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Policy and Planning

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Difference between Plane and Policies By Sumaera Mehmood 1. 1 WHAT IS THE POLICY? Problem solving rules and regulations are called policy According to a dictionary definition, policy is “any course of action followed primarily because it is expedient or advantages in a material sense”. (Evan Sycamnias) society are continuously changing, and policies being the representation of society’s preferences and ideals, must change with them.

It is at this broad level that policy becomes a complex interplay of “social and economic decisions, prevailing ideas, institutions and individuals, technical and analytical procedures, and general theories about the way policy is made” (Concept by Hawker, Smith and Weller).

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http://www. uplink. com. au/lawlibrary/Documents/Docs/Doc95. html 1. 2 EDUCATION POLICY “Education policy refers to the collection of laws or rules that govern the operation of education systems”Education occurs in many forms for many purposes through many institutions For example •Early childhood education. Kindergarten through 12th grade. •Two and four Year College or universities.

•Graduate and professional education. •Adult education. •And job training. There for education policy can directly affect the education people engage in at all Ages. Areas subject to debate in education policy; especially from the field schools include. •School size. •Class size. •School choice. •School privatization. •Tracking. •Teacher education and certification. •Teacher pay. •Teaching method. •Curricular content. •Graduation requirement. •School infrastructure investment And values that schools are expected to uphold and model.

Education policy analysis is the scholarly study of education policy. It seeks to answer questions about the purpose of education. The objectives (societal and personal) that is designed to attain the methods for attaining them and the tools for measuring their success or failure. (Abdul Ghafoor) How is good policy made? A good education policy would try to understand the existing structures as well as the behavior of all participants to first see how the system is working. It would then see what the objectives are and whether the current system is capable of achieving them.

Should the government intervene? How should it do so and does it have valid instruments to intervene? For example, in education before prescription, there are several questions that need to be answered to understand the current situation and place the role of government in some perspective. [pic] WHAT IS A PLAN? • Series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished • Design: an arrangement scheme • A plan of required and elective courses prepared by an academic advisor to assist students in reaching their academic goals. Difference between plane and policies

Policy: A policy is a set of rules and guidelines that should be applied to all projects. Examples of policies may include: • All workers will wear hard hats • All code must undergo a code-review • No module should be more than 500 lines long • All changes must be recorded in the work log A policy is a set of guiding principles or rules intended influence decisions and actions that reflect agreed practice about how the Council uses its powers. Policies differ from strategies in that they are statements, rather than high level plans delivering change.

Plan: A plan is a set of actions that will be undertaken to achieve a goal. For example, if we wanted to design a calculator, the plan would be: • Design the User Interface (E. g. what color the buttons will be) • Write the code • Send to QA to be tested • Fix bugs • Upload to Web Site • Inform WebMaster so ha can create link link • Inform marketing A plan is an operational programme or guide that sets out current and projected performance, planned activities and planned achievements and outcomes over a given period of time.

Plans give direction to actions and ensure that all actions are moving the Council towards its stated goals. Plans are also used to co-ordinate activities across service boundaries, and to inform elected members and, in some cases, the public about the Council’s services, how they are performing and how they compare over time and against benchmarks. SWOT and SMART A S. W. O. T. analysis has its worth when promoting critical thinking. What are the • Strengths, • Weaknesses, • Opportunities, and • Threats of the concept, plan, or approach? SMART

The acronym ‘SMART’ has been around for some time, and has a number of different interpretations. The ‘Rushcliffe’ interpretation is: • Specific – not a vague aspiration, but a clear description of what you want to do. • Measurable – so that you can demonstrate that your task has been achieved • Achievable – within your control to do • Resourced – clearly linked to your resources • Time-bound – set yourself a deadline Alternative (or, indeed, additional) interpretations for the ‘R’ in ‘SMART’ are ‘Relevant’ and ‘Realistic’ – actions should be relevant or realistic to the people responsible for achieving them.

References; Evan Sycamnias what is policy, Retervied on 9 April 2010 from, http://www. uplink. com. au/lawlibrary/Documents/Docs/Doc95. html. Abdul Ghafoor, educational policy University of Agriculture Faisalabad Deptt of Business MGT Sciences Retervied on 8 April. 2010. from http://www. scribd. com/doc/26428490/Education-Policy#fullscreen:on Answer. com , difference between plane and policies, retrvied on 9 April 2010. From http://wiki. answers. com/Q/Difference_between_plan_and_policy Rushcliffe Borough Council How to’ – Policies, Strategies, Plans and Procedures –what’s the difference?

Retrevied on 09 April 2010 from http://www. rushcliffe. gov. uk/upload/private/attachments/3/how202policiesstrategies. pdf http://www. d20s Pakistan’s economic development planning began in 1948. By 1950 a six-year plan had been drafted to guide government investment in developing infrastructure. But the initial effort was unsystematic, partly because of inadequate staffing. More formal planning—incorporating overall targets, assessing resource availability, and assigning priorities—started in 1953 with the drafting of the First Five-Year Plan (1955-60).

In practice, this plan was not implemented, however, mainly because political instability led to a neglect of economic policy, but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment to planning by establishing the Planning Commission. The Second Five-Year Plan (1960-65) surpassed its major goals when all sectors showed substantial growth. The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities in which a great deal of profit could be made, while the government acted in those sectors of the economy where private business was reluctant to operate.

This mix of private enterprise and social responsibility was hailed as a model that other developing countries could follow. Pakistan’s success, however, partially depended on generous infusions of foreign aid, particularly from the United States. After the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir, the level of foreign assistance declined. More resources than had been intended also were diverted to defense. As a result, the Third Five-Year Plan (1965-70), designed along the lines of its immediate predecessor, produced only modest growth.

When the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power in 1971, planning was virtually bypassed. The Fourth Five-Year Plan (1970-75) was abandoned as East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh. Under Bhutto, only annual plans were prepared, and they were largely ignored. The Zia government accorded more importance to planning. The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1978-83) was an attempt to stabilize the economy and improve the standard of living of the poorest segment of the population. Increased defense expenditures and a lood of refugees to Pakistan after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979, as well as the sharp increase in international oil prices in 1979-80, drew resources away from planned investments (see Pakistan Becomes a Frontline State , ch. 5). Nevertheless, some of the plan’s goals were attained. Many of the controls on industry were liberalized or abolished, the balance of payments deficit was kept under control, and Pakistan became self-sufficient in all basic foodstuffs with the exception of edible oils.

Yet the plan failed to stimulate substantial private industrial investment and to raise significantly the expenditure on rural infrastructure development. The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1983-88) represented a significant shift toward the private sector. It was designed to tackle some of the major problems of the economy: low investment and savings ratios; low agricultural productivity; heavy reliance on imported energy; and low spending on health and education. The economy grew at the targeted average of 6. percent during the plan period and would have exceeded the target if it had not been for severe droughts in 1986 and 1987. The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93) provided for total public-sector spending of Rs350 billion. Of this total, 38 percent was designated for energy, 18 percent for transportation and communications, 9 percent for water, 8 percent for physical infrastructure and housing, 7 percent for education, 5 percent for industry and minerals, 4 percent for health, and 11 percent for other sectors. The plan gave much greater emphasis than before to private investment in all sectors of the economy.

Total planned private investment was Rs292 billion, and the private-to- public ratio of investment was expected to rise from 42:58 in FY 1988 to 48:52 in FY 1993. It was also intended that public-sector corporations finance most of their own investment programs through profits and borrowing. In August 1991, the government established a working group on private investment for the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993-98). This group, which included leading industrialists, presidents of chambers of commerce, and senior civil servants, submitted its report in late 1992.

However, in early 1994, the eighth plan had not yet been announced, mainly because the successive changes of government in 1993 forced ministers to focus on short-term issues. Instead, economic policy for FY 1994 was being guided by an annual plan. [edit] Source This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies. • “Development Planning” (April 1994) A Country Study: Pakistan. Library of Congress. rd. org/srd/planes. htm http://www. pide. org. pk/pdf/PDR/1997/Volume4/647-667. pdf http://web. mit. edu/bilal/www/education/samad. html

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Policy and Planning. (2018, May 24). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/policy-and-planning-essay/

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