Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) Models
(Wysocki, 2012, p321) stated ‘the project management/projects landscape is based on two characteristics, goal and solution’ in complexity and uncertainly classification on the project. There are five (5) (MPLC) models to classify and mange of the projects. Linear and incremental in Traditional Project Management (TPM) approach. Iterative and Adaptive in Agile project management (APM) approach. Extreme in Extreme Project Management (xPM) and Emetxe Project Management (MPx) approach (Wysocki, 2012). The project manager is supposed to follow one of the best fit approach in line with his/her business/project condition to facilitate and avoid project failure (PMBOK, 2008).
2-Identification, Description and Mitigation Plan
(Wysocki, 2012) stated in depth detail of the descriptions, weakness, strengths and risks in each models as described below: I-Linear:
1-This is the simplest model, where the project goals and solution are known. 2- Risks: There are fewer risks compared to other models because: The requirements of the project are known and not allow change request.
The sequences of the processes do not overlap.
3-Failure: 80% of this type of project landscaping will succeed because: It has more learning models and lessons learned from previous comparable projects. The entire project is scheduled when project starts as the final baseline. A skill team is not required.
Avoid rework because not adding business value during of execution cycle. 4- Mitigation Plan: Used the high buffer/contingency time and cost during of estimation processes and identified all of the risks in management plan. 5- Example: The repetitive/Identical construction project of the structural buildings such as Libraries and schools. II-Incremental:
1-Goal and solution are clear also.
2-Risks: There is higher risks than linear model because:
Increment Executive process group allows changing request scope. The sequences of the processes done by overlap in some instances. 3-Failure: There is only 20% of this type from project landscaping may fails because: The additional features/changes may lead to project scope creep. Offer a product improvements and focus on add client value and success. Based on decompose of the solutions into components and release of the deliverables (Verify scope) during of project progress. 4- Mitigation Plan: Establish realistic change management plan and assign logic relationships tasks (Mulcahy, 2011). 5- Example: Most of the constructions environments transfer from function to other (Structural, Electro mechanical and finishing), in clear scope and requirements such as construction of hospital with specific design drawings and specifications .
III- Iterative and adaptive:
1-Goals are a clear in iterative and adaptive, but the solutions are not clear in iterative and less clear in adaptive model. 2-Risks: There are more risks than above descried models because; Iterative planning, Monitoring, controlling and closing process group are progressively elaborated with lack of the client involvement. 3-Failure: There are 70% of projects are best managed by process, and there is No criterion to success because of iterative solutions until end and approval by the client. 4- Mitigation Plan:
Formal documentations and Justification.
Distribution of the role and responsibility in early stages. Assigned date ceiling and specific number of submittals.
Prototyping approach (MBOOK, 2008).
5- Example: Design phase in construction environment has iterative process before and during the execution of the works. Iv- Extreme:
1- Goals are not clear and solutions are clear in (MPx). No goals and solutions clear in (xPM). 2-Risks: This has the highest risks of all models because:
Iterative changes from initial to closing process group are progressively elaborated and No guarantee about any acceptable deliverables from the
client. 3-Failure: This has the highest investment rating failure because non-existence of goals, plans and solutions when starting. 4- Mitigation Plan:
More involvement from Expert judgments, Industrial experts and the Client. Building and motivation of the project team on inventive (Mulcahy, 2011). Building specific protocols to follow by some project team. 5- Example: software improvements and researches (Mulcahy, 2011).
Mulcahy,R. (2011) PMP Exam Prep, 7th Edition. United State America: RMC.Project Management . Project management institute. (2008), A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge ,4th Edition. Newtown Suuqre, Pennsylvania 19073-3299USA:PMI. Wysocki, R.K., 2012, Effective Project Management: Traditional Agile, Extreme. 6TH Edition. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing.
Good day Amnah,
Very good posting if this was in week three (3) from that module Amnah! In a week three (3) we discussed the (PMLC) process group in each project from Initiation/scoping to closing project, and in this week, our discussion question is asking about our/your strategies/models on PMLC (Linear, Incremental, Iterative, Adaptive and Extreme) according to complexity and uncertainty in the project management landscape in chapter (10,11 and 12) from textbook (Wysocki, 2012). I understand that is very challenge work to us in this week! On other hand, we should to identify and discuss where in each of the five (PMLC) models we expect the most failure to occur, and what mitigation strategies would we consider to minimize the risks of occurrence of these failures. References.
Wysocki, R.K., 2012, Effective Project Management: Traditional Agile, Extreme. 6TH Edition. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing.
Good day Michael
Really, I am interest in your posting and that is enjoyable to follow! But I
have two spot should to elaborate from my personal point of view. 1-You post that ‘the number of iterations equals to the number of deliverables ‘ when discussion on Iterative model. In my opinion as the approach and project management methodology, each change requests will produce different deliverables in quantities .(E.g., in design construction phase project that extending from preliminary stage to closing. The numbers of change request from the client or senior management such as Extension of the buildings 20%, Increase the capacity of services by 10%, Changes the type of curtain wall design from Stick system to Unitized system, and Number of floors ……els), but in each change, we can see different functions and deliverable numbers such as ( Sub-plans like cost MP, schedule MP, Risk MP…. and architectural, mechanical ,electrical, structural drawings and calculation sheets, new materials, and new specification…….els).Every change request will back to planning process group and will produce a new deliverables and may exclude some previous one.
2- You mention also on linear PMLC models are found in ‘short term projects’ as per (Wysocki, 2012 ,p351). In my opinion, there are more projects fall down within long project period, and we can apply linear PMLC approach as the constraints such as in development of new BMU (building maintenance unites in cleaning of facade system in high rise buildings),and that project planned to spend about one year. The project can be start from concept phase, design phase and then manufacturing phase. In manufacturing phase (Initiation/scoping, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling-M&C- and closing) as (Plan , Do, Check , Act) concepts. when changes raise after executing process, then the cost of a changes are very high and unacceptable. Also in the design phase , when changes raise after automation and designing closing , then the cost of changes are very high (Mulcahy, 2011).
Do you have any lateral thoughts to those issues.
Mulcahy,R. (2011) PMP Exam Prep, 7th Edition. United State America: RMC.Project Management . Wysocki, R.K., 2012, Effective Project Management: Traditional Agile, Extreme. 6TH Edition. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing.
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