence” of the structure-activity cognition they had gained ( 7 ) . Today’s research worker undertaking is to construe the binding of anatomically varied molecules at a common receptor site. To bring forth common characteristic pharmacophore from the set of compounds active for certain receptor. the features necessary for adhering receptor in a generalised manner ( 8 ) . The apprehension of the common belongingss of adhering group is critical for the finding of the type of inhibitor adhering the mark.

Pharmacophore theoretical account is really convenient for achieving this end. Surface of the cell are the parts where the ligand-receptor and receptor-receptor interaction occur. The procedure undergo Sequential degrees of activity starts ab initio from the cell surface and so moves towards the intracellular signaling tracts. so cistron written text which corresponds to cellular responses. Cuticular growing factor receptor ( EGFR ) was ab initio identified as an abnormally activated or mutated signifier which leads to a figure of other abnormalcies in the signaling tract and therefore leads to the formation of tumour ( 9 ) .

In our research. a 3D pharmacophore theoretical account was developed in order to advance the find of precise and effectual EGFR inhibitor for the intervention of non-small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease. The compounds used in this survey have been characterized as reported in mention documents. In order to correlate experimental and computational surveies we used their bioactivity informations.

MATERIALS AND METHODSThe work was initiated utilizing LigandScout package. LigandScout is a tool for deducing the 3D from structural informations of ligand composites more quickly and obviously in a wholly automated and expedient manner. It offers flawless workflow both from ligand and construction based pharmacophore patterning ( 10 ) . LigandScout is thought to be an indispensable package tool for construction based drug planing. it is non merely good for transporting out analysis of adhering sites but besides for alliance based on pharmacophore and the designing of shared characteristic pharmacophores. LigandScout runs freely on all common runing systems.

Till day of the month a figure of successful application illustrations have been carried out and standpublished ( 11 ) .

The really of import and the really first measure in pharmacophore theoretical account coevals is the choice of informations set compounds. A figure of drugs have been reported that are in some manner related to. or used in the intervention of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer which include Platinol ( generic name: cisplatin ) ( 12 ) . carboplatin. Taxotere ( generic name: docetaxel ) . Gemzar ( generic name: gemcitabine ) . Taxol ( generic name: paclitaxel ) . Almita ( generic name: pemetrexed ) . Avastin ( generic

name:Bevacizumab ) . Xalkori ( generic name:Crizotinib ) .Navelbine ( generic name: vinorelbine. Iressa ( generic name: Gefitinib ) and Terceva ( generic name: Erlotinib ) ( 13 ) ( 14 ) ( 15 ) .


The two dimensional ( 2D ) chemical constructions of the compounds were drawn utilizing ChemDraw Ultra ( 8. 0 ) and the constructions were saved as. Pdb files. Subsequently the 2D constructions as shown below ( Figure 1 ) in the signifier of Pdb files were imported into LigandScout and converted into matching 3D pharmacophore constructions.

Cisplatin

Pemetrexed

Docetaxel

Bevacizumab

Viblastine

Carboplatin

Gemcitabine

Crizotinib

Gefitinib

Paclitaxel

Vinorelbine

ErlotinibHydrochloride

Figure 1. 2D constructions of selected information set of anti non little lung malignant neoplastic disease The pharmacophoric characteristics include H-bond giver. H-bond acceptor. Hydrophobic. aromatic. positively and negatively ionizable groups ( 16 ) . The pharmacophore for each compound was generated and the

distances among the pharmacophoric characteristics were calculated utilizing VMD package. VMD is designed non merely for patterning. visual image. and analysis of biological systems such as proteins. nucleic acids. lipid bilayer assemblies but it may besides be used to see more general molecules. as VMD can read standard Protein Data Bank ( PDB ) files and expose the contained construction with their characteristics. A figure of application illustrations have been published to day of the month ( 17 ) . Once the pharmacophore of all the compounds were identified. the ligand was so ace imposed so the pharmacophore elements overlap and a common templet i-e the pharmacophore theoretical account is identified. The preparation set dwelling of four compounds was collected from literature and it was found that the groups show enhanced and similar activity as that of the most active compounds based on the 3D pharmacophore being generated for not little lung malignant neoplastic disease.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONPharmacophore analysis is considered as an cardinal portion of drug design. The pharmacophore generated by LigandScout for the selected information set of anti non little cell lung malignant neoplastic disease showed three chief characteristics i-e H-bond acceptor ( bluish vectors ) . H-bond giver ( bluish vectors ) and aromatic rings ( xanthous domains ) . The representative pharacophores of each compound are shown in Figures 2. 3. 4 and 5

Figure 2. A pharmacophore of Pemetrexed ( Alimta® )

The pharmacophoric characteristics for each compound on the whole are shown in Table 1. The pharmacophores of all the compounds were so matched and a alone pharmacophore was identified after a elaborate analysis.

Figure 3. A pharmacophore of Bevacizumab

Figure 4. A pharmacophore of Gemcitabine ( Gemzar® )

On the whole. the representative pharmacophoric characteristics for each compound are shown in Table 2. Resembling characteristics were identified after analysing the pharmacophore of all compounds generated by LigandScout. Then the similar characteristics of all the compounds were superimposed and merged into individual pharmacophore. The unambiguously identified pharmacophoric characteristics are shown in Table 3.

Figure 5. A pharmacophore of GefitinibOur common featured pharmacophore predicted for three compound of anti non little lung malignant neoplastic disease is based on three HBAs. six HBDs and four aromatic centres. The distance trigon measured between the common pharmacophore characteristics of each compound utilizing VMD is shown in Table 4. The distance ranges from lower limit to upper limit and have measured between the HBA and HBD. HBA and aromatic ring and HBD and aromatic ring.

Table 1. Pharmacophoric characteristics of each compoundCompounds

H-Bond Donor

H-Bond Acceptor

Aromatic Centre

Paclitaxel

+

+

+

Pemetrexed

+

+

+

Bevacizumab

+

+

+

Carboplatin

+

+

+

Crizotinib

+

+

+

Erlotinib Hydrocholride

+

+

+

Gefitinib

+

+

+

Gemcitabine

+

+

+

Methotrexate

+

+

+

The distances among the common pharmacophoric characteristics between the predicted pharmacophore are shown in Figure 6. The distances between aromatic ring and HBD range from 4. 15-4. 80. between aromatic rings to HBA scope from 7. 03-8. 66 and between HBA to HBD scope from 5. 85-6. 97. Table 2. Pharmacophoric characteristics of each compound

Compound

H-Bond Donor

H-BondAcceptor

Aromatic Centre

Paclitaxel

4

6

2

Pemetrexed

3

6

3

Bevacizumab

2

3

1

Carboplatin

0

3

0

Crizotinib

2

4

3

Erlotinib Hydrocholride

2

6

3

Gefitinib

2

6

4

Gemcitabine

3

7

2

Methotrexate

3

9

3

Table 3. Uniquely identified pharmacophoric characteristics of compounds

CompoundBevacizumabPemetrexedGefitinib


H-BondDonor23


H-BondAcceptor36


2

6

AromaticCentre134



A preparation set of three compounds was collected from literature i-e MethyNonanoate. MMDA. Flavopirido ( 18 ) . The generated 3D pharmacophore theoretical account was applied to the preparation set whereby formalizing and verifying their enhanced and similar activity as that of the standard compounds shown in Table 5. This farther confirmed our observation and proposals for a pharmacophore theoretical account as it corresponds to the predicted pharmacophore.

Table 4. Pharmacophoric trigon distances of each unambiguously identified compounds Compounds

Acceptor ?Aromatic Ring

Aromatic Ring ?Donor

Donor ?Acceptor

Gefitinib

7. 10

4. 76

6. 97

Pemetrexed

7. 03

4. 15

5. 85

Bevacizumab

8. 14

4. 29

6. 36

Figure 6. Distance ranges among pharmacophoric characteristics in predicted pharmacophore To back up the suggested pharmacophore theoretical account. distance was estimated. The predicted distance of the preparation set and the standard drugs severally are shown in Table 6.

This tabular array shows the close resemblance of Flavopiridol with that of standard drugs whereby formalizing that the compound shows high correlativity with the predicted pharmacophoric trigon hence holding similar activity.

Table 5. The distance trigon for compounds of the preparation set Model

Acceptor ?Aromatic Ring

Aromatic Ring ?Donor

Donor ?Acceptor

MMDA

5. 99

5. 52

5. 95

Flavopiridol

7. 01

4. 04. 4

6. 18

MethyNonanoate

4. 01

7. 60

2. 24

Table 6. The 3D pharmacophoric distance trigon of the preparation set and the standard drugs severally Model

Standard Drugs

Training Set

Acceptor ?Aromatic Ring

7. 37-8. 84

7. 01-8. 96

Aromatic Ring ?Donor

4. 39-4. 89

4. 04-4. 62

Donor ?Acceptor

6. 18-6. 97

6. 18-6. 64

DecisionThe pharmacophore theoretical account is a really ready to hand tool for new lead compounds find and development. In this survey pharmacophore theoretical accounts were built for fresh drugs of non little lung malignant neoplastic disease. pharmacophoric characteristics were predicted and 3D pharmacophore has been generated for not little lung malignant neoplastic disease. A trigon of three different categories has been selected for pharmacophore and Hydrogen bond Acceptor. Hydrogen bond Donor and Hydrophobic character of standard drugs have been filtered out as cardinal pharmacophoric characteristic.

The generated theoretical account was applied to the preparation set and it has been validated and proposed that Flavopiridol shows similar enhanced activity as that of standard drugs. hence could be used for farther surveies. Furthermore Pharmachopore based moorage will be used for practical showing and designing of some fresh drugs for non little lung malignant neoplastic disease in continuance of this work.

RecognitionsWe owe particular thanks to Dr. Hamid Rashid. Ms. Saima Kalsoom. Faculty Mohammad Ali Jinnah University. Islamabad for support and supervising in the research work. Reference

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