Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther’s 95 theses Sample

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The 16th century. known as the Renaissance. was a clip of momentous alteration in Europe. This clip period impacted the World in many ways including the humanistic disciplines. music. literature. scientific discipline. and faith ; nevertheless faith made the biggest impact to the civilization ( MacCulloch. 107. 2 ) . Religion was built-in to every portion of the civilization ; the image of Christ was the focal point its pictures. the Church was portion of authorities. and patron of architecture. The Roman Catholic Church was the most extended and powerful establishment in Europe during the Renaissance. The seeds of spiritual convulsion were the consequence of corruptness in the Roman Catholic Church. Priests and spiritual leaders started to go greedy with their power. Bing the lone 1s that could read the Bible because interlingual renditions were merely in Latin. they started misquoting the Bible for their ain personal advantage. One major issue of corruptness were indulgences which were paperss issued by the Roman Catholic Church that were used to deliver wickednesss ( Estep. William R. 117 ) .

Martin Luther realized indulgences were non mentioned in the Bible and he decided to travel against the instructions of the Catholic Church by composing the 95 Thesiss which led to the Protestant Reformation ( Thompson. Stephan P. 15-16 ) . The history of Martin Luther and the 95 theses represents a major turning point in universe history because the Protestant Reformation started by Martin Luther reshaped the political and societal life of European Society. Martin Luther was born on November 10. 1483 in Eisleban. Saxony ( Germany ) . His male parent wanted him to be successful in life. He made certain his boy attended Latin school in order to hold a great instruction ( Estep. William R. 113-114 ) His male parent was determined for him to be a attorney. but Martin had different programs ; he wanted to give his life to God. ( Bainton. Roland H. 1976 ) . He became a monastic and he entered the Augustinian friary. In 1507 he became an ordained priest and in 1508 he began learning divinity at the University of Wittenberg ( “Martin Luther” . 2003 ) . Martin Luther was a dedicated monastic. He to the full dedicated himself to fasting. long hours in supplication. and reading the Bible.

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He spent an full twelvemonth indulging himself into the Scriptures to order to to the full understand them. During this clip. he besides began oppugning the church leader’s instruction of his twenty-four hours. Johann Tetzel. a Dominican mendicant. was a commissioner for indulgences. He was sent by Pope Leo X of the Roman Catholic Church to Germany in order to sell indulgences to raise money to construct St. Peters Basilica in Rome ( MacCulloch. 609. 1 ) . Johann Tetzel made the people believe that if they bought an indulgence their wickednesss would be forgiven and their households would be rescued from Purgatory ( Ganss. Henry. 2012 ) . Martin Luther believed. from reading St. Paul’s letters in the Bible. indulgences do non offer forgiveness of wickednesss since merely the Lord does ( MacCulloch. 606 ) . He was ferocious when his pupils bought indulgences after hearing the sermon of Johann Tetzel. Martin Luther decided to take affairs into his ain custodies. On October 31. 1517 Martin Luther posted the 95 theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg. Germany. The theses were addressed to Albert of Mainz protesting the sale of indulgences and were written in Latin. ( Estep. William R. 119 )

The church leaders were intended to be the lone 1s who could read the theses but they were rapidly translated into German. The translated 95 theses revealed to the people the non-Biblical patterns of the Catholic Church such as purgatory. indulgences. and the instruction of redemption through good plants ( “Martin Luther: Ninety- Five Thesiss ( 1517 ) ” ) . Before the 95 theses were posted in Wittenberg. no monastic had of all time spoken against the Church before. particularly in that manner that Martin Luther did ( “Luther Posts His 95 Theses. October 31. 1517. ” . 2003 ) . Within a short clip. Martin Luther’s 95 theses greatly influenced the people of his twenty-four hours. The publishing imperativeness allowed people to read Martin Luther’s learning in their native linguistic communication. Merely two hebdomads after he posted the theses. Luther’s thoughts spread throughout Germany and by two months they spread throughout Europe. The entireness of European society wanted to read them and many agreed or differ with the instructions of Martin Luther. Johann Tetzel was one of the many Catholic leaders that disagreed with Luther’s instructions and was Luther’s first public adversary. Tetzel knew that the theses where written about him and his instructions ( Ganss. Henry. 2012 ) . When people read Luther’s theses ; they shortly began to recognize how bad indulgences were and became really angry with Tetzel.

His indulgence gross revenues went manner down and he became really disquieted with Luther ( Estep. William R. 124-125 ) . Martin Luther’s purpose was for the Catholic Pope to take the sale of indulgences because he felt that it corrupted the Church. and he besides questioned the being of purgatory. Gabrielle Della Volta. a freshly elected leader of the Augustinian monastics. was another adversary who wanted to hush Martin Luther ( Estep. William R. 121-122 ) . Pope Leo X ordered him to train Luther and hush the Augustinian monastics in the Catholic Church. Luther. being an Augustinian monastic. was non happy about this order and was summoned to look before the German Augustinians to debate to the Church leaders. Luther ne’er went because one of his close friends advised him non to travel ( 122 ) . The Catholic Church called him a heretic and excommunicated him from the Church. Martin Luther was falsely accused ( MacCulloch. 610. 1 ) . Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation which was a major turning point in universe history ( MacCulloch. 608. 1 ) .

Before the poster of 95 theses and Protestant Reformation was the lone one Christian church in Europe. which was the Roman Catholic Church and it greatly influenced authorities and its swayers. At this clip there was separation of Church and State which allowed the authorities to non be controlled by the Catholic Church any longer. Alternatively of the province being in control of Church hierarchy. leaders are now closer to the people alternatively of replying to Roman governments. After publication of the 95 theses many swayers in Germany saw the corruptness of the Catholic Church. As a consequence. the instructions of Protestantism appealed to them ( Zieglar. Philp G. 2012 ) . Many leaders. every bit good as common people. believed that the Roman Catholic Church used their revenue enhancement money for the benefit of Rome entirely. The Protestant Reformation started a new Christian tradition that influenced European society and changed the authoritiess of about half of Europe. Luther made it clear that he wanted the “liberty of a Christian” which was the freedom of all the limitations of the Catholic Church. Peoples started utilizing their new identify of self-government to alter authorities and seek single autonomy.

The Protestants wanted to read the Bible for themselves ( Thompson. Stephan. 21-22 ) . The publishing imperativeness allowed the Bible to be translated into the major linguas of Europe which were German. French. and English. For common individual to read the Bible in their ain linguistic communication was radical. Peoples were able to read the Bible themselves alternatively of listening to the priest. Protestant church services were conducted in the common lingua alternatively of Latin. Peoples started to utilize their ain judgement in order to do certain the church instructions were in line with the Bible ( MacCulloch. 120-121. 2 ) . Many Christians throughout Europe nevertheless still had inquiries. Christians wanted to cognize the reply to four primary inquiries. How a adult male could be assured forgiveness of wickednesss and derive entree to Heaven? Where does spiritual authorization prevarication? What is the church? And how should a Christian live his life? Luther answered the first inquiry by stating a adult male can non be saved by his good plants but merely through religion. The 2nd inquiry he answered stating that spiritual authorization is non in the Catholic Church but in the “Word of God” which is the Bible. The 3rd inquiry Luther stated that the whole community of Christian trusters make up the church and are priests.

The last inquiry. he replied that one serves God through one’s naming. Luther called these four inquiries the four cardinal Protestant beliefs ( Williston Walker. Norris A. Richard. Lotz W. David. Handy T. Robert. 419-423 ) . These inquiries allowed persons to hold self-government in their ain lives and they did non hold to listen to the church any longer. A major effect of the Protestant Reformation was the Thirty Years’ War. This war was the most destructive struggle in Europe before the twentieth-century World wars. The war was a struggle over the Holy Roman Empire’s power and its authorization over the political and spiritual orders in Europe. The Protestants no longer wanted to reply to the Holy Roman Empire any longer and alternatively wanted to be independent. This war resulted in the disintegration of the Holy Roman Empire as the merely regulating power in Europe. The war set spiritual boundaries between Catholic and Protestant bulk states that are still in topographic point in Europe today. ( MacCulloch. 644-647 ) 495 old ages ago. Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation by composing his 95 theses as a dissension with the instruction of the Roman Catholic Church ( Williston Walker. Norris A. Richard. Lotz W. David. 420 ) .

The Protestant Reformation became a major turning point in universe history because of its alteration to society. The Protestant Reformation led to the Thirty Years War which resulted in the Holy Roman Empire non being the centre control over the authorities and the people. The Roman Catholic Church became separate from many of the authoritiess of Europe and would once more be the cardinal power. Catholic leaders disagreed with Luther’s instruction and called him a misbeliever but could non halt the reformation. The impact of the Protestant Reformation created many Protestant Christian denominations which all differ somewhat from each. Today the largest Protestant denomination in the universe is the Lutherans with 75 million members ( Zieglar. Philp G. 2012 ) . Lutheranism appealed to the Protestants because it was all the instructions of Martin Luther is what started this whole revolution ( Quere. Ralph W. 2012 ) . The effects of this turning point were the Thirty Years war between Catholics and Lutherans. This war was a really annihilating war but had many positive results like the priest no longer controlled the people. Overall. political and societal Europe would non be how it is today if the Protestant revolution ne’er took topographic point.

Annotated Bibliography

Citations- Primary BeginningBainton Roland H. Here I stand A life of Martin Luther. Nashville Abingdon imperativeness 1976.

This book helped me understand Martin Luther’s life which was really of import to my paper.

Estep. William R. Renaissance and Reformation. Grand Rapids. Michigan. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 1986.

Gabriel Della Volta was of import to my paper because he tried to hush Luther’s instructions. He summoned Luther to look before the German Augustinians at Heidelberg.

“Luther Posts His 95 Theses. October 31. 1517. ” Detecting World History Detroit: Gale. 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 14 Oct. 2012.

Luther wanted Pope John Tetzel to take any punishments imposed on a adult male by God. attacked sale of indulgences. and questioned the being of purgatory. The ground why this was of import to my paper is because these were the ground why Luther wrote the 95 theses.

MacCulloch Diarmaid. Christianity The First Three Thousand Years. New York: Penguin Group. 2010. ( 1 )

The Thirty Years War was one of the terrible effects of the turning point. The war was between Catholics and Lutherans in the German provinces. The impact of the war was there are now spiritual boundaries in Europe that are still in topographic point today. The 30 old ages war is of import to my paper because the war in Europe because it demonstrated the spiritual competition in Europe during this clip.

MacCulloch Diarmaid. The Reformation A History. New York: Penguin Group. 2003. ( 2 )

This book talked about how Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation was an Accidental Revolution. This was of import to my paper because it showed me that Martin Luther was non seeking to get down this.

“Martin Luther. ” Detecting Biography. Detroit: Gale. 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 14 Oct. 8 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: //go. galegroup. com/ps/i. make? id=GALE % 7CEJ212101143 & A ; V=2. 1 & A ; v=browardcpsit & A ; it=r= & A ; p=GPS & A ; SW=W7

Martin Luther was born in a universe of great convulsion with the Catholic Church. Martin Luther shaped the “Age of Faith” of his twenty-four hours. The “Age of Faith” influenced the Protestant Reformation which is what my paper is about.

“Martin Luther: Ninety- Five Thesiss ( 1517 ) . ” The Library of Original Sources. Vol 5. Milwaukee. Wisconsin ; University Research Extension CO. . 1907 World Book Advanced Web. 5 Oct. 2012.

This article from World Book Advanced helped me understand Martin Luther’s 95 theses. The article showed me the importance of each one and their impact to his society.

McKay. Hill. Buckler. Crowston. Wiesner-Hanks. Perry. A History of WesternSociety. Boston. New York. Bedford/ St. Martin’s. 2011.

My AP European History book helped me recognize the importance of Martin Luther’s work. The biggest impact was the sale of indulgences. Indulgences were a major subject of the 95 theses.

Quere. Ralph W. “Lutherans. ” World Book Advanced. World Book. 2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2012.

Lutherans is the largest Protestant denomination in the universe and has 75 million members. Lutherans were the positive result of Martin Luther’s instructions.

Thompson. Stephan P. The Reformation Turning Points in World History. San Diego Greenhaven Press. 1999.

Luther’s learning went directly to the Black Marias of those seeking to win redemption by good plants. Luther taught them that redemption was my religion entirely non by good plants. This is really of import to my paper because Catholics taught the people that redemption was by religion and good plants but Luther said its religion entirely.

Williston Walker. Norris A. Richard. Lotz W. David. Handy T. Robert. A History of the Christian Church. New York. New York. Scribner 1985

A Histoy of the Christian Church taught me the importance of the Protestant reformation and the conseqences ; that is how it helped my paper.

Zieglar. Philp G. “Protestantism” World Book Advanced. World Book. 2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2012

Protestantism was started by Martin Luther. Today 100s of Christian denominations differ somewhat from one another.

Citations- Secondary Beginning

“95 Theses” 8. October 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. theopedia. com/95_Theses

Martin Luther posted the 95 these on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg. Germany on October 31. 1517. The castle doors were used as church bulletin boards this started the Protestant Reformation.

“Wittenberg Martin Luther and the 95 theses. ” 8. October 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. uncommon-travel-germany. com/wittenberg. hypertext markup language

Wittenberg Germany is the metropolis were Martin Luther lived and preached. Victors still come from all over the universe to see this historic metropolis.

Ganss. Henry. “Johann Tetzel. ” The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1912. 14 Oct. 2012 hypertext transfer protocol: //www. newadvent. org/cathen/14539a. htm.

Johann Tetzel was one of the first priests to publicize the sale of indulgences stating they would convey full forgiveness for one’s wickednesss or release from purgatory for a loved 1. His instructions urged Martin Luther to compose the 95 theses.

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