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Role of Ict in Dairy Development Essays

Role of information and communication technology (ICT) in dairy Development Introduction We believe knowledge is power and information is the key element of knowledge base. Today, development of an individual or a society is based on access to information. Unfortunately, the information and communication technologies favour the richer section or the urban areas. On the other hand, the village or the poorer segment remains, unreached by this scientific and technological advancement. as a result our productivity of land, water and labour is still poor.

The poor people living in the rural areas need information on improved varieties of seed, vaccine and health care for the animals, disease management, policies, weather and climatic forecasts, crop management practices, etc. The urgency of the information to them is as acute as it could be for others. Yet, these are the people who have the least information. What is ICT ICTs are those technologies that can be used to interlink information technology devices such as personal computers with communication technologies such as telephones and their telecommunication networks.

ICTs, therefore, is an expanding assembly of technologies that can be used to collect, store and share information between people using multiple devices and multiple media. The most common perception of ICT is that of computer and the internet, including common technologies of radio, television, telephone and fax system, video programme, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, wireless and satellite technologies being used in ICT activities. Dairying in India Dairying in India is an integral part of the total farming system. Symbiotic relationship exists between agriculture and dairy farming.

According to estimates of the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), the value of output from the livestock at current prices was about Rs. 173,350 crores in 2005-06. Milk accounted for 68 per cent of this output. It was higher than paddy (Rs. 70,462 crores) and wheat (Rs. 48,052 crores). In terms of value of output, milk is now the single largest agricultural commodity in India. Dairying contributes close to a third of the gross income of rural households and in the case of those without land nearly half of their gross income.

An estimated 70 million rural households, of which about three-fourth are landless, marginal or small farmers are engaged in milk production. The distribution of rural income, as reflected in the gini-coefficient (the measure of inequality) is very low for the dairy sector in India, indicating that the ownership and income is more evenly distributed and the progress in this sector will result in a more balanced development of rural economy. Milk production has shown a rapid growth –between 4 to 5 per cent per annum during the last two decades.

The growth has however slackened during the 11th Five Year Plan. Against the targeted growth of 5 per cent, the actual achievement has been no more than 3. 6 per cent. Emerging trends indicate that the demand for milk is growing faster than the production specially in view of faster growth in GDP. This makes available to consumers larger share of income that can be spent on milk and dairy products. The milk production in India during 2009-10 is estimated at 112 million tonnes and 116 million tonnes during 2010-11.

The demand for milk is forecast as 150 million tonnes during 2016-17 and over 180 million tonnes during 2021-22. This would require concentrated efforts in increasing the production in the next ten years. types of services provided by ICT projects The ICT project can be categorized in four categories : First category Sponsored or controlled by the Government. These provides all information and services to the rural people related to the government programmes and schemes. The Bhoomi project in Karnataka is good example for this.

Secondary category Projects largely addressed to trading and e-commerce like e-Choupal are categorized under this category. Third category Third category of ICT projects provides many offline, static content including packages of practices, recommendations, locally relevant technologies, govt. schemes in regional language etc. These projects have strong inter-institutional linkages to develop content and providing online and offline services. Krishi Vigyan Kendras of ICAR at Ahmednagar and Baramati fall in this category. Fourth category

The fourth category of ICT projects primarily address the issue of capacity building and empowerment of farmers, farm women, rural artisans and also large number of extension personnel and use of ICT for education and alleviation of poverty from rural sector. Women empowerment through SEWA examples of the category. Technology development in India languages 22 constitutionally approved languages more than 1650 dialects are spoken by different communities. Linguistic based division into states ensures use of the official language of that state in governance and education.

Over 95 per cent population is normally deproved of the benefits of English based information technology. The distribution of language based on population in India is given in following Table (Om vikas, 2001). Distribution of languages based on population Language| Script| Per cent| Hindi | Devangari | 41. 6| Bangla | Bengali | 8. 6| Telugu | Telugu | 8. 1| Marathi| Devanagari | 7. 7| Tamil | Tamil | 6. 5| Urdu | Urdu | 5. 4| Gujarati | Gujarati | 5. 1| Kannada | Kannada | 4. 0| Malayalam | Malayalam | 3. 7| Oriya | Oriya | 3. 5|

Punjabi | Gurumukhi| 2. 9| Assamese | Assamese | 1. 6| Kashmiri | Urdu/ Devanagari| 0. 4| Sindhi | Urdu/ Devanagari| 0. 3| Nepali | Devanagari| 0. 25| Konkani | Devanagari| 0. 20| Manipuri | Manipuri | 0. 15| Sanskrit | Devanagari| 0. 0006| Innovative ICAR initiatives in ICTs, In Agricultural Development Establishment of Network of KVKs The KVK has its own website. The council has prepared a programme to establish a strong e-linkage with the KVKs of 200 district and technology generating institutions for availability of technology information.

The objectives of the project are to establish a strong e-linkage with the KVKs and technology generating institutions like ICAR institutes and State Agricultural Universities for availability of technology information for the farmers at KVK level, to enable the KVKs for global access and to act as gateway for availability of such information at local level and to develop necessary human resource for handling cyber extension. The KVK will be equipped to enable them to convert the existing knowledge base into web-enabled electronic from to serve as information hub of the area.

Services provided from KVK IT center From these IT centers we are providing information of different subjects like agriculture, health, education and other required information by the villages. These information are two types. 1. Static and offline information : KVK and other organization have developed different information in the CD where all the cultivation practices of the crop, details about different agro based enterprises etc. which are regularly required by the farmers. This information is kept on computer. Without connecting to the internet, this information can be give to be villages. . Internet based information : Some information is required to search on internet like market information, weather forecasting, and information about different organizations and their schemes etc. can be received through the internet. Besides getting this information, farmers and rural youths are using Internet for doing the e-mail, to get the information about college admission etc. Content development * Static content : Packages of practices, recommendations, locally relevant technologies, government schemes etc. in local language.

Besides experiences of successful ICT applications in agriculture in rural India and provision of numerous web-based links to these sites will be available to farmers. * Dynamic content : Online services on localized weather forecasting, market information, latest recommendations on crop, animals, poultry, fishery etc. in local languages keeping in view needs and suitability of the practices in areas around each of the study centers. * Interactive voice response system on local weather forecast and market information. Sources of availability of inputs such as seed, seedlings, grafts, biofertilizers, bio-pesticides and agri-implements with prices and user instructions. * Soil and water testing facilities and online reporting. * Online announcements of different government schemes. * Online consultancy to farmers through e-mail, voicemail and video mail. * Event calendar of agricultural importance events in the region, training programmes, study tours, exhibitions and other activities. * Publications of newsletters and bulletins. * Other services related to WTO : Products information guide for different cereals, pulses, oilseeds, horticultural crops, animals and fishery products. * Fundamentals and vocabulary * Quality management requirement * Quality reporting procedures * Certifications producers * Soil and water testing facilities and online reporting. * Online announcements of different government schemes. * Online consultancy to farmers through e-mail, voicemail and video mail. * Event calendar of agricultural importance events in the region, training programmes, study tours, exhibitions and other activities. * Publications of newsletters and bulletins. * Other services related to WTO : Products information guide for different cereals, pulses, oilseeds, horticultural crops, animals and fishery products. * Fundamentals and vocabulary * Quality management requirement * Quality reporting procedures Advances in Communication Technologies The newer technologies in communication system include Expert Systems (ES), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Databases (DBS), Compact-Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM), Networks, Electronic Mail (E-Mail), Electronic Bulletin Boards (EBB), On-line Service (OLS), Electronic Journals (EJS), ICTs, Kiosks, Teleconferencing and Electronic Information Retrieval System (EIRS)

Some of these technologies are discussed here under. Geographic Information System (GIS) Geographic information system (GIS) is computer assisted methods and procedures for the capture, storage and analysis of data having location or geographic properties and the display of the results in the graphical form. GIS can be positively explored to plan and implement ecologically sustainable, economically viable, socially acceptable transfer of technology programmes for an equitable use of global land resources. Concern for the ecological issues in extension added a new dimension in the implementation of extension programmes.

Any project is assessed in terms of its sustainability, eco- friendliness and economic viability. Decisions are being made based on the information about natural resources and conditions in a particular location, whereas policy makers and project formulators were severely handicapped in this respect. This GIS dimension in the modern extension, therefore, helps to overcome such difficulties in planning need based system specific extension programmes. Expert Systems: These are computer programmes that emulate logic and problem solving proficiency of a human expert.

Like human experts they can also use heuristics, a problem solving technique that uses experience based rules of thumb to arrive at appropriate solutions. Expert systems are advantageous in the sense that they bring performance to the expertise of an expert and at once they can be easily duplicated unlike in case of the human experts. Perhaps the most significant merit of expert systems is that they combine the expertise of several experts in the field. This is particularly useful for the present day context of multidisciplinary approach.

When the experts are becoming more and more specialized and in a particular area of the field, such expert system helps us to get the entire knowledge of expertise in the field. Timely advice is also very much crucial for the farmers to save the plants and animals from further damage in case of emergencies. Some of the expert systems developed in this line are COUNSELLER (to manage insects and diseases on wheat), GRAPES (a pest management system for grapes) and POMME (to manage disease and insects in apples) and Poultry Expert System.

Tele and Audio Conferencing Satellite communication has revolutionized the communication process and made the interaction among people located at different places possible at a point of time. Satellite technology links the communicator with his audience located at different places and makes the two way communication possible. A farmer in Haryana can directly interact with the group of experts available at AIR or Doordarsan studio or research institutes to clarify his doubts.

Such type of tele or audio interacts are being used successfully by ICAR in linking the farmers with experts over a wide range of issues. The tele and audio conferencing is a boon to the extension communication as it facilitates direct interactions between the scientists, extension workers and farmers irrespective of their locations and distance. Cyber Extension and Information Communication Technologies (ICTs): Cyber extension refers to the process of extension done over cyber space.

Cyber space refers to the virtual space of interconnected networks over the globe which provides connectivity round the clock. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) make this possible over the cyber space. In recent years cyber extension has gained popularity and successful cyber extension initiatives were taken up by both public and private sectors in India. ICT encompasses all those technologies that enable the handling of information and facilitate different forms of communication among human actors, between human beings and electronic systems, and among electronic systems.

India is having a population of more than one billion with more than 18 languages and 1650 dialects. ICTs can play a dominant role in making information at right time in right place at a reasonable cost. With the shift towards an information society, the role of ICTs such as email, cell phones, World Wide Web and kiosks promise to provide innovative solutions to the problems of poverty and inequality by accelerating development through introducing transparency to the systems and operations.

India with the highest English speaking population in Asia has the highest number of information kiosks established across rural areas. ICT Initiatives in Animal Husbandry and Dairying Some of the successful ICT initiatives taken up under different projects in India are the Warna Wired Village Project providing Internet access to cooperative societies spread in 70 villages of Maharashtra. The aim is to provide information to the villagers by establishing networked booths in the villages. The Information Village Project of M.

S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) established a hub of information network, in Villianur village ( Pondicherry ) to cater to the information needs of the rural people. It is aimed at bringing the benefits of modern ICTs to rural families in Pondichery. The DAH&D has already established a Local Area Network (LAN) with 230 nodes at Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi with Internet access through NICNET gateway. An ICT Learning (e-Learning) Centre has also been established to provide on line internet access.

The Dairy Information and Services Kiosk (DISK) is one of the successful initiatives taken up by Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd (GCMFL) with the help of Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. .DISK. model includes a complete history of milk cattle owned by the member farmers. The details such as breed and history of diseases, inoculation, and artificial insemination are maintained in the system. AKASHGANGA It is being used at milk collection centers and in cooperatives to measure butter fat content of milk, test the quality of the milk and to make prompt payment to the farmers.

It has resulted in the removal of incentives to those who adulterate milk, reduced the time for payments from 10 days to less than 5 minutes and instilled confidence in farmers on cooperative set up. The National Dairy Development Board has established AKASHGANGA which provides total integrated solution for automatic milk collection. The Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG) has developed e-mail Conference System for Goat Outreach on its goat-nic. in server using free software called 'majordoma' which is available on www. greatcircle. om on a free Linux operating system. Three e-mail conferencing systems, viz. , mail to: goat-net@cirg. nic. in. , livestocknet@cirg. nic. in and fishnet@cirg. nic. in have been launched by the institute to help information inflow among technologists, farmers, development officers and planners. Under Animal Health Project funded by Department for International Development (DFID), Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (RAGACOVAS) Pondicherry in collaboration with University of Reading, UK, has designed an interactive touch screen information Kiosk.

It has information on important cattle diseases in addition to management of cattle and methods of acquiring information. Livestock farmers can access the needed information on cattle management with the touch of the screen which had text and pictures with sound back-up. A similar attempt was made in developing a touch screen information kiosk on dairy cattle management by TANUVAS, Chennai. RAGACOVAS also developed an Information kiosk on management of goats for the benefit of the goat keepers under Rural Innovation Fund project in collaboration with MSSRF.

ICT Efforts of ICAR and Government of India IP-Telephony and Video Conferencing at ICAR Institutes/ HQs V-SAT Connectivity to 192 KVKs and eight Zonal Project Directorates through ERNETKVK, ICAR Network Upgrading ICAR-ERNET network involving all ICAR Institutes and SAUs under on going NAIP Project Component. Toll free number 1800-180-1551created by Ministry of Agriculture, Govt of India, can be used by farmers anywhere in the country to access the information on agriculture and allied subjects. Sources of information on animal husbandry:

There are several sources which can be tapped to get the information on animal husbandry. These sources include State Departments of Animal Husbandry, Veterinary Universities/ Animal science institutes of ICAR, Livestock research stations / farms, Milk federations/ unions, Training organizations like KVKs, Biological production units ( Semen, vaccines etc. ), Pharmaceutical companies, Veterinary medical shop keepers, Veterinary medical representatives, Progressive livestock keepers, Non Government Organisations etc.

However, there is nothing like animal husbandry extension person per se who is entrusted with the responsibility of education of livestock owners. The para-vets or the veterinarians who are the grass root level service providers on animal husbandry are considered as veterinary extension personnel. The present day veterinarian is considered as the most reliable source of information on livestock in the villages but unfortunately his role as livestock advisor is marginalized by his role as clinician.

But in the years to come with an increase in the gap between information available and information to be utilized on technologies or make the information technology accessible to the livestock owners, he/she has to play an active role in acquisition, processing and delivering relevant information to the livestock owners. National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey indicated that 60 percent of the farmers do not access any source of information for advanced agricultural technologies. As a result, there is a wide adoption gap among farming community to achieve the vertical increase in production through ptimum resource utilisation. If this be the case with agricultural technologies where there is a network on extension and lot of funds are being used for transfer of technologies, one can imagine the plight of livestock extension. Research clearly revealed the yawning gaps in the knowledge levels of livestock owners which could be attributed to lack of livestock extension services in the country. Unlike in agriculture extension, there is a need to combine the education of livestock owners with the supply of quality inputs at right time to facilitate easy adoption of recommended practices by them.

Barriers to Effective Communication The following are some of the common problems which come in the way of effective communication: Animal Identification and Management System :| RFID based animal identification and management system consist of a complete hardware and software solutions to tag and track all different types of animals, reptiles, amphibians, birds or any other life form that we have on this planet. The RFID transponders can be worn as ear tags or as inter- ruminal capsules.

With the help of RFID, the farm management can be fully automated for various processes such as feeding, weighing, disease management, and breeding practices can be implemented, where tracking become cumbersome. The said solution can also be used for various case related for studying the characteristic of an animal, amphibian or birds by scientist such as, * Date of birth * Last vaccination done * Any medical history * Owner detailsWhen an animal is to be scanned, it is either brought near a fixed RFID reader or scanner, or simply a portable Handhold reader is used to sweep in the space near the animal and the tag is read.

The reader is connected to a remote database which compares the unique RFID tag number on the animal with other data on the animal. * RFID can be used to sprinkle the accurate amount of water and pesticides to the farms * RFID helps Farmers to track their production * RFID can be used for counting and tracking animals in the farm (Cows, Buffaloes, Hens) * RFID helps shepherds for feeding (fodder, water and medicines) the animals in correct quantity and exact timeHERD MAN SOFTWARE It consists information about breeding,individual record ,pedigree. eeding,health status and address book etc| NDRI Initiatives in ICT Video film produced: 1. NDRI at a glance (in Hindi and English), 2. Clean Milk Production (in Hindi and English), 2003 3. Hygienic milk and milk product processing and packaging (in Hindi and English), 2004 4. Scientific calf rearing practices, (English), 2004 5. Success Story of a Dairy Entrepreneur, 2007 Multimedia Package: 1. e-Book on Clean Milk Production (English), 2003 2.

Multimedia on Clean Milk Production (in Hindi and English), 2004 Information dissemination system: 1. Web-Module for Dissemination of Dairy Innovations among Farmers (in Hindi and English), 2009 2. Design and development of information dissemination system for quality milk production, 2010 Research Projects: 1. Development and Dissemination of Information Package for Clean Milk Production, 2002-2004 2. Development of Mass Media Mechanism for Extension Education in Dairying, 2006-2008 3.

Design and validation of information dissemination system for quality milk production, 2007-2010 ,USE OF ICT : 1. Social change: Communication today is the key element in the development and implementation of policies and programmes aimed at the well being and welfare of people everywhere. The role of communication is particularly important in relation to such social changes occurring in the modern world as socio-economic, environmental and developments in active components of society like family, women and young people. . Economic prosperity: ICT for economic prosperity indicates using it in an effective way to stream line administration, improve productivity in industry which in the long run will influence the performance of the economy. 3. Rural Development and food security: Information and knowledge play a key role in ensuring food security and are essential for facilitating rural development and bringing out social and economic change. The least expensive input for rural development is knowledge.

Rural communities require information on supply of inputs, new technologies, early warning systems (droughts, Pests and diseases), Credit, Market prices and their competitors. New ICTs have the potential for getting vast amounts of information to rural population in a more timely, comprehensive and cost effective manner and could be used together with traditional media and the greater tasks like rural development and food security will be achieved in the long run. 4.

IT and poverty alleviation: IT provides citizens with information about market prices and social services, such as health, knowledge, education, jobs and investment opportunities and reduction in poverty level. For (eg): the farmer who benefits from technology to get daily market prices and can subsequently buy seeds at 20% less and sell  produce for 20% more by eliminating the middleman. 5. Empowering rural communities: ICTs can empower rural communities and give them a voice that permits them to contribute to the development process.

With new ICTs, rural communities can acquire the capacity to improve their living conditions and become motivated through training and dialogue with others at a level where they make decisions for their own development Giving a voice means giving them seat at the table to express their views and opinions and become part of the decision making process. The approach should be participatory and could lead to improved policy formulation and execution. 6. Targeting marginalized groups: Most rural people lack the power to access information.

ICTs could benefit all stake holders including the civil society, in particular youth and women. Other disadvantaged groups that could be targeted include the disabled and subsistence peasants. 7. Creating employment: Through the establishment of rural information centres, ICTs can create employment opportunities in rual areas by engaging as tele centre managers, subject matter specialists, information managers, translators and information technology technicians. Such centres help to bridge the gap between urban and rural communities and reduce the rural - urban migration problem.

The centres can also provide training and those trained may became small scale entrepreneurs. 8. ICTs for improving linkages: Weak linkages between researchers, front line workers and farmers have been a major constraint that has resulted in research findings not being applied by poor rural farmers. ICTs can improve and strengthen these linkages can ensure knowledge and information , which are essential for an effective TOT. 9. e-Governance: Application of IT to governance in rendering administrative services - from ration cards, motor licences, land records, health, education and municipal services. -Governance can improve and facilitate direct connections between citizens and government and encourages their participation in governance. It can help in alleviation of poverty. It can open up avenues for direct participation of woman in various governmental schemes and decision making processes. It can enhance democratic processes and citizen empowerment. It can reduce hardship and multiply productivity of employees. 10. ICT as an aid: The information services have to cater to the needs of common man in the areas like natural resources, energy, health and sanitation and employment.

The services have to be directed towards promoting information to the extension worker who is a middle man in the transfer chain and to meeting the needs of the actual user. 11. ICT a group work: Group work is widely practiced by Government, business and other social organizations. However its effectiveness and the outcome are reduced due to many reasons. 12. ICT for planning: The National Natural Resource Management System (NNRMS) has been drawn up by the nodal agency of the Government’s Department of space in cooperation with several other agencies and organizations.

The NNRMS scheme is now being linked with the natural Resource Data Management System (NRDMS) to help districts in formulating district plans. 13. ICT for national development: ICT should be designed to serve the community to improve its productive capacity and its overall quality of life, which would mean progress. The need for identification of different categories of users, their information seeking behavior patterns, capability of assimilation of information and application to different tasks are important. 4. Artificial intelligence for risk assessment: It is the ability of computers to make human like judgements. 15. Expert system for various fields: Expert system can be defined as a man-machine system designed to collect technical knowledge related to specified areas and accumulate it in a knowledge base after changing it into a structured form and ultimately, to solve problems in the specified areas using various inference systems in addition to the technical knowledge. 16.

Computers for productive rural banking: Almost 70 percent of bank branches are in the rural areas. Hence computers can be productively used to reduce the volume of work. 17. Distance education in computers: The role of central computing facilities has shifted during the last three years toward the provision of services to support teacher - student communications. The computer Mediated Communications (CMC) services include electronic mail, conferencing, assignment submission and feed back, and continual updating of course materials. 8. Geographical Information System (GIS): are being used for mapping, analysing, planning and interpreting massive amounts of natural resources, topographic and demographic data - making this one of the most potent tools for planners. 19. Agri portal: An agri portal is a special website that adjusts dynamically to present targeted information according to a person’s specific requirements. It is especially designed for agricultural and rural folks, to provide instant information on markets, news and weather. 20.

ICT use in animal husbandry research: In addition to data management and analysis use in agricultural research has been in supporting multidisciplinary and multi-location research in Latin America and several Asian countries. 21. Gyan vani Radio network: It is the mile stone activity of the TNAU under TOT efforts along with IGNOU, New Delhi to produce technical programmes for all kinds of learners. 22. TOT through web page: WWW. tnauiv. org. The website featuring the activities of the TNAU including details on agro climatology, weather forecasting, market intelligence etc.

It has been developed by TNAU for the benefits of the farming community. 23. On line auction: The site will provide information on the quality, availability of products on daily basis and details about growers, traders and exporters. PROSPECTS OF ICT: New range of additional media that can be part of the communication for development ‘mix’ of traditional and/or appropriate media  Where accessible, these new media have features that enable bottom-up articulation and sharing of information on needs and local knowledge  Can increase efficiency in use of development resources because information is more widely accessible

Can result in less duplication of activities because information is more widely accessible  Tend to reduce communication costs (often dramatically) in comparison with other available communication choices  Provide global access to information and human resources Rapid speed of communication – locally, nationally and globally. Problems of ICT: Capital cost of technologies, and cost of ongoing access and support, can be High Inherent need for capacity-building

Can lead to technological dependence Lack of accessible telecommunications infrastructure in many rural and remote areas severely limits available choices of new ICTs Many ICT projects are characterised by poor and non-participatory planning Funding agencies often derail potentially useful projects by a continued desire for ‘magic bullet’ solutions, or projects that showcase technologies and agency icons Funding agency orientation to ‘proprietary’ technological olutions, when available tools and applications can yield better and cheaper results  Funding agencies often want to showcase tangible capital projects over less tangible,. but more meaningful, communication processes ICT projects often lack attempts to integrate with existing media, local communications methods and traditions ICT projects often lack involvement of all stakeholders in planning – especially women and youth. Conclusion * To connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points. To connect universities, colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs/. * To connect scientific and research centre with ICTs. * To connect all local and central govt. departments and establish website and e-mail address. * To encourage the development of content and to put in place technical conditions in order to facilitate the presence and use of all local languages on internet. * To encourage the suitable Govt. -private-Corporate-People partnership in all ICT efforts especially at the grass root level. To improve overall capacity building and creating an enabling environment for use of ICT among both the content providers as well as the end user. REFERENCE: * http://india. gov. in/sectors/agriculture/index. php * Om vikas (2001). Language Technology development in India. Ministry * information Technology, New Delhi, India. http:/www. indictrans. org. * Information technology in veterinary science- Vivek M. P atil http://agritech. tnau. ac. in/ * LIVESTOCK EXTENSION EDUCATION V. VENKATASUBRAMANIAN www. sizzlersgopi. blogspot. in

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